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1.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934848

RESUMO

Serous endometrial cancer represents a relative rare entity accounting for about 10% of all diagnosed endometrial cancer, but it is responsible for 40% of endometrial cancer-related deaths. Patients with serous endometrial cancer are often diagnosed at earlier disease stage, but remain at higher risk of recurrence and poorer prognosis when compared stage-for-stage with endometrioid subtype endometrial cancer. Serous endometrial cancers are characterized by marked nuclear atypia and abnormal p53 staining in immunohistochemistry. The mainstay of treatment for newly diagnosed serous endometrial cancer includes a multi-modal therapy with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Unfortunately, despite these efforts, survival outcomes still remain poor. Recently, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network classified all endometrial cancer types into four categories, of which, serous endometrial cancer mostly is found within the "copy number high" group. This group is characterized by the increased cell cycle deregulation (e.g., CCNE1, MYC, PPP2R1A, PIKCA, ERBB2 and CDKN2A) and TP53 mutations (90%). To date, the combination of pembrolizumab and lenvatinib is an effective treatment modality in second-line therapy, with a response rate of 50% in advanced/recurrent serous endometrial cancer. Owing to the unfavorable outcomes of serous endometrial cancer, clinical trials are a priority. At present, ongoing studies are testing novel combinations of various targeted and immunotherapeutic agents in newly diagnosed and advanced/recurrent endometrial cancer - an important strategy for serous endometrial cancer, whereby tumors are usually p53+ and pMMR, making response to PD-1 inhibitor monotherapy unlikely. Here, the rare tumor working group (including members from the European Society of Gynecologic Oncology (ESGO), Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG), and Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (JGOG)), performed a narrative review reporting on the current landscape of serous endometrial cancer and focusing on standard and emerging therapeutic options for patients affected by this difficult disease.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794043

RESUMO

The European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology (ISUOG), the International Ovarian Tumour Analysis group (IOTA) and the European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESGE) jointly developed clinically relevant and evidence-based consensus statements on the pre-operative diagnosis of ovarian tumours, including imaging techniques, biomarkers and prediction models. ESGO/ISUOG/IOTA/ESGE nominated a multidisciplinary international group consisting of expert practising clinicians and researchers who have demonstrated leadership and expertise in the pre-operative diagnosis of ovarian tumours and management of patients with ovarian cancer (19 experts across Europe). A patient representative was also included in the group. To ensure that the statements were evidence based, the current literature was reviewed and critically appraised. Preliminary consensus statements were drafted based on a review of the relevant literature. During a conference call, the whole group discussed each preliminary consensus statement and a first round of voting was organised. Statements were removed when a consensus among group members was not obtained. The voters had the opportunity to provide comments/suggestions with their votes. Then the consensus statements were revised accordingly. Another round of voting was organised according to the same rules to allow the whole group to evaluate the revised version of the consensus statements. The group achieved consensus on 18 statements. This article presents these ESGO/ISUOG/IOTA/ESGE consensus statements on the pre-operative diagnosis of ovarian tumours and to the assessment of carcinomatosis, together with a summary of evidence supporting each statement. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Local recurrence in gynecological malignancies occurring in a previously irradiated field is a challenging clinical issue. The most frequent curative-intent treatment is salvage surgery. Reirradiation, using three-dimensional image-guided brachytherapy (3D-IGBT), might be a suitable alternative. We reviewed recent literature concerning 3D-IGBT for reirradiation in the context of local recurrences from gynecological malignancies. METHODS: We conducted a large-scale literature research, and 15 original studies, responding to our research criteria, were finally selected. RESULTS: Local control rates ranged from 44% to 71.4% at 2-5 years, and overall survival rates ranged from 39.5% to 78% at 2-5 years. Grade ≥3 toxicities ranged from 1.7% to 50%, with only one study reporting a grade 5 event. Results in terms of outcome and toxicities were highly variable depending on studies. Several studies suggested that local control could be improved with 2 Gy equivalent doses >40 Gy. CONCLUSION: IGBT appears to be a feasible alternative to salvage surgery in inoperable patients or patients refusing surgery, with an acceptable outcome for patients who have no other curative therapeutic options, however at a high cost of long-term grade ≥3 toxicities in some studies. We recommend that patients with local recurrence from gynecologic neoplasm occurring in previously irradiated fields should be referred to highly experienced expert centers. Centralization of data and large-scale multicentric international prospective trials are warranted. Efforts should be made to improve local control while limiting the risk of toxicities.

4.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most frequent borderline ovarian tumors are serous and mucinous subtypes. Less frequent borderline diseases are endometrioid, clear-cell, and Brenner tumors (BBOT). Very little is known about the latter subtype, and most studies include very short series or case reports. The aim of this study is to determine the prognosis of a continuous series of BBOT and analyze data published in the literature on this rare entity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with BBOT treated or referred to our institutions was conducted. A centralized histological review by a reference pathologist and data on the clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients were required for inclusion. RESULTS: Overall, 17 patients were identified. Median age was 62 (range 42-85) years. Six patients underwent unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and 11 bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy +/- hysterectomy and/or staging surgery. In total, 16 patients had unilateral tumor, and all patients had stage I disease. Stromal microinvasion was observed in three cases. Median follow-up was 60 months (range 7-118 months). One patient developed a recurrence in contralateral ovary after unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. One patient had previous history of urothelial tumor. CONCLUSIONS: Peritoneal staging surgery is not required because all patients reported had stage I disease. One recurrence occurred. When reviewing all the 82 cases reported in the literature (including ours), 9% had previous history or synchronous urothelial tumor, suggesting the need to carefully check for urological disease in patients with BBOT.

5.
Radiother Oncol ; 154: 327-353, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712263

RESUMO

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multidisciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide. ESGO/ESTRO/ESP nominated an international multidisciplinary development group consisting of practicing clinicians and researchers who have demonstrated leadership and expertise in the care and research of endometrial carcinoma (27 experts across Europe). To ensure that the guidelines are evidence-based, the literature published since 2014, identified from a systematic search was reviewed and critically appraised. In the absence of any clear scientific evidence, judgment was based on the professional experience and consensus of the development group. The guidelines are thus based on the best available evidence and expert agreement. Prior to publication, the guidelines were reviewed by 191 independent international practitioners in cancer care delivery and patient representatives. The guidelines comprehensively cover endometrial carcinoma staging, definition of prognostic risk groups integrating molecular markers, pre- and intra-operative work-up, fertility preservation, management for early, advanced, metastatic, and recurrent disease and palliative treatment. Principles of radiotherapy and pathological evaluation are also defined.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Guias como Assunto , Radioterapia (Especialidade) , Consenso , Neoplasias do Endométrio/radioterapia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Virchows Arch ; 478(2): 153-190, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604759

RESUMO

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multidisciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide. ESGO/ESTRO/ESP nominated an international multidisciplinary development group consisting of practicing clinicians and researchers who have demonstrated leadership and expertise in the care and research of endometrial carcinoma (27 experts across Europe). To ensure that the guidelines are evidence-based, the literature published since 2014, identified from a systematic search was reviewed and critically appraised. In the absence of any clear scientific evidence, judgment was based on the professional experience and consensus of the development group. The guidelines are thus based on the best available evidence and expert agreement. Prior to publication, the guidelines were reviewed by 191 independent international practitioners in cancer care delivery and patient representatives. The guidelines comprehensively cover endometrial carcinoma staging, definition of prognostic risk groups integrating molecular markers, pre- and intra-operative work-up, fertility preservation, management for early, advanced, metastatic, and recurrent disease and palliative treatment. Principles of radiotherapy and pathological evaluation are also defined.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/terapia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Oncologia/normas , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biópsia/normas , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/normas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 135, 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification of factors responsible for false negative (FN) rate at 18F- Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography /Computed Tomography (PET/CT) in para-aortic (PA) lymph nodes in the presurgical staging of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) is challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of PET/CT technology. METHODS: A total of 240 consecutive patients with LACC (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, FIGO, stage IB2-IVA) and negative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and/or Computed Tomography (CT) and negative 18F-FDG PET/CT in the PA region, undergoing laparoscopic PA lymphadenectomy before chemoradiotherapy were included. The FN rate in patients studied with Time of flight (TOF) PET/CT (TOF PET) or non-Time of flight PET/CT (no-TOF PET) technology was retrospectively compared. RESULTS: Patients presented with FIGO stage IB (n = 78), stage IIA-B (n = 134), stage III (n = 18) and stage IVa (n = 10), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 191) and adenocarcinoma (n = 49). 141/240 patients were evaluated with no-TOF PET/CT and 99/240 with TOF PET/CT. Twenty-two patients (9%) had PA nodal involvement at histological analysis and considered PET/CT FN findings. The FN rate was 8.5% for no-TOF PET and 10% for TOF PET subgroup respectively (p = 0.98). Ninety patients (38%) presented with pelvic node uptakes at PET/CT. The FN rate in the PA region was 18% (16/90) and 4% (6/150) in patients with and without pelvic node involvement at PET/CT respectively (19 vs 3% for no-TOF PET and 17 vs 5% for TOF PET subgroup). CONCLUSIONS: In LACC, FN rate in PA lymph nodes detection is a clinical issue even for modern PET/CT, especially in patients with pelvic uptake. Surgical lymphadenectomy should be performed in case of negative PET/CT at PA level in these patients, while it could be discussed in the absence of pelvic uptake.

8.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(1): 12-39, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397713

RESUMO

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multi-disciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO), and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 277-284, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638362

RESUMO

The age-standardised incidence of cervical cancer in Europe varies widely by country (between 3 and 25/100000 women-years) in 2018. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage is low in countries with the highest incidence and screening performance is heterogeneous among European countries. A broad group of delegates of scientific professional societies and cancer organisations endorse the principles of the WHO call to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health problem, also in Europe. All European nations should, by 2030, reach at least 90% HPV vaccine coverage among girls by the age of 15 years and also boys, if cost-effective; they should introduce organised population-based HPV-based screening and achieve 70% of screening coverage in the target age group, providing also HPV testing on self-samples for nonscreened or underscreened women; and to manage 90% of screen-positive women. To guide member states, a group of scientific professional societies and cancer organisations engage to assist in the rollout of a series of concerted evidence-based actions. European health authorities are requested to mandate a group of experts to develop the third edition of European Guidelines for Quality Assurance of Cervical Cancer prevention based on integrated HPV vaccination and screening and to monitor the progress towards the elimination goal. The occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic, having interrupted prevention activities temporarily, should not deviate stakeholders from this ambition. In the immediate postepidemic phase, health professionals should focus on high-risk women and adhere to cost-effective policies including self-sampling.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Alphapapillomavirus/fisiologia , /prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Saúde Pública/normas , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
10.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The disappointing activity of single agent immune-checkpoint inhibitors in epitherlial ovarian cancer (EOC) has been attributed in part to its unique tumor microenvironment (TME). IDO, PDL1, LAG3 and TIM3 have been implicated in the immunotolerance of EOC. We investigated the expression of these co-regulators, their change with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), and their association with outcome. METHOD: We identified 98 patients with EOC treated with NACT and performed IDO, PDL1, LAG3 and TIM3 immunohistochemistry on samples obtained before and after NACT. The cut-off threshold to consider a positive sample was set at 5%. RESULTS: In our cohort, TIM3 was the most prevalent co-regulator, with more than 75% of the samples being TIM3 positive. In comparison, only 22%, 28% and 17% of the samples were considered IDO, PDL1 and LAG3 positive. More than half of ovarian tumors expressed 2, 3 or even all 4 co-inhibitory molecules. However, biomarkers were not correlated with each other. NACT had a marked impact on immune co-regulator expression with over 70% of patients showing a change in biomarker status from negative to positive or vice versa. There was no significant difference in the pattern of co-regulator expression between platinum-sensitive and resistant patients. Co-expression of multiple inhibitory molecules did not appear to affect overall and progression-free survival. CONCLUSION: TIM3 is the most abundant co-inhibitory molecule in OC and may represent an attractive target. In addition, OC frequently co-expressed 2 or more markers supporting ICI combinatorial approaches. Finally, NACT significantly altered the expression of immunosuppressive molecules suggesting that the choice of ICI combinations should be adapted to the composition of the post-NACT immune TME.

11.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of a large series of patients treated conservatively for stage II or III serous borderline tumors of the ovary (SBOTs) with a long-term follow-up. METHODS: Patients with SBOTs and peritoneal implants, treated in or referred to our institution, were retrospectively reviewed. Outcomes of patients treated conservatively (preservation of the uterus and at least a part of one ovary) to promote subsequent fertility were specifically analyzed. RESULTS: Between 1971 and 2017, 212 patients were identified and followed-up. Among these patients, 65 underwent conservative treatment; eight patients had invasive implants. Among patients treated conservatively, 38 (58%) patients recurred. Twenty-eight recurrences were observed under the form of borderline tumor on the spared ovary and/or noninvasive implants, but eight patients had a recurrence under the form of invasive disease. Compared with radical surgery, the use of conservative treatment (p < 0.0001) was a prognostic factor on disease-free survival (DFS), but without an impact on overall survival (OS). Nevertheless, three deaths occurred. Twenty-four pregnancies (13 spontaneous) were observed in 20 patients (29 patients wanted to become pregnant). CONCLUSION: In this series collecting the largest number of patients undergoing conservative surgery for stage II/III SBOTs, spontaneous pregnancies can be achieved after conservative treatment of advanced-stage disease, but the recurrence rate is high and three deaths were observed. These patients were spared their fertility but with a high rate of recurrence. Uncertainties regarding the safety of conservative treatment should be exposed to these patients.

12.
Cancer Med ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on European gynaecological cancer patients under active treatment or follow-up has not been documented. We sought to capture the patient perceptions of the COVID-19 implications and the worldwide imposed treatment modifications. METHODS: A patient survey was conducted in 16 European countries, using a new COVID-19-related questionnaire, developed by ENGAGe and the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale questionnaire (HADS). The survey was promoted by national patient advocacy groups and charitable organisations. FINDINGS: We collected 1388 forms; 592 online and 796 hard-copy (May, 2020). We excluded 137 due to missing data. Median patients' age was 55 years (range: 18-89), 54.7% had ovarian cancer and 15.5% were preoperative. Even though 73.2% of patients named cancer as a risk factor for COVID-19, only 17.5% were more afraid of COVID-19 than their cancer condition, with advanced age (>70 years) as the only significant risk factor for that. Overall, 71% were concerned about cancer progression if their treatment/follow-up was cancelled/postponed. Most patients (64%) had their care continued as planned, but 72.3% (n = 892) said that they received no information around overall COVID-19 infection rates of patients and staff, testing or measures taken in their treating hospital. Mean HADS Anxiety and Depression Scores were 8.8 (range: 5.3-12) and 8.1 (range: 3.8-13.4), respectively. Multivariate analysis identified high HADS-depression scores, having experienced modifications of care due to the pandemic and concern about not being able to visit their doctor as independent predictors of patients' anxiety. INTERPRETATION: Gynaecological cancer patients expressed significant anxiety about progression of their disease due to modifications of care related to the COVID-19 pandemic and wished to pursue their treatment as planned despite the associated risks. Healthcare professionals should take this into consideration when making decisions that impact patients care in times of crisis and to develop initiatives to improve patients' communication and education.

13.
Virchows Arch ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009577

RESUMO

The morphological distinction between the various types of mucinous ovarian tumors has major prognostic implications but may be challenging. The aims of our study were to describe inter-observer reproducibility in the morphological diagnosis of mucinous ovarian tumors, to evaluate the clinical relevance of possible diagnostic discrepancies, and to identify molecular abnormalities correlated with the histological type. Seventy-nine ovarian mucinous borderline tumors (MOB) and either expansile or infiltrative carcinomas (MOC) were independently reviewed by two gynecological pathologists. Molecular analysis was performed in 32 cases. Concordance between the two pathologists was reached in 67 cases (k: 0.78). The main discrepancies (8/12) were the evaluation of nuclear grade 3 or that of microfoci (< 5 mm) of infiltrative-type carcinoma in an otherwise typical expansile MOC. Our follow-up analysis showed that infiltrative MOC had a lower overall survival (OS) (p < 0.0024) and progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.0060) as compared with MOB and expansile MOC. The presence of nuclear grade 3 or microfoci (< 5 mm) of infiltrative-type pattern of invasion in an otherwise typical expansile MOC did not alter the prognosis as compared with expansile MOC without these features, in terms of OS (p < 0.0028) and PFS (p = 0.0074). KRAS mutations were more frequent in MOB (71%), than in expansile (50%) and infiltrative MOC (14%). In contrast, the prevalence of TP53 mutation was lower in MOB (43%), than in expansile (58%) and infiltrative MOC (71%). Our results confirm that in MOC, the expansile pattern of invasion is associated with a better prognosis than extensive (> 5 mm) infiltrative-type pattern of invasion. No specific or sensitive molecular profile might help in the differential diagnosis of mucinous ovarian tumors.

14.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059915

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In young women, EOC is a rare disease with an uncertain genetic and biological substrate. METHODS: We report a long follow-up of EOC patients treated at Gustave Roussy between 1990 and 2009. We matched young patients aged ≤30 years to randomly selected older patients aged ≥40 years according to known prognostic factors (i.e. FIGO stage, histology and surgical residual disease) and the date of diagnosis with a threshold at the year 2000 to balance the treatment procedures. RESULTS: EOC was diagnosed in 68 patients aged ≤30 years matched with 111 patients aged ≥40 years. Low-grade (LG) (i.e. serous and endometrioid) (52%, n = 35) and mucinous (i.e. 23%, n = 16 infiltrative and 12% n = 8 expansile) tumors are prevalent. High-grade (HG) tumors are rare (7%, n = 5). Early stage diseases (53%, n = 36 FIGO I/II) are predominant. Response to platinum based chemotherapy is observed to be inferior in young patients as compared to matched older patients (ORR, 29 vs 84% p = 0.0002). For HG tumors the PFS is of 0% at 5 and 10 years in younger as compared to 30% in older patients. No difference in PFS (median 4.9 vs 9.8 ms, p = 0.58) and OS (not reached vs 15.3 ms, p = 0.47) is found overall among younger and older patients respectively. The median follow-up was 72 months (range, 11-288 months). No genetic abnormalities were found. CONCLUSIONS: Young EOC patients are most often diagnosed at an early FIGO stage with LG serous or mucinous histology. Tumors are significantly more resistant to platinum-based chemotherapy in younger patients.

15.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910017

RESUMO

FOXL2 somatic mutation occurs in a high percentage of ovarian adult granulosa cell tumors and DICER1 mutations in a high proportion of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors. These mutations have only been studied in a limited number of juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCTs), and their occurrence and frequency in these neoplasms is controversial. We aimed to determine the frequency of FOXL2 and DICER1 mutations in a large cohort of 50 JGCTs, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of these mutations. A FOXL2 hotspot mutation was found in 2/50 JGCTs. Review of these 2 cases reclassified them as adult granulosa cell tumors. Thus, FOXL2 mutation was absent from our large cohort of JGCTs. DICER1 mutations in the RNase IIIb domain were found in 4 cases. After review of the mutated cases, 1 was reclassified as a gynandroblastoma with a prominent JGCT component. Thus, DICER1 mutations were detected in 3/47 (6%) of pathologically confirmed JGCTs. Our results show that FOXL2 mutations are not present in JGCT, whereas a small percentage of these neoplasms exhibit DICER1 mutations.

16.
Gynecol Oncol ; 159(2): 534-538, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define a prognostic score based on pretreatment values of leucocyte, platelet and hemoglobin in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 238 patients for LACC with negative PET imaging in the para-aortic (PA) area and who were undergoing laparoscopic PA lymphadenectomies. All patients were treated with chemo-radiation and brachytherapy. RESULTS: Patients had clinical International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IB2 (n = 76), IIA (n = 13), IIB (n = 122), III (n = 18) or IVA (n = 9). We identified three biological parameters (at the time of diagnosis) with three cut-offs which impacted disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS): <12 g/dL for hemoglobin, >10,000/µL for leucocyte and >300 × 109/L for platelet. A score is calculated, as shown in the table below, by adding the scores of all three biological parameters together (with a maximum score of three). DFS at 36 months was 87.3% [78.3-97.4], 58% [45-74.6], 79.1% [71.1-88], 58% [45-74.6] and 56.8% [37.8-85.4] for scores of 0, 1, 2 and 3 respectively. OS at 36 months was 92.6% [84.9-100], 84% [76.6-92.1], 62.5% [48.9-79.9] and 67% [46.8-96] for scores of 0, 1, 2 and 3 respectively. CONCLUSION: This score includes three biomarkers with easily remembered cut-offs that allow us to identify, at the time of diagnosis, those patients with a high risk of relapse (scores of two or three) and those requiring dose escalation.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At diagnosis, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are prognostic in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We recently demonstrated that neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) significantly increased stromal TILs. Here, we investigated the impact of NACT on immune subpopulations with a particular focus on the balance of immune-reactive to tolerant subpopulations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue microarrays of EOC (145 pre-NACT, 139 post-NACT) were analyzed for CD3+, CD8+, FOXP3+, CD68+, and CD163+ by immunohistochemistry and CD4+ cells from deduction. Stromal TILs scored as percentage of stromal area, while intra-epithelial TILs scored as number of TILs in contact with tumor cells/HPF. Differences were evaluated by Wilcoxon or Chi square tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank for paired analyses, and cox model for PFS and OS. RESULTS: NACT significantly increased stromal CD3+ (p = 0.003) and CD8+ (p = 0.001) and intra-epithelial CD8+ (p = 0.022) and CD68+ (p = 0.0003) infiltration in unmatched samples and among paired samples for stromal CD3+ and CD8+. Neither CD3+, CD8+, CD4+, and CD68+ nor CD163+ expression correlated with outcome at diagnosis or post NACT. Using median value as a cut-off, high stromal CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio (HR = 0.59; p = 0.017) and high stromal CD3+/FOXP3+ ratio post NACT were associated with prolonged PFS (p = 0.0226). The more the balance shifted in favor of effector versus regulatory TILs, the better the survival. Similarly, high CD68+/CD163+ ratio post NACT improved PFS (p = 0.0445). CONCLUSION: NACT has a significant impact on the balance of immune-reactive to immune-tolerant subpopulations and a high ratio of CD8+/FOXP3+, CD3+/FOXP3+, and CD68+/CD163+ post NACT was significantly associated with improved outcomes. Whether this could select patients for immunotherapy in the post-operative setting should be investigated.

19.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(7): e360-e368, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615119

RESUMO

The European Society of Gynaecological Oncology and the European Society for Paediatric Oncology jointly developed clinically relevant and evidence-based guidelines for the management of adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 25 years with non-epithelial ovarian cancers, including malignant ovarian germ cell tumours, sex cord-stromal tumours, and small cell carcinoma of the ovary of hypercalcaemic type. The developmental process of these guidelines is based on a systematic literature review and critical appraisal process involving an international multidisciplinary developmental group consisting of experts from relevant disciplines (paediatric oncology, paediatric surgery, medical oncology, pathology, psycho-oncology, gynaecological oncology, and reproductive endocrinology). Given the specific and often complex issues involved in treating this group of patients, fertility sparing surgery and decrease of acute and long-term toxicities from treatment were important criteria for guidelines definition. Prior to publication, the guidelines were reviewed by 54 independent international practitioners in cancer care delivery.


Assuntos
Oncologia/normas , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/terapia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cells ; 9(6)2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575483

RESUMO

Small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is an aggressive malignancy that occurs in young women, is characterized by recurrent loss-of-function mutations in the SMARCA4 gene, and for which effective treatments options are lacking. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge on this rare malignancy by reporting a comprehensive molecular analysis of an independent cohort of SCCOHT cases. We conducted Whole Exome Sequencing in six SCCOHT, and RNA-sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridization in eight SCCOHT. Additional immunohistochemical, Sanger sequencing and functional data are also provided. SCCOHTs showed remarkable genomic stability, with diploid profiles and low mutation load (mean, 5.43 mutations/Mb), including in the three chemotherapy-exposed tumors. All but one SCCOHT cases exhibited 19p13.2-3 copy-neutral LOH. SMARCA4 deleterious mutations were recurrent and accompanied by loss of expression of the SMARCA2 paralog. Variants in a few other genes located in 19p13.2-3 (e.g., PLK5) were detected. Putative therapeutic targets, including MAGEA4, AURKB and CLDN6, were found to be overexpressed in SCCOHT by RNA-seq as compared to benign ovarian tissue. Lastly, we provide additional evidence for sensitivity of SCCOHT to HDAC, DNMT and EZH2 inhibitors. Despite their aggressive clinical course, SCCOHT show remarkable inter-tumor homogeneity and display genomic stability, low mutation burden and few somatic copy number alterations. These findings and preliminary functional data support further exploration of epigenetic therapies in this lethal disease.

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