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1.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA12016256, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775121

RESUMO

Preclinical evidence suggests that adult blood pressure (BP) may be modified by the prenatal endocrine environment. Specifically, in several animal models, higher prenatal testosterone exposure increases the risk of hypertension in later life. We investigated the prospective association between prenatal testosterone levels (as measured in umbilical cord blood) and BP at 20 to 27 years in 434 participants from the Raine Study. As expected, median bioavailable testosterone, the fraction of total testosterone either free or bound to serum albumin, was higher in males than females (0.12 [Q1-Q3, 0.09-0.19] versus 0.07 [Q1-Q3, 0.05-0.1] nmol/L; P<0.001). Mean (SD) systolic BP was 122.9 (±12.3) and 110.9 (±9.5) mm Hg at age 20 years and 122.4 (±11) and 111.2 (±9.1) mm Hg at 27 years in males and females, respectively. Using hierarchical mixed-effects models, higher cord blood bioavailable testosterone concentrations were associated with higher levels of systolic BP (P=0.007) and diastolic BP (P=0.002) in young adults at 20 and 27 years, after adjusting for change in BP over time and potential confounders. In these models, one SD increase in bioavailable testosterone equated to a 1 mm Hg increase in systolic BP (regression coefficient, 11.1 [95% CI, 4.1-21.11]) and diastolic BP (regression coefficient, 10.15 [95% CI, 3.67-15.93]). There was no significant difference detected between males and females in the association between bioavailable testosterone and adult BP. These data from a large unselected population indicate that higher fetal testosterone levels in late pregnancy are associated with higher BP in young adulthood.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484127

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Circulating concentrations of free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyrotropin (TSH) are partly heritable traits. Recent studies have advanced knowledge of their genetic architecture. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation (DNAm), may be important in pituitary-thyroid axis regulation and action, but data are limited. OBJECTIVE: To identify novel associations between fT3, fT4, and TSH and differentially methylated positions (DMPs) in the genome in subjects from 2 Australian cohorts. METHOD: We performed an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of thyroid function parameters and DNAm using participants from: Brisbane Systems Genetics Study (median age 14.2 years, n = 563) and the Raine Study (median age 17.0 years, n = 863). Plasma fT3, fT4, and TSH were measured by immunoassay. DNAm levels in blood were assessed using Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays. Analyses employed generalized linear mixed models to test association between DNAm and thyroid function parameters. Data from the 2 cohorts were meta-analyzed. RESULTS: We identified 2 DMPs with epigenome-wide significant (P < 2.4E-7) associations with TSH and 6 with fT3, including cg00049440 in KLF9 (P = 2.88E-10) and cg04173586 in DOT1L (P = 2.09E-16), both genes known to be induced by fT3. All DMPs had a positive association between DNAm and TSH and a negative association between DNAm and fT3. There were no DMPs significantly associated with fT4. We identified 23 differentially methylated regions associated with fT3, fT4, or TSH. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated associations between blood-based DNAm and both fT3 and TSH. This may provide insight into mechanisms underlying thyroid hormone action and/or pituitary-thyroid axis function.

3.
Atherosclerosis ; 319: 142-148, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: 18F-Sodium Fluoride Positron Emission Tomography (18F-NaF PET) non-invasively detects micro-calcification activity, the earliest stage of atherosclerotic arterial calcification. We studied the association between coronary 18F-NaF uptake and high-risk plaque features on intra-coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) and CT-angiography (CTCA) and the potential application to patient-level risk stratification. METHODS: Sixty-two prospectively recruited patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) underwent multi-vessel OCT, 18F-NaF PET and CTCA. The maximum tissue to background ratio (TBRmax = standardised uptake value (SUV)max/SUVbloodpool) was measured in each coronary segment on 18F-NaF PET scans. High-risk plaque features on OCT and CTCA were compared in matched coronary segments. The number of patients testing positive (>2SD above the normal range) for micro-calcification activity was determined. RESULTS: In 62 patients (age, mean ± standard deviation (SD) = 61 ± 9 years, 85% male) the coronary segments with elevated 18F-NaF uptake had higher lipid arc (LA) (median [25th-75th centile]: 74° [35°-117°] versus 48° [15°-83°], p=0.021), higher prevalence of macrophages [n(%): 37 (62%) versus 89 (39%), p=0.008] and lower plaque free wall (PFW) (50° [7°-110°] versus 94° [34°-180°], p=0.027) on OCT, and a higher total plaque burden (p=0.011) and higher dense calcified plaque burden (p= 0.001) on CTCA, when compared with 18F-NaF negative segments. Patients grouped by increasing number of coronary lesions positive for microcalcification activity (0,1, ≥2) showed decreasing plaque free wall, increasing calcification and increasing macrophages on OCT (respectively p=0.008, p < 0.001 and p=0.028). CONCLUSIONS: 18F-NaF uptake is associated with high-risk plaque features on OCT and CTCA in a per-segment and per-patient analysis in subjects hospitalized for ACS.

4.
Free Radic Res ; : 1-10, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356676

RESUMO

The level of inspired oxygen during surgery may modify free radical release, and reperfusion injury. This controlled trial examined the effect of inspired oxygen on F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), isofurans (IsoFs), and specialized mediators of inflammation resolution (SPM) during knee replacement surgery. Patients received either 30% O2 (control n = 21), 50% O2 (n = 20), or 80% O2 (n = 19) O2, in a parallel design. Hemoglobin (Hb) was measured throughout the surgery and F2-IsoPs, IsoFs and SPM were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The effect of O2 on F2-IsoPs and IsoFs was examined during tourniquet inflation and after tourniquet release. SPM were measured at baseline and the end of surgery. There was a significant interaction between O2 and Hb concentrations with plasma IsoFs during tourniquet inflation. An increase in plasma IsoFs over time was attenuated in the 80% O2 group (p=.012) compared with the 30% O2 group after adjusting for Hb concentration. After tourniquet release, plasma F2-IsoPs were significantly lower in the 50% and 80% O2 groups (p=.009 and p=.001, respectively) compared with the 30% O2 group after adjustment for Hb concentration. The SPM RvD2 and RvE2 were increased with 50% and 80% O2 (RvD2, p=.014 and p=.002, respectively; RvE2, p=.032 with 50% O2) compared with the 30% O2 group, in analyses that corrected for Hb concentration. We have shown for the first time that higher O2 levels may be beneficial in reducing oxidative stress and increasing resolution of inflammation during surgery that involves reperfusion after application of a tourniquet.

5.
Dig Liver Dis ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing in young populations. However, there are inadequate data regarding diagnosis of NAFLD. We aimed to validate three scoring systems against a previous standard of suprailiac skinfold thickness for diagnosing NAFLD in population-based adolescents. METHODS: Seventeen-year-old adolescents (n = 899), participating in the Raine Study, attended a cross-sectional follow-up. NAFLD was diagnosed using liver ultrasound. Scores for Fatty liver index (FLI), Hepatic Steatosis Index (HSI) and Zhejiang University index (ZJU index) were calculated. Diagnostic accuracy of these diagnostic tests was evaluated through discrimination and calibration. RESULTS: NAFLD was diagnosed 9% in males and 15% in females. The three scoring systems demonstrated better discrimination performance for NAFLD in males (AUC was FLI:0.82, HSI: 0.83 and ZJU index: 0.83) compared to females (AUC was FLI: 0.67, HSI: 0.67 and ZJU index: 0.67). Suprailiac skinfold performed better than the scoring systems (overall AUC: 0.82; male AUC:0.88; female AUC:0.73). FLI had best calibration performance. CONCLUSION: Suprailiac skinfold thickness was a better predictor of ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD than the three diagnostic scoring systems investigated. The higher performance characteristics of the algorithmic scoring systems in males compared with females may have implications for use in population assessments.

6.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 105, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation has been shown to be associated with adiposity in adulthood. However, whether similar DNA methylation patterns are associated with childhood and adolescent body mass index (BMI) is largely unknown. More insight into this relationship at younger ages may have implications for future prevention of obesity and its related traits. METHODS: We examined whether DNA methylation in cord blood and whole blood in childhood and adolescence was associated with BMI in the age range from 2 to 18 years using both cross-sectional and longitudinal models. We performed meta-analyses of epigenome-wide association studies including up to 4133 children from 23 studies. We examined the overlap of findings reported in previous studies in children and adults with those in our analyses and calculated enrichment. RESULTS: DNA methylation at three CpGs (cg05937453, cg25212453, and cg10040131), each in a different age range, was associated with BMI at Bonferroni significance, P < 1.06 × 10-7, with a 0.96 standard deviation score (SDS) (standard error (SE) 0.17), 0.32 SDS (SE 0.06), and 0.32 BMI SDS (SE 0.06) higher BMI per 10% increase in methylation, respectively. DNA methylation at nine additional CpGs in the cross-sectional childhood model was associated with BMI at false discovery rate significance. The strength of the associations of DNA methylation at the 187 CpGs previously identified to be associated with adult BMI, increased with advancing age across childhood and adolescence in our analyses. In addition, correlation coefficients between effect estimates for those CpGs in adults and in children and adolescents also increased. Among the top findings for each age range, we observed increasing enrichment for the CpGs that were previously identified in adults (birth Penrichment = 1; childhood Penrichment = 2.00 × 10-4; adolescence Penrichment = 2.10 × 10-7). CONCLUSIONS: There were only minimal associations of DNA methylation with childhood and adolescent BMI. With the advancing age of the participants across childhood and adolescence, we observed increasing overlap with altered DNA methylation loci reported in association with adult BMI. These findings may be compatible with the hypothesis that DNA methylation differences are mostly a consequence rather than a cause of obesity.

7.
Heart Lung Circ ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158734

RESUMO

This dietary guidance, informed by best contemporary evidence, aims to assist medical practitioners and allied health professionals in advising patients for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). While differing in some details from other current guidelines, the core messages accord with those published in 2019 by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society; the National Lipid Association in 2014 and the NH&MRC Australian Dietary Guidelines in 2013. These were assessed through the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) and the levels of evidence and classes of a recommendation developed using the GRADE system. Recommendations with high levels of evidence include increased consumption of plant based foods comprising mainly complex, fibre enriched carbohydrates (wholegrains, fruits and vegetables) while limiting intake of refined starches; partial replacement of saturated fats with monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats and oils; reduced salt intake; achievement and maintenance of healthy weight; and low-to-moderate consumption of alcohol. Additional guidance but with moderate levels of evidence includes increased consumption of fish (and fish oils where indicated); reduction in sugar-sweetened beverages and added sugars; avoidance of butter and cream especially in those at increased CVD risk but encouragement of yoghurt; allow moderate consumption of lean meat but limit intake of processed meats; and limit cholesterol-rich foods such as eggs and crustaceans for those at increased CVD risk. Guidance has been formulated qualitatively on food categories of commonly eaten foods while avoiding prescriptive quantitative measures that are less readily translatable. This approach accords with current guidelines such as the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2019 guidelines and is understandable and readily implemented.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186195

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent changes or confirmations linking patterns of eating and specific dietary interventions in the management of cardiovascular risk factors including associations with prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently published guidance for dietary management of cardiovascular risk and type 2 diabetes have mostly common features. Major findings include a trend to replace strict quantitative advice on nutrients with qualitative advice on food consumption with exceptions for diabetes, global advice to increase intake of plant foods, confirmation to substitute mono and polyunsaturated oils for saturated and trans fats, new advisory on supplemental omega-3 intake, less limitation on dairy foods and fermented dairy foods encouraged, reduced emphasis on specific cholesterol-rich foods allowing greater consumption of eggs except for people with diabetes, processed meat consumption limited allowing modest intake of lean red meat, distinguishing between 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' carbohydrates including sugars, and maintaining advice on healthy bodyweight, reducing salt intake and encouraging water as preferred beverage. SUMMARY: The new guidance for healthier patterns of food consumption supported by evidence is more readily understood by health practitioners and translatable to consumers and patients.

9.
Curr Opin Lipidol ; 31(6): 313-323, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027224

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We have focused on recent research relevant to effects of dietary patterns and major food groups on cardiovascular outcomes, taking into account guidelines and position statements from expert authorities, with an emphasis on important changes in recommendations, some of which remain controversial. RECENT FINDINGS: Major findings include: refocusing on qualitative patterns of food consumption replacing quantitative prescriptive advice on nutrients; increasing intake of plant foods; substituting saturated fats with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated oils; reducing salt intake; regular consumption of fish with a focus on omega-3 enrichment; not restricting dairy foods, other than butter and cream, with encouragement of some fermented products; reducing cholesterol intake for those at increased cardiovascular risk and diabetes, allowing 7-eggs weekly; restricting processed meats and allowing moderate lean meat consumption; preference for fiber-rich complex carbohydrates and reduced sugar intake; maintaining healthy bodyweight; and although water is the preferred beverage, allowing moderate alcohol consumption to national guidelines and avoiding alcohol in specific cardiovascular disorders. SUMMARY: The new approach that focuses on healthier patterns of food intake is more readily understood by health practitioners and translatable to consumers and patients.

10.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-11, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878651

RESUMO

Depression is a major cause of disability in adolescents. Higher dietary fibre intake has been associated with lower depressive symptoms in adults, but there is a lack of research in adolescents. We examined the association between dietary fibre intake (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) FFQ) and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory for Youth) in adolescents with prospective data from the Raine Study Gen2 14- and 17-year follow-ups (n 1260 and 653). Odds of moderate/extreme (clinically relevant) depressive symptoms by quartile of fibre intake were calculated using mixed-effects logistic regression for all participants, in a paired sample without moderate/extreme depressive symptoms at 14 years and in a sub-sample of participants with available inflammatory data at the ages of 14 and 17 years (n 718 and 547). Odds of moderate/extreme depressive symptoms were lower in the fourth (highest) quartile of overall fibre intake (OR 0·273, 95 % CI 0·09, 0·81) compared with the first (lowest) quartile, adjusting for sex, age, energy intake, adiposity, and family and lifestyle factors. However, further adjustment for dietary patterns attenuated the results. Associations of depressive symptoms with cereal or fruit and vegetable fibre intake were not significant in the final model. Adjustment for inflammation had no effect on OR. The association between a higher dietary fibre intake and lower odds of clinically relevant depressive symptoms may be more reflective of a high-fibre diet with all its accompanying nutrients than of an independent effect of fibre.

11.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(9): 97003, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with the development of noncommunicable diseases in the offspring. Maternal smoking may induce such long-term effects through persistent changes in the DNA methylome, which therefore hold the potential to be used as a biomarker of this early life exposure. With declining costs for measuring DNA methylation, we aimed to develop a DNA methylation score that can be used on adolescent DNA methylation data and thereby generate a score for in utero cigarette smoke exposure. METHODS: We used machine learning methods to create a score reflecting exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy. This score is based on peripheral blood measurements of DNA methylation (Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip). The score was developed and tested in the Raine Study with data from 995 white 17-y-old participants using 10-fold cross-validation. The score was further tested and validated in independent data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) (16-y-olds) and 1966 (NFBC1966) (31-y-olds). Further, three previously proposed DNA methylation scores were applied for comparison. The final score was developed with 204 CpGs using elastic net regression. RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity values for the best performing previously developed classifier ("Reese Score") were 88% and 72% for Raine, 87% and 61% for NFBC1986 and 72% and 70% for NFBC1966, respectively; corresponding figures using the elastic net regression approach were 91% and 76% (Raine), 87% and 75% (NFBC1986), and 72% and 78% for NFBC1966. CONCLUSION: We have developed a DNA methylation score for exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy, outperforming the three previously developed scores. One possible application of the current score could be for model adjustment purposes or to assess its association with distal health outcomes where part of the effect can be attributed to maternal smoking. Further, it may provide a biomarker for fetal exposure to maternal smoking. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6076.

12.
JHEP Rep ; 2(6): 100150, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984791

RESUMO

Background & Aims: Remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) is an atherogenic lipid profile associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). With increased rates of CVD seen in adults with NAFLD, RLP-C has the potential to identify individuals with NAFLD who are at increased risk of CVD. This study examined in adolescents sex-different associations among RLP-C, NAFLD, and cardiometabolic risk factors, and whether RLP-C is associated with NAFLD beyond traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: Adolescents in the Raine Study had anthropometry, clinical, biochemistry and arterial stiffness measurements recorded at 17 years of age. Fatty liver, subcutaneous and visceral adipose thickness were assessed using abdominal ultrasound. Relationships among RLP-C, NAFLD, liver biochemistry, insulin resistance, adipokines, adiposity and arterial stiffness were assessed. Results: NAFLD was diagnosed in 15.1% (19.6% females and 10.7% males) of adolescents. Increasing RLP-C levels were associated with increasing severity of hepatic steatosis and metabolic syndrome. Adolescents with NAFLD and serum RLP-C levels in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile, had higher serum leptin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, BMI, subcutaneous and visceral adipose thickness, systolic blood pressure and arterial stiffness, but lower adiponectin and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Using multivariable logistic regression, RLP-C in the lowest quartile compared with the highest quartile was associated with 85% lower odds of NAFLD in males and 55% in females, after adjusting for waist circumference, leptin, ALT, adiponectin and HOMA-IR. Conclusions: There is an association between RLP-C and NAFLD beyond traditional risk factors of adiposity and insulin resistance in adolescents. Although raised serum RLP-C levels were associated with the severity of hepatic steatosis and markers of cardiometabolic risk, lower serum RLP-C might reflect reduced cardiovascular risk. Lay summary: Remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) is a part of the blood cholesterol that is linked with heart disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults. In the Raine Study, teenagers with high RLP-C levels had more severe fat accumulation in their liver. Thus, RLP-C might be the hidden link between NAFLD and future risk of heart disease.

13.
J Hepatol ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A common genetic variant near MBOAT7 (rs641738C>T) has been previously associated with hepatic fat and advanced histology in NAFLD; however, these findings have not been consistently replicated in the literature. We aimed to establish whether rs641738C>T is a risk factor across the spectrum of NAFLD and to characterise its role in the regulation of related metabolic phenotypes through a meta-analysis. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of studies with data on the association between rs641738C>T genotype and liver fat, NAFLD histology, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lipids or insulin. These included directly genotyped studies and population-level data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We performed a random effects meta-analysis using recessive, additive and dominant genetic models. RESULTS: Data from 1,066,175 participants (9,688 with liver biopsies) across 42 studies were included in the meta-analysis. rs641738C>T was associated with higher liver fat on CT/MRI (+0.03 standard deviations [95% CI 0.02-0.05], pz = 4.8×10-5) and diagnosis of NAFLD (odds ratio [OR] 1.17 [95% CI 1.05-1.3], pz = 0.003) in Caucasian adults. The variant was also positively associated with presence of advanced fibrosis (OR 1.22 [95% CI 1.03-1.45], pz = 0.021) in Caucasian adults using a recessive model of inheritance (CC + CT vs. TT). Meta-analysis of data from previous GWAS found the variant to be associated with higher ALT (pz = 0.002) and lower serum triglycerides (pz = 1.5×10-4). rs641738C>T was not associated with fasting insulin and no effect was observed in children with NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS: Our study validates rs641738C>T near MBOAT7 as a risk factor for the presence and severity of NAFLD in individuals of European descent. LAY SUMMARY: Fatty liver disease is a common condition where fat builds up in the liver, which can cause liver inflammation and scarring (including 'cirrhosis'). It is closely linked to obesity and diabetes, but some genes are also thought to be important. We did this study to see whether one specific change ('variant') in one gene ('MBOAT7') was linked to fatty liver disease. We took data from over 40 published studies and found that this variant near MBOAT7 is linked to more severe fatty liver disease. This means that drugs designed to work on MBOAT7 could be useful for treating fatty liver disease.

14.
Epigenomics ; 12(17): 1483-1499, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901515

RESUMO

Aim: We conducted a methylome-wide association study to examine associations between DNA methylation in whole blood and central adiposity and body fat distribution, measured as waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio adjusted for body mass index, in 2684 African-American adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Materials & methods: We validated significantly associated cytosine-phosphate-guanine methylation sites (CpGs) among adults using the Women's Health Initiative and Framingham Heart Study participants (combined n = 5743) and generalized associations in adolescents from The Raine Study (n = 820). Results & conclusion: We identified 11 CpGs that were robustly associated with one or more central adiposity trait in adults and two in adolescents, including CpG site associations near TXNIP, ADCY7, SREBF1 and RAP1GAP2 that had not previously been associated with obesity-related traits.

15.
J Endocr Soc ; 4(8): bvaa061, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803089

RESUMO

Context: Adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased incidence of cardiometabolic risk factors including dyslipidemia. Atherogenic apolipoprotein (apo) B-lipoprotein remnants are associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of fasting plasma apoB-lipoprotein remnants, apoB48 and apoB100, and their association with cardiometabolic risk factors and androgen indices in adolescent girls with and without PCOS. Design setting and participants: Participants (n = 184) aged 17 years were recruited in the Menstruation in Teenagers Study from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The main outcome measures: Fasting plasma apo-B48 and -B100 lipoprotein remnant concentrations in adolescent girls with and without PCOS. Results: Fasting plasma apoB48-lipoprotein remnants but not apoB100-lipoprotein remnants were elevated in adolescent girls with increased cardiometabolic risk compared with those with lower cardiometabolic risk (13.91 ± 5.06 vs 12.09 ± 4.47 µg/mL, P < .01). ApoB48-lipoprotein remnants were positively correlated with fasting plasma triglycerides (b = .43, P < .0001). The prevalence of increased cardiometabolic risk factors was 2-fold higher in those diagnosed with PCOS (35.3%) than in those without PCOS (16.3%).Conclusion: Adolescents with PCOS have a 2-fold higher incidence of cardiometabolic risk factors than those without PCOS. Fasting apoB48-lipoprotein remnants are elevated in adolescent girls with a high prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors.

16.
Atherosclerosis ; 302: 20-26, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) begins in youth, and is exacerbated by obesity and metabolic syndrome. Apolipoprotein (Apo)B-remnant cholesterol is considered a primary contributor to CVD risk. Fasting plasma apoB48 can be used as a biomarker of intestinal remnant cholesterol as well as postprandial dyslipidemia. In adults, elevated fasting plasma apoB48 strongly associates with cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity, whereas in adolescents there is limited data. The aim of this study was to measure fasting plasma apoB48 and determine the relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of fasting plasma apoB48 from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Subjects were adolescent males and females aged 17 years with complete fasting plasma apoB48, biochemical, and anthropometry data (n = 1045). The relationship between fasting plasma apoB48 and other cardiometabolic risk factors was determined. The high-risk metabolic cluster variable was defined using elevated BMI, HOMA-IR, fasting plasma triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure. RESULTS: Fasting plasma apoB48 was significantly higher in male (15.28 ± 2.95 µg/mL) compared to female (12.45 ± 2.43 µg/mL) adolescents (p = 0.0003), and was increased by 21% (3.60 µg/mL; p = 0.0000) in the high-risk metabolic cluster group and more pronounced in males (31%, 6.15 µg/mL; p = 0.0000). Fasting plasma apoB48 was positively associated with fasting plasma triglycerides, total-cholesterol (but not LDL-C), insulin, leptin, HOMA-IR, and the anthropometric parameters, waist-circumference and skinfold-thickness. Fasting plasma apoB48 was inversely associated with fasting plasma HDL-C, and adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma apoB48 remnant lipoproteins associate with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents and provide support for the screening of remnant cholesterol in youth.

17.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-8, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378492

RESUMO

A high dietary fibre intake has been associated with improvements in inflammatory conditions in adults. However, little is known on whether associations between dietary fibre and inflammation are evident during adolescence. We examined the relationship between dietary fibre intake measured by FFQ and the inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the adipokines leptin and adiponectin cross-sectionally in 17-year-olds participating in the Raine Study (n 621). In weighted analysis using tobit and linear regression, and after excluding participants with hs-CRP > 10 mg/l, higher total dietary fibre intake (per 5 g/d) was significantly associated with lower leptin (ß = -0·13, 95 % CI -0·17, -0·09) and adiponectin (ß = -0·28, 95 % CI -0·49, -0·07), but not hs-CRP, in unadjusted analyses. These associations were no longer significant after adjustment for sex, anthropometry and a number of lifestyle factors. However, higher cereal and grain fibre intake was significantly associated with lower leptin (ß = -0·06, 95 % CI -0·10, -0·01) in fully adjusted analysis. Our findings suggest that a higher intake of cereal and grain fibre may contribute to lower leptin in adolescents. This may contribute to reductions in low-grade chronic inflammation and improved health outcomes.

18.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 120(7): 1657-1669, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458156

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the mitochondria can promote mitochondrial dysfunction and has been implicated in the development of a range of chronic diseases. As such there is interest in whether mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant supplementation can attenuate mitochondrial-associated oxidative stress. We investigated the effect of MitoQ and CoQ10 supplementation on oxidative stress and skeletal muscle mitochondrial ROS levels and function in healthy middle-aged men. METHODS: Skeletal muscle and blood samples were collected from twenty men (50 ± 1 y) before and following six weeks of daily supplementation with MitoQ (20 mg) or CoQ10 (200 mg). High-resolution respirometry was used to determine mitochondrial respiration and H2O2 levels, markers of mitochondrial mass and antioxidant defences were measured in muscle samples and oxidative stress markers in urine and blood samples. RESULTS: Both MitoQ and CoQ10 supplementation suppressed mitochondrial net H2O2 levels during leak respiration, while MitoQ also elevated muscle catalase expression. However, neither supplement altered urine F2-isoprostanes nor plasma TBARS levels. Neither MitoQ nor CoQ10 supplementation had a significant impact on mitochondrial respiration or mitochondrial density markers (citrate synthase, mtDNA/nDNA, PPARGC1A, OXPHOS expression). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that neither MitoQ and CoQ10 supplements impact mitochondrial function, but both can mildly suppress mitochondrial ROS levels in healthy middle-aged men, with some indication that MitoQ may be more effective than CoQ10.

19.
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat ; 149: 106427, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone is commonly given as an antiemetic during surgical procedures. It has immunosuppressive effects and can affect key enzymes involved in the synthesis of specialised lipid mediators of inflammation resolution (SPM) that direct inflammation resolution and have anti-nociceptive actions. This study examined the effect of dexamethasone on plasma SPM, and the relationship between SPM and perceived pain in women undergoing surgery. METHODS: Plasma SPM were measured in samples obtained from two double-blind controlled interventions. The first, included 51 women mean age 53 ± 1.5 years, undergoing breast surgery allocated to either intravenous saline, or dexamethasone (4 mg or 8 mg) after induction of anaesthesia. The second study included 31 women of mean age 44 ± 0.5 years undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgery that were allocated to either saline, or dexamethasone (4 mg). SPM (18-HEPE, 17-HDHA, RvE2, RvD1 17R-RvD1 and RvD2) were measured in plasma collected prior to induction of anaesthesia and at 24 h, and 6 weeks post-surgery. Pain was assessed using a verbal analogue scale at discharge from the post-anaesthesia recovery unit. The data from each study was combined to examine the effect of dexamethasone on plasma SPM. The relationship between pain score and SPM was examined using ordinal logistic regression. RESULTS: The SPM 18-HEPE, 17-HDHA, RvE2, RvD1 17R-RvD1 and RvD2 were detectable in all plasma samples. There was no significant difference in any SPM due to dexamethasone over the duration of the study. There was a fall in 17-HDHA between baseline and 24 h in both the dexamethasone and saline groups (P = 0.003) but no change in the downstream SPM (RvD1, 17R-RvD1 and RvD2) or 18-HEPE and RvE2. Pain score was negatively related to levels of RvE2 measured prior to induction of anaesthesia (rho = -0.2991, P = 0.006) and positively related to BMI (rho = 0.279, P = 0.011). In ordinal logistic regression the odds ratio for RvE2 was 0.931 (CI 0.880, 0.986; P = 0.014); after adjusting for the effect of BMI indicating that an increase in RvE2 of 1 pg/ml would result in a 6.9 % fall in pain score. Allocation to a dexamethasone group did not influence the pain score or the relationship between RvE2 and pain score. CONCLUSION: Dexamethasone administered as an anti-emetic does not affect plasma SPM levels. An elevated RvE2 level prior to surgery is predictive of a lower perceived pain score post-anaesthesia.

20.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 741-747, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by high glucose and insulin resistance. It is strongly linked to lifestyle, including poor diet and physical inactivity. Lupin is a novel food ingredient, rich in protein and fibre with negligible sugar and starch, which can be incorporated into various foods to reduce glycaemic load. Regular consumption of lupin-enriched foods may be a novel and easily achievable means of reducing overall glycaemic load and improving glycaemic control in diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether regular consumption of lupin-enriched foods can improve glycaemic control and lower blood pressure in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Fourteen men and 8 women (mean age 58.0 ± 6.6 years and BMI 29.0 ± 3.5 kg m-2) with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited from the general population to take part in a double-blind, randomised, controlled cross-over study. Participants consumed lupin or control foods for breakfast and lunch every day, and for dinner at least 3 days per week during the 8-week treatment periods. Lupin-enriched foods consisted of bread, pasta, Weetbix™ cereal and crumbs, with energy-matched control products. Treatments were completed in random order with an 8-week washout period. All participants monitored their blood glucose levels pre- and post-breakfast and lunch, and their blood pressure in the morning and evening, 3 days per week for the duration of each treatment period. RESULTS: Seventeen participants completed both treatment arms, with all 22 participants (14 males, 8 females) analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Eight weeks consumption of lupin-enriched food had no significant effect on mean blood glucose levels (mean difference: -0.08 ± 0.06 mmol L-1, p = 0.214) or post-prandial blood glucose levels (-0.13 ± 0.10 mmol L-1, p = 0.196). There was no effect on home systolic (-0.4 ± 0.4 mmHg, p = 0.33) or diastolic (0.3 ± 0.3 mmHg, p = 0.321) blood pressure and heart rate (0.5 ± 0.3 bpm, p = 0.152), and no effect on body weight throughout the treatment periods. CONCLUSION: Regular consumption of lupin-enriched foods had no significant effect on glycaemic control or blood pressure in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Alimentos Fortificados , Lupinus , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
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