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1.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 21(10): 79, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494743

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine outstanding issues in the relationship of alcohol to hypertension. These include whether the increase in BP with alcohol is causally related, the nature of the relationship in women, the contribution of alcohol-related increases in BP to cardiovascular disease and the aetiology of alcohol-related hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Intervention studies and Mendelian randomisation analyses confirm the alcohol-BP relationship is causal. The concept that low-level alcohol intake reduces BP in women is increasingly unsustainable. Alcohol-related hypertension is in the causal pathway between alcohol use and increased risk for several cardiovascular outcomes. The aetiology of alcohol-related hypertension is multifactorial with recent data highlighting the effects of alcohol on the vasoconstrictor 20-HETE and oxidative stress. The high prevalence of both alcohol use and hypertension mandates a careful alcohol history in every patient with elevated BP. Early intervention for excessive alcohol use offers the promise of lower levels of BP and reduced risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vascular access outcomes reported across haemodialysis (HD) trials are numerous, heterogeneous and not always relevant to patients and clinicians. This study aimed to identify critically important vascular access outcomes. METHOD: Outcomes derived from a systematic review, multi-disciplinary expert panel and patient input were included in a multilanguage online survey. Participants rated the absolute importance of outcomes using a 9-point Likert scale (7-9 being critically important). The relative importance was determined by a best-worst scale using multinomial logistic regression. Open text responses were analysed thematically. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 873 participants [224 (26%) patients/caregivers and 649 (74%) health professionals] from 58 countries. Vascular access function was considered the most important outcome (mean score 7.8 for patients and caregivers/8.5 for health professionals, with 85%/95% rating it critically important, and top ranked on best-worst scale), followed by infection (mean 7.4/8.2, 79%/92% rating it critically important, second rank on best-worst scale). Health professionals rated all outcomes of equal or higher importance than patients/caregivers, except for aneurysms. We identified six themes: necessity for HD, applicability across vascular access types, frequency and severity of debilitation, minimizing the risk of hospitalization and death, optimizing technical competence and adherence to best practice and direct impact on appearance and lifestyle. CONCLUSIONS: Vascular access function was the most critically important outcome among patients/caregivers and health professionals. Consistent reporting of this outcome across trials in HD will strengthen their value in supporting vascular access practice and shared decision making in patients requiring HD.

3.
Heart Lung Circ ; 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can detect detailed plaque features in native coronary arteries. Stent struts cause shadows that partially obscure the vessel wall, but plaque features can still be seen. We investigated the impact of stent artefact on plaque quantification and whether the plaque behind struts is associated with microvascular dysfunction. METHODS: Patients retrospectively recruited from two centres, underwent OCT pre- and post-stenting on the same vessel segment. Lipid (LA) and calcium (CA) were measured as arcs. Macrophages, microchannels and cholesterol crystals were counted. Subsequently, we determined whether stented plaque features were associated with reduced TIMI flow grade in consecutive patients who underwent OCT post-stenting. RESULTS: In 52 patients the lipid arc was similar pre- vs post-stent: median (55º [13º-93º] vs. 40º [18º-87°]; difference 1º [-7º to 16º], p = NS). Pre- and post-stent lipid were strongly correlated (r = 0.92, p < 0.001). In a further 128 patients those with reduced (TIMI ≤ II) vs normal flow post percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) showed more plaque behind struts: lipid (89º [50º-139º] vs 62º [29º-88°]; p < 0.001); and calcium (24º [6º-45º] vs 7° [0º-34º]; p = 0.031). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that abnormal TIMI flow post-stenting was associated with diabetes (Odds ratio [OR] 2.87, CI 1.01-8.19, p = 0.048), LA (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.14-1.38, p < 0.001) and CA (OR 1.26, CI 1,07-1.40, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Plaque behind the struts can be accurately quantified using OCT. Furthermore, OCT plaque features in stented segments are associated with microvascular dysfunction post PCI.

4.
FASEB J ; 33(9): 10315-10326, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251078

RESUMO

An apolipoprotein E (APOE) 4 genotype is the most important, common genetic determinant for Alzheimer disease (AD), and female APOE4 carriers present with an increased risk compared with males. The study quantified cortical and hippocampal fatty acid and phospholipid profiles along with select eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)- and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) in 2-, 9-, and 18-mo-old APOE3 and APOE4 male and female mice. A 10% lower cortical DHA was evident in APOE4 females at 18 mo compared with 2 mo, with no significant decrease in APOE3 or APOE4 males. This decrease was associated with a reduction in DHA-phosphatidylethanolamine. Older APOE4 females had a 15% higher oleic acid content compared with young mice. Although no sex*APOE genotype interactions were observed for SPMs expressed as a ratio of their parent compound, higher cortical 18R/S-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,16E-EPA, resolvin D3, protectin D1, 10S,17S-dihydroxy-4Z,7Z,11E,13E,15Z,19Z-DHA (10S,17S-diHDHA), maresin 1, 17S-hydroxy-4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,15E,19Z-DHA, and 14S-hydroxy-4Z,7Z,10Z,12E,16Z,19Z-DHA were evident in females, and lower cortical 17R-resolvin D1, 10S,17S-diHDHA, and 18-HEPE in APOE4. Our findings show a strong association between age, female sex, and an APOE4 genotype, with decreased cortical DHA and a number of SPMs, which together may contribute to the development of cognitive decline and AD pathology.-Martinsen, A., Tejera, N., Vauzour, D., Harden, G., Dick, J., Shinde, S., Barden, A., Mori, T. A., Minihane, A. M. Altered SPMs and age-associated decrease in brain DHA in APOE4 female mice.

5.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 317(2): R232-R239, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141418

RESUMO

In experimental sepsis, the rapid development of renal medullary hypoxia precedes the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) and may contribute to its pathogenesis. We investigated whether inhibiting active sodium transport and oxygen consumption in the medullary thick ascending limb with furosemide attenuates the medullary hypoxia in experimental septic AKI. Sheep were instrumented with flow probes on the pulmonary and renal arteries and fiber optic probes to measure renal cortical and medullary perfusion and oxygen tension (Po2). Sepsis and AKI were induced by infusion of live Escherichia coli. At 24 h of sepsis there were significant decreases in renal medullary tissue perfusion (1,332 ± 233 to 698 ± 159 blood perfusion units) and Po2 (44 ± 6 to 19 ± 6 mmHg) (both P < 0.05). By 5 min after intravenous administration of furosemide (20 mg), renal medullary Po2 increased to 43 ± 6 mmHg and remained at this normal level for 8 h. Furosemide caused transient increases in fractional excretion of sodium and creatinine clearance, but medullary perfusion, renal blood flow, and renal oxygen delivery were unchanged. Urinary F2-isoprostanes, an index of oxidative stress, were not significantly changed at 24 h of sepsis but tended to transiently decrease after furosemide treatment. In septic AKI, furosemide rapidly restored medullary Po2 to preseptic levels. This effect was not accompanied by changes in medullary perfusion or renal oxygen delivery but was accompanied by a transient increase in fractional sodium excretion, implying decreased oxygen consumption as a mechanism.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213274, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) for haemodialysis often experience early thrombosis and maturation failure requiring intervention and/or central venous catheter (CVC) placement. This secondary and exploratory analysis of the FAVOURED study determined whether omega-3 fatty acids (fish oils) or aspirin affected AVF usability, intervention rates and CVC requirements. METHODS: In 567 adult participants planned for AVF creation, all were randomised to fish oil (4g/d) or placebo, and 406 to aspirin (100mg/d) or placebo, starting one day pre-surgery and continued for three months. Outcomes evaluated within 12 months included AVF intervention rates, CVC exposure, late dialysis suitability failure, and times to primary patency loss, abandonment and successful cannulation. RESULTS: Final analyses included 536 participants randomised to fish oil or placebo (mean age 55 years, 64% male, 45% diabetic) and 388 randomised to aspirin or placebo. Compared with placebo, fish oil reduced intervention rates (0.82 vs 1.14/1000 patient-days, incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.97), particularly interventions for acute thrombosis (0.09 vs 0.17/1000 patient-days, IRR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34-0.84). Aspirin significantly reduced rescue intervention rates (IRR 0.45, 95% CI 0.27-0.78). Neither agent significantly affected CVC exposure, late dialysis suitability failure or time to primary patency loss, AVF abandonment or successful cannulation. CONCLUSION: Although fish oil and low-dose aspirin given for 3 months reduced intervention rates in newly created AVF, they had no significant effects on CVC exposure, AVF usability and time to primary patency loss or access abandonment. Reduction in access interventions benefits patients, reduces costs and warrants further study.

7.
PLoS Med ; 16(2): e1002744, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise de Dados , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(7): 3012-3024, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785999

RESUMO

CONTEXT: "Accelerated aging," assessed by adult DNA methylation, predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adolescent accelerated aging might predict CVD earlier. We investigated whether epigenetic age acceleration (assessed age, 17 years) was associated with adiposity/CVD risk measured (ages 17, 20, and 22 years) and projected CVD by middle age. DESIGN: DNA methylation measured in peripheral blood provided two estimates of epigenetic age acceleration: intrinsic (IEAA; preserved across cell types) and extrinsic (EEAA; dependent on cell admixture and methylation levels within each cell type). Adiposity was assessed by anthropometry, ultrasound, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (ages 17, 20, and 22 years). CVD risk factors [lipids, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), blood pressure, inflammatory markers] were assessed at age 17 years. CVD development by age 47 years was calculated by Framingham algorithms. Results are presented as regression coefficients per 5-year epigenetic age acceleration (IEAA/EEAA) for adiposity, CVD risk factors, and CVD development. RESULTS: In 995 participants (49.6% female; age, 17.3 ± 0.6 years), EEAA (per 5 years) was associated with increased body mass index (BMI) of 2.4% (95% CI, 1.2% to 3.6%) and 2.4% (0.8% to 3.9%) at 17 and 22 years, respectively. EEAA was associated with increases of 23% (3% to 33%) in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 10% (4% to 17%) in interferon-γ-inducible protein of 10 kDa, and 4% (2% to 6%) in soluble TNF receptor 2, adjusted for BMI and HOMA-IR. EEAA (per 5 years) results in a 4% increase in hard endpoints of CVD by 47 years of age and a 3% increase, after adjustment for conventional risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Accelerated epigenetic age in adolescence was associated with inflammation, BMI measured 5 years later, and probability of middle age CVD. Irrespective of whether this is cause or effect, assessing epigenetic age might refine disease prediction.

9.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(5): 974-988, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early life environment may influence susceptibility to obesity and metabolic disease in later life through epigenetic processes. SLC6A4 is an important mediator of serotonin bioavailability, and has a key role in energy balance. We tested the hypothesis that methylation of the SLC6A4 gene predicts adiposity across the life course. METHODS: DNA methylation at 5 CpGs within the SLC6A4 gene identified from a previous methyl binding domain array was measured by pyrosequencing. We measured DNA methylation in umbilical cord (UC) from children in the Southampton Women's Survey cohort (n = 680), in peripheral blood from adolescents in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort Study (n = 812), and in adipose tissue from lean and obese adults from the UK BIOCLAIMS cohort (n = 81). Real-time PCR was performed to assess whether there were corresponding alterations in gene expression in the adipose tissue. RESULTS: Lower UC methylation of CpG5 was associated with higher total fat mass at 4 years (p = 0.031), total fat mass at 6-7 years (p = 0.0001) and % fat mass at 6-7 years (p = 0.004). Lower UC methylation of CpG5 was also associated with higher triceps skinfold thickness at birth (p = 0.013), 6 months (p = 0.038), 12 months (p = 0.062), 2 years (p = 0.0003), 3 years (p = 0.00004) and 6-7 years (p = 0.013). Higher maternal pregnancy weight gain (p = 0.046) and lower parity (p = 0.029) were both associated with lower SLC6A4 CpG5 methylation. In adolescents, lower methylation of CpG5 in peripheral blood was associated with greater concurrent measures of adiposity including BMI (p ≤ 0.001), waist circumference (p = 0.011), subcutaneous fat (p ≤ 0.001) and subscapular, abdominal and suprailiac skinfold thicknesses (p = 0.002, p = 0.008, p = 0.004, respectively). In adipose tissue, methylation of both SLC6A4 CpG5 (p = 0.019) and expression of SLC6A4 (p = 0.008) was lower in obese compared with lean adults. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that altered methylation of CpG loci within SLC6A4 may provide a robust marker of adiposity across the life course.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209355, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between age at menarche and a range of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors at 17 and 20 years of age, and whether this was influenced by childhood body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Of the 1413 girls born in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, 846 had age at menarche recorded. Subsequently 557 underwent metabolic assessment at 17 years and 541 at 20 years. Associations between age at menarche and cardiovascular risk factors, and being in a high-risk metabolic cluster at 17 and 20 years, or having the metabolic syndrome at 20 years, were investigated by linear mixed effects and logistic regressions, respectively. RESULTS: Each year later of onset of menarche was associated with a 0.75 kg/m2 reduction in BMI (coefficient -0.75 [95%CI -1.06, -0.44]), and an approximate 30% reduction in the odds of being in the high-risk metabolic cluster at 17 years (OR = 0.73 [95%CI 0.57, 0.94]) and 20 years of age (OR = 0.68 [95%CI 0.52, 0.87]), and a 40% reduction in the odds of having the metabolic syndrome at 20 years (OR = 0.60 [95% CI 0.41, 0.88]). These data show earlier age at menarche was associated with increased BMI and odds of being in the high-risk metabolic cluster at 17 and 20 years, and increased odds of having the metabolic syndrome at 20 years. However, these associations were no longer statistically significant after adjustment for BMI at age 8 years. Current smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, socio-economic status, or hormonal contraceptives use did not affect these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier age at menarche may be indicative of a higher risk profile for CVD in young adulthood. Our findings suggest that targeted interventions to reduce BMI in girls who experience menarche at younger age may reduce CVD risk in the future.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Menarca/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Austrália , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Estatura , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471772

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone is a commonly administered antiemetic. It has immunosuppressive effects and may alter postoperative blood glucose concentrations. Dexamethasone can effect key enzymes involved in inflammation resolution that is an active process driven by specialised lipid mediators of inflammation resolution (SPM). The purpose of this study in healthy volunteers was to examine whether dexamethasone effects cell populations and synthesis of SPM that are critical for the resolution of inflammation. METHODS: Thirty-two healthy volunteers were randomly allocated to receive saline (Control) or dexamethasone 2 mg, 4 mg or 8 mg intravenously. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline before administration of treatment, and at 4 h, 24 h and one-week post-treatment. At each time point, measurements included blood glucose and macrophage migration inhibition factor (MMIF), full blood count including lymphocyte subsets, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils by flow cytometry, and plasma SPM using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The effect of dexamethasone dose and time on all measures was analysed using linear mixed models. RESULTS: There was a dose-dependent increase in neutrophil count after dexamethasone that persisted for 24 h. In contrast, there was a dose-dependent reduction in counts of monocytes, lymphocytes, basophils and eosinophils 4 h after dexamethasone, followed by a rebound increase in cell counts at 24 h. Seven days after administration of dexamethasone, all cell counts were similar to baseline levels. MMIF concentration, glucose and natural killer cell counts were not significantly affected by dexamethasone. There was a significant gender effect on plasma SPM such that levels of 17-HDHA, RvD1, 17R-RvD1 and RvE2 in females were on average 14%-50% lower than males. In a linear mixed model that adjusted for neutrophil count, there was a significant interaction between the dose of dexamethasone and time, on plasma 17R-RvD1 such that plasma 17R-RvD1 fell in a dose-dependent manner until 4 h after administration of dexamethasone. There were no significant effects of dexamethasone on the other plasma SPM (18-HEPE, RvE2, 17-HDHA, RvD1, RvD2 and 14-HDHA) measured. DISCUSSION: This is the first study in healthy volunteers to demonstrate that commonly employed antiemetic doses of dexamethasone affect immune cell populations and plasma levels of 17R-RvD1 an SPM with anti-nociceptive properties. If similar changes occur in surgical patients, then this may have implications for acute infection risk in the post-operative period.

12.
EBioMedicine ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus has been repeatedly associated with exposure to smoking from the foetal period onwards. We explored whether DNA methylation may be a mechanism that links exposure to maternal prenatal smoking with offspring's adult cardio-metabolic health. METHODS: We meta-analysed the association between DNA methylation at GFI1-locus with maternal prenatal smoking, adult own smoking, and cardio-metabolic phenotypes in 22 population-based studies from Europe, Australia, and USA (n = 18,212). DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus was measured in whole-blood. Multivariable regression models were fitted to examine its association with exposure to prenatal and own adult smoking. DNA methylation levels were analysed in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose (FG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), diastolic, and systolic blood pressure (BP). FINDINGS: Lower DNA methylation at three out of eight GFI1-CpGs was associated with exposure to maternal prenatal smoking, whereas, all eight CpGs were associated with adult own smoking. Lower DNA methylation at cg14179389, the strongest maternal prenatal smoking locus, was associated with increased WC and BP when adjusted for sex, age, and adult smoking with Bonferroni-corrected P < 0·012. In contrast, lower DNA methylation at cg09935388, the strongest adult own smoking locus, was associated with decreased BMI, WC, and BP (adjusted 1 × 10-7 < P < 0.01). Similarly, lower DNA methylation at cg12876356, cg18316974, cg09662411, and cg18146737 was associated with decreased BMI and WC (5 × 10-8 < P < 0.001). Lower DNA methylation at all the CpGs was consistently associated with higher TG levels. INTERPRETATION: Epigenetic changes at the GFI1 were linked to smoking exposure in-utero/in-adulthood and robustly associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. FUND: European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 633595 DynaHEALTH.

13.
Pediatrics ; 142(1)2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation during infancy may reduce adult cardiovascular risk as observed in animals. We assessed the effect of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation in infancy on growth, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors at 5 years of age. METHODS: Infants were randomly assigned to a daily supplement of n-3 LCPUFA or olive oil (control) from birth to 6 months (n = 420). Measurements included weight, length, cord blood adipokines at birth and anthropometry, skinfolds, blood pressure, heart rate, fasting blood adipokines, and biochemistry at 5 years. RESULTS: The infants who received n-3 LCPUFA had a smaller waist circumference at 5 years (coefficient: 1.1 cm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01 to 2.14), which remained significant after adjustments for confounders (coefficient: 0.8 cm; 95% CI: 0.19 to 1.30). Five-year-old boys who received n-3 LCPUFA supplementation as infants had a 21% reduction in insulin concentrations (ratio: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.94) and a 22% reduction in insulin resistance (ratio: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.95) compared with the control group. There were no other differences in growth and cardiometabolic risk factors between the groups for the whole cohort at birth, 2.5, or 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA in infancy revealed a reduction in waist circumference at 5 years. Boys in the n-3 LCPUFA group showed reduced insulin concentrations and insulin resistance at 5 years, which may have beneficial outcomes for later health. No effects were seen in girls. Longer term follow-up of the cohort is warranted to determine whether these differences are maintained into adolescence.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29789130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by peripheral insulin resistance and low-grade systemic inflammation. Inflammation resolution is recognised as an important process driven by specialised pro-resolving mediators of inflammation (SPMs) and has the potential to moderate chronic inflammation. Alcohol has the potential to affect synthesis of SPMs by altering key enzymes involved in SPM synthesis and may influence ongoing inflammation associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. AIMS: (i) To examine the effects of alcohol consumed as red wine on plasma SPM in men and women with Type 2 diabetes in a randomised controlled trial and (ii) compare baseline plasma SPM levels in the same patients with those of healthy volunteers. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized to a three-period crossover study with men drinking red wine 300 ml/day (∼31 g alcohol/day) and women drinking red wine 230 ml/day (∼24 g alcohol/day), or equivalent volumes of dealcoholized red wine (DRW) or water, each for 4 weeks. The SPM 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE), E-series resolvins (Rv) (RvE1-RvE3), 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA), and D-series resolvins (RvD1, 17R-RvD1, RvD2, RvD5), 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14-HDHA) and Maresin 1 were measured at the end of each period. A baseline comparison of plasma SPM, hs CRP, lipids and glucose was made with healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Red wine did not differentially affect any of the SPM measured when compared with DRW or water. Baseline levels of the hs-CRP and the SPM 18-HEPE, 17-HDHA, RvD1 and 17R-RvD1 in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were all significantly elevated compared with healthy controls and remained so after adjusting for age and gender. CONCLUSION: Moderate alcohol consumption as red wine does not alter plasma SPM in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The elevation of SPM levels compared with healthy volunteers may be a homeostatic response to counter ongoing inflammation.

15.
Fitoterapia ; 126: 8-15, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29657077

RESUMO

Omega-6 (ω6) and omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids are two classes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3), respectively. Enzymatic metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acids generates arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3; EPA), respectively, both of which are substrates for enzymes that yield eicosanoids with multiple and varying physiological functions. Further elongation and desaturation of EPA yields the 22-carbon fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3; DHA). The main dietary source of EPA and DHA for human consumption is fish, especially oily fish. There is considerable evidence that EPA and DHA are protective against cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke), particularly in individuals with pre-existing disease. ω3 Fatty acids benefit multiple risk factors including blood pressure, blood vessel function, heart function and blood lipids, and they have antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. ω3 Fatty acids do not adversely interact with medications. Supplementation with ω3 fatty acids is recommended in individuals with elevated blood triglyceride levels and patients with coronary heart disease. A practical recommendation for the general population is to increase ω3 fatty acid intake by incorporating fish as part of a healthy diet that includes increased fruits and vegetables, and moderation of salt intake. Health authorities recommend the general population should consume at least two oily fish meals per week.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29577973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neutrophils release leukotriene (LT)B4 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) that may be important mediators of chronic inflammation in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have the potential to attenuate inflammation through production of LTB5 and the Specialized Proresolving Lipid Mediators (SPM) that promote the resolution of inflammation. In animal models, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) also attenuates inflammation by reducing MPO and LTB4. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the independent and combined effects of n-3 FA and CoQ supplementation on neutrophil leukotrienes, the pro-inflammatory eicosanoid 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), SPM, and plasma MPO, in patients with CKD. DESIGN: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention of factorial design, 85 patients with CKD were randomized to either n-3 FA (4 g), CoQ (200 mg), both supplements, or control (4 g olive oil), daily for 8 weeks. Plasma MPO and calcium ionophore-stimulated neutrophil release of LTs, 5-HETE and SPM were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks. RESULTS: Seventy four patients completed the intervention. n-3 FA, but not CoQ, significantly increased neutrophil LTB5 (P < 0.0001) and the SPM 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE), resolvin E1 (RvE1), resolvin E2 (RvE2) and resolvin E3 (RvE3) that derive from EPA, as well as 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA) and resolvin D5 (RvD5) that derive from DHA (all P < 0.01). Neutrophil LTB4 and its metabolites, and 5-HETE were not significantly altered by n-3 FA or CoQ. Plasma MPO was significantly reduced with n-3 FA alone (P = 0.013) but not when given in combination with CoQ. CONCLUSION: n-3 FA supplementation in patients with CKD leads to increased neutrophil release of LTB5 and several SPM, as well as a reduction in plasma MPO that may have important implications for limiting chronic inflammation.

17.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 72(1): 50-61, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arteriovenous access failure frequently occurs in people on hemodialysis and is associated with morbidity, mortality and large healthcare expenditures. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA) may improve access outcomes via pleiotropic effects on access maturation and function, but may cause bleeding complications. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis. SETTING & POPULATION: Adults requiring hemodialysis via arteriovenous fistula or graft. SELECTION CRITERIA: Trials evaluating omega-3 PUFA for arteriovenous access outcomes identified by searches in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase to 24 January 2017. INTERVENTION: Omega-3 PUFA. OUTCOMES: Primary patency loss, dialysis suitability failure, access abandonment, interventions to maintain patency or assist maturation, bleeding, gastrointestinal side-effects, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, hospitalization, and treatment adherence. Treatment effects were summarized as relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Evidence was assessed using GRADE. RESULTS: Five eligible trials (833 participants) with a median follow-up of 12 months compared peri-operative omega-3 PUFA supplementation with placebo. One trial (n=567) evaluated treatment for fistulae and four (n=266) for grafts. Omega-3 PUFA supplementation prevented primary patency loss with moderate certainty (761 participants, RR 0.81, CI 0.68-0.98). Low quality evidence suggested, that omega-3 PUFA may have had little or no effect on dialysis suitability failure (536 participants, RR 0.95, CI 0.73-1.23), access abandonment (732 participants, RR 0.78, CI 0.59-1.03), need for interventions (732 participants, RR 0.82, CI 0.64-1.04), or all-cause mortality (799 participants, RR 0.99, CI 0.51-1.92). Bleeding risk (793 participants, RR 1.40, CI 0.78-2.49) or gastrointestinal side-effects (816 participants, RR 1.22, CI 0.64-2.34) from treatment were uncertain. There was no evidence of different treatment effects for grafts and fistulae. LIMITATIONS: Small number and methodological limitations of included trials. CONCLUSIONS: Omega-3 PUFA supplementation probably protects against primary loss of arteriovenous access patency, but may have little or no effect on dialysis suitability failure, access interventions or access abandonment. Potential treatment harms are uncertain.

18.
Brain Behav Immun ; 69: 428-439, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29339318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest that dietary patterns may impact mental health outcomes, although biologically plausible pathways are yet to be tested. We aimed to elucidate the longitudinal relationship between dietary patterns, adiposity, inflammation and mental health including depressive symptoms in a population-based cohort of adolescents. METHODS: Data were provided from 843 adolescents participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study at 14 and 17 years (y) of age. Structural equation modelling was applied to test our hypothesised models relating dietary patterns, energy intake and adiposity (body mass index) at 14 y to adiposity and the pro-inflammatory adipokine (leptin) and inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein - hs-CRP) at 17 y, and these inflammatory markers to depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) and Internalising and Externalising Behavioral Problems (Child Behavior Check List Youth Self- Report) at 17 y. We further tested a reverse hypothesis model, with depression at 14 y as a predictor of dietary patterns at the same time-point. RESULTS: The tested models provided a good fit to the data. A 'Western' dietary pattern (high intake of red meat, takeaway, refined foods, and confectionary) at 14 y was associated with higher energy intake and BMI at 14 y, and with BMI and biomarkers of inflammation at 17 y (all p < .05). A 'Healthy' dietary pattern (high in fruit, vegetables, fish, whole-grains) was inversely associated with BMI and inflammation at 17 y (p < .05). Higher BMI at 14 y was associated with higher BMI (p < .01), leptin (p < .05), hs-CRP (p < .05), depressive symptoms (p < .05) and mental health problems (p < .05), all at 17 y. CONCLUSION: A 'Western' dietary pattern associates with an increased risk of mental health problems including depressive symptoms in adolescents, through biologically plausible pathways of adiposity and inflammation, whereas a 'Healthy' dietary pattern appears protective in these pathways. Longitudinal modelling into adulthood is indicated to confirm the complex associations of dietary patterns, adiposity, inflammation and mental health problems, including depressive symptoms.

19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1730: 283-292, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29363082

RESUMO

Oxidant stress has been identified as important in the pathology of many diseases. Oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids collectively termed isoprostanes, neuroprostanes, and isofurans are considered the most reliable measures of in vivo lipid oxidation, and they are widely used to assess oxidant stress in various diseases. Here we describe the measurement of these lipid oxidation products using gas chromatography mass spectrometry with electron capture negative ionization.

20.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 91(4): 403-412, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29349670

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The average Australian working week in middle-aged and older workers exceeds government recommendations. Long working weeks are associated with poor health outcomes; however, the relationship between long working weeks and health in young Australian workers is unknown. METHODS: Data were drawn from the 22-year follow-up of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study in Perth, Western Australia. Information was available from 873 young adults about working hours per week, shift work and sleep duration. Blood samples provided measures of cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors. RESULTS: Almost one-third (32.8%) of young workers reported > 38 h working weeks. This was commonly reported in mining and construction industries for males; health and social assistance, mining and retail trade industries for females. CMR factors including increased waist circumference, higher fasting plasma glucose and reduced HDL cholesterol were associated with > 38 h working weeks. These relationships were not moderated by gender or by BMI for glucose and HDL cholesterol. Total sleep time was significantly lower in both male and female workers reporting > 38 h working weeks, but did not mediate the relationships seen with CMR factors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings point to early associations between > 38 h working weeks and CMR risk, and highlight the potential benefit of making young employees aware of the health associations with working arrangements to reduce the longer-term relationships seen with working hours and poor cardiometabolic health in population studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Adulto , Glicemia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Circunferência da Cintura , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
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