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1.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 112(5): 649-705, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188969
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(5): 649-705, May 2019. gráfico, tabela
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1022925

RESUMO

Development: The Department of Geriatric Cardiology of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology (Departamento de Cardiogeriatria da Sociedade Brasileira da Cardiologia) and the Brazilian Geriatrics and Gerontology Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Geriatria e Gerontologia). (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Geriatria
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(4): 453-460, Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001278

RESUMO

Abstract Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of mortality. High circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood are associated with cardiovascular mortality, whether through an etiological role or through its association with the progression of CAD per se. Randomized clinical trials have shown that, when LDL levels are reduced, cardiovascular risk is also reduced, which reinforces this association. The first major trial involving a hypolipidemic agent of the statin family, the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S), was published in 1994 and found a significant reduction in mortality in patients at high cardiovascular risk. However, even in subsequent studies with different statins, a residual risk persisted, and this seems not to have changed over time; it is speculated that this risk may be due to statin intolerance. In this scenario, the potential exists for novel hypolipidemic agents to drive a true revolution in the therapy of dyslipidemia. The recent discovery of PCSK9 inhibitors (PCSK9i), a class of hypolipidemic monoclonal antibodies, is extremely promising. PCSK9 inhibition is capable of promoting a mean LDL reduction of up to 60%, with potential for very significant clinical repercussions, as every 38 mg/dL reduction in LDL appears to be associated with a 22% reduction in cardiovascular risk. This review addresses a brief history of PCSK9i, major trials of these drugs, cardiovascular outcomes, and aspects related to their efficacy and safety. Finally, the molecular mechanisms and possible pleiotropic effects of PCSK9i are also discussed.


Resumo A doença arterial coronariana (DAC) é uma das principais causas de mortalidade. Níveis circulantes elevados de lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL) no sangue estão associados com mortalidade cardiovascular, seja por um papel etiológico ou por sua associação com a progressão da DAC em si. Estudos clínicos randomizados mostram que, quando os níveis de LDL são reduzidos, o risco cardiovascular também é reduzido, o que reforça tal associação. O primeiro ensaio importante envolvendo um agente hipolipemiante da família da estatina, o estudo Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S), foi publicado em 1994 e encontrou uma redução significativa na mortalidade de pacientes com risco cardiovascular elevado. Contudo, mesmo em estudos subsequentes com diferentes estatinas, observou-se um risco residual persistente, o qual aparentemente não mudou ao longo dos anos. Especula-se que esse risco se deve à intolerância às estatinas. Nesse cenário, existe um potencial para novos agentes hipolipemiantes que levem a uma verdadeira revolução no tratamento das dislipidemias. A descoberta recente dos inibidores de PCSK9 (PCSK9i), uma classe de anticorpos monoclonais, é extremamente promissora. A inibição da PCSK9 é capaz de promover uma redução média nos níveis de LDL de até 60%, com potencial para repercussões clínicas muito significativas, já que para cada redução de 38 mg/dL, parece haver uma redução de 22% no risco cardiovascular. Esta revisão aborda uma breve história dos PCSK9i, os principais ensaios envolvendo esses medicamentos, desfechos cardiovasculares, e aspectos relacionados a sua eficácia e segurança. Finalmente, os mecanismos moleculares e possíveis efeitos pleiotrópicos dos PCSK9i são também discutidos.

4.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 112(4): 453-460, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843929

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of mortality. High circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood are associated with cardiovascular mortality, whether through an etiological role or through its association with the progression of CAD per se. Randomized clinical trials have shown that, when LDL levels are reduced, cardiovascular risk is also reduced, which reinforces this association. The first major trial involving a hypolipidemic agent of the statin family, the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S), was published in 1994 and found a significant reduction in mortality in patients at high cardiovascular risk. However, even in subsequent studies with different statins, a residual risk persisted, and this seems not to have changed over time; it is speculated that this risk may be due to statin intolerance. In this scenario, the potential exists for novel hypolipidemic agents to drive a true revolution in the therapy of dyslipidemia. The recent discovery of PCSK9 inhibitors (PCSK9i), a class of hypolipidemic monoclonal antibodies, is extremely promising. PCSK9 inhibition is capable of promoting a mean LDL reduction of up to 60%, with potential for very significant clinical repercussions, as every 38 mg/dL reduction in LDL appears to be associated with a 22% reduction in cardiovascular risk. This review addresses a brief history of PCSK9i, major trials of these drugs, cardiovascular outcomes, and aspects related to their efficacy and safety. Finally, the molecular mechanisms and possible pleiotropic effects of PCSK9i are also discussed.

6.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 109(2 Supl 1): 1-76, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813069
7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 4: 122, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28824911

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the capacity of total anterior thigh thickness, quadriceps muscle thickness, and quadriceps contractile index, all measured by bedside ultrasound, to predict rehospitalization, functional decline, and death in elderly patients 3 months after hospital discharge. To evaluate intra and interobserver reproducibility of the dominant thigh evaluation method by point of care ultrasound. METHODS: Cohort study of patients aged 65 years or more admitted to a medium complexity unit in a teaching hospital in southern Brazil. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and ultrasound evaluation of the dominant thigh of each participant were performed. After 3 months of hospital discharge, telephone contact was made to evaluate the outcomes of rehospitalization or death and functional decline-assessed by the 100 points Barthel scale and defined as a decrease of five or more points. RESULTS: 100 participants were included. There was no statistically significant difference between intraobserver measurements in the GEE method analysis (p > 0.05), and the mean bias obtained in Bland-Altman plots was close to zero in all four analyses performed, suggesting good intra and interobserver agreement. There was a significant correlation between the echographic measurements (quadriceps thickness and contractile index) and gait speed, timed up and go, and handgrip tests. There was a significant association between contractile index (quadriceps thickness over total anterior thigh thickness multiplied by 100) lower than 60% and functional decline (relative risk 1.35; CI 95% 1.10-1.65; p = 0.003) as well as between the thickness of the quadriceps and rehospitalization or death, in both individuals with preserved walking capacity and in bedridden elders (relative risk 1.34; CI 95% 1.02-1.75; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The ultrasonographic method to evaluate thigh thickness was easily applicable and reproducible. The thickness of the quadriceps could predict rehospitalization or death, even in those patients without walking capacity-unable to perform gait speed and timed up and go tests. Additionally, the contractile index was associated with functional decline after 3 months of hospital discharge. This is a promising result, which highlights the bedside ultrasound of the quadriceps as a potential tool for the prognosis evaluation of bedridden hospitalized elderly patients.

8.
Faludi, André Arpad; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Chacra, Ana Paula Marte; Bianco, Henrique Tria; Afiune Neto, Abrahão; Bertolami, Adriana; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Lottenberg, Ana Maria; Sposito, Andrei C.; Chagas, Antonio Carlos Palandri; Casella Filho, Antonio; Simão, Antônio Felipe; Alencar Filho, Aristóteles Comte de; Caramelli, Bruno; Magalhães, Carlos Costa; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo dos Santos; Scherr, Carlos; Feio, Claudine Maria Alves; Kovacs, Cristiane; Araújo, Daniel Branco de; Magnoni, Daniel; Calderaro, Daniela; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Mello Junior, Edgard Pessoa de; Alexandre, Elizabeth Regina Giunco; Sato, Emília Inoue; Moriguchi, Emilio Hideyuki; Rached, Fabiana Hanna; Santos, Fábio César dos; Cesena, Fernando Henpin Yue; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein; Fonseca, Henrique Andrade Rodrigues da; Xavier, Hermes Toros; Mota, Isabela Cardoso Pimentel; Giuliano, Isabela de Carlos Back; Issa, Jaqueline Scholz; Diament, Jayme; Pesquero, João Bosco; Santos, José Ernesto dos; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Melo Filho, José Xavier de; Kato, Juliana Tieko; Torres, Kerginaldo Paulo; Bertolami, Marcelo Chiara; Assad, Marcelo Heitor Vieira; Miname, Márcio Hiroshi; Scartezini, Marileia; Forti, Neusa Assumpta; Coelho, Otávio Rizzi; Maranhão, Raul Cavalcante; Santos Filho, Raul Dias dos; Alves, Renato Jorge; Cassani, Roberta Lara; Betti, Roberto Tadeu Barcellos; Carvalho, Tales de; Martinez, Tânia Leme da Rocha; Giraldez, Viviane Zorzanelli Rocha; Salgado Filho, Wilson.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(2,supl.1): 1-76, ago. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887919
9.
Estud. interdiscip. envelhec ; 22(1): 51-74, abr. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-912310

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o estado nutricional, alimentação e a saúde oral de idosos de um município da serra no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, por meio de um estudo transversal descritivo e analítico quantitativo, com dados primários. As variáveis analisadas foram: gênero; idade (≥60 anos); peso (kg); altura (m); índice de massa corporal (IMC=kg/m²), circunferência da cintura (CC=cm), circunferência do braço (CB=cm) e circunferência da panturilha (CP=cm). Para avaliação do estado nutricional utilizou-se a Mini Avaliação Nutricional (MAN) e o consumo alimentar foi avaliado pelo Questionário de Frequência Alimentar (QFA). Em relação à saúde bucal, aplicou-se o GOHAI (Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index) e o EAT-10 (Instrumento de Avaliação da Alimentação). Dos 135 idosos avaliados, 71,9% eram mulheres. A obesidade abdominal foi prevalente nas mulheres (p=0,037) e o risco de desnutrição pela MAN quanto à prevalência de baixo peso pelo IMC aumentaram com a idade (p=0,021 e p=0,039). Para os demais métodos de avaliação nutricional, as diferenças não foram estatisticamente significativas. Ainda pela MAN, houve diferença significativa, onde as mulheres se perceberam com melhor saúde (p=0,030). Ao investigar a saúde oral, não houve diferença significativa (p>0,05). O consumo de frutas frescas (p=0,006) foi maior nas mulheres e batata/salgados fritos (p=0,001) foi mais consumido pelos homens. Não houve associação significativa entre os resultados da saúde oral com o consumo alimentar (p>0,05). Torna-se necessário reforçar orientações sobre alimentação saudável, para que os idosos possam adequar sua alimentação e prevenir problemas advindos de uma má nutrição, bem como, outros estudos devem ser realizados com estas variáveis. (AU)


The goal of this study was to evaluate the nutritional sate, the nourishment and the oral health of elderly people in a town located in Gaucho Highlands, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It was a transversal, descriptive, qualitative analytical, with primary data. The variations analysed were: gender, age (≥60 years old), weight (kg), height (m), body mass index (BMI=kg/m²), waist circumference (WC=cm), arm circumference (AC=cm), calf circumference (CC=cm). To the evaluation, we used the "Mini Nutritional Assesment" (MNA), the food intake was evaluated by the Quizz of Nourishment Frequency (QNF), (SISVAN). For the oral health, we used the GOHAI (Geriatric Oral Health Assesment Index) and the EAT-10 (Eating Assesment Tool). From the 135 elders who were evaluated, 71.9% were women. The abdominal obesity was more important in women (p=0.037) and the risk of innutrition by MNA about the prevalence of low weight, by BMI, raised with the age (p=0.021 e p=0.039). For the other methods of nutritional evaluation, the differences weren't statistically significant. Still, by MNA there was a significant difference, where the women perceived themselves with better health (p=0.030). When investigating the oral health, there wasn't a significant difference (p>0.05). The consumption of fresh fruits (p=0.006) was bigger among the women and the consumption of potatoes/fried snacks (p=0.001) was bigger among the men. There wasn't a significant association between the results of the oral health and food consumption (p>0.05). It is necessary to reinforce guidances about healthy nourishment, so the elders can adequate their nourishment and prevent problems that come from a bad nutrition, as well as other studies must be done with these variations. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Alimentação , Avaliação Nutricional , Saúde Bucal , Estudos Transversais , Saúde do Idoso
10.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 29(5): f:348-l:354, set.-out. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-832697

RESUMO

Fundamento: A equação de Friedewald (EF) é amplamente utilizada para estimar o LDL-c sem utilizar ultracentrifugação. Entretanto, a equação tem limitações em determinados cenários clínicos. Objetivo: O nosso objetivo era investigar a possível importância das diferenças entre a EF e a medição direta de LDL-c em pacientes com diabetes. Métodos: Realizamos um estudo transversal entre 466 pacientes com doença coronária estável. Colesterol total, triglicérides, HDL-c e LDL-c foram coletados, e a EF foi calculada. A acurácia foi calculada como percentagem de estimativas dentro de 30% (P30) do LDL medido. O viés foi calculado como a diferença média entre o LDL-c medido e o estimado. A concordância entre os métodos foi avaliada utilizando gráficos de Bland-Altman. Resultados: O viés foi de 3,7 (p=0,005) e 1,1 mg/dl (p=0,248), e a acurácia foi de 86% e 93% em pacientes diabéticos e não-diabéticos, respectivamente. Entre os pacientes com diabetes, o viés foi de 5 mg/dl (p=0,016) e 1,93 mg/dl (p=0,179), e a acurácia foi de 83% e 88% em indivíduos com hemoglobina A1c superior a 8 mg/dl versus abaixo do ponto de corte, respectivamente. O viés foi similar em pacientes sem diabetes comparados com pacientes com diabetes e HbA1C < 8 (1,1 e 1,93 mg/dl). Conclusão: A EF é imprecisa entre indivíduos gerais com diabetes. Porém, ao estratificar pacientes com diabetes em bom e mau controle da doença, o primeiro grupo se comporta como se não tivesse diabetes, com uma boa correlação entre o LDL-c calculado e o mensurado. É importante saber quando é razoável usar a EF, porque uma estimativa imprecisa dos níveis de LDL-c pode resultar no subtratamento da dislipidemia e predispor estes pacientes a eventos agudos


Background: Friedewald equation (FE) is widely used to estimate the LDL-c without the use of ultra-centrifugation. However, the equation has limitations in some clinical settings. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the potential importance of differences between FE and direct measurement of LDL-c in patients with diabetes. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 466 patients with stable coronary disease. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-c and LDL-c were collected, and FE was calculated. Accuracy was calculated as the percentage of estimates within 30% (P30) of measured LDL. Bias was calculated as the mean difference between measured and estimated LDL-c. Agreement between methods was evaluated using BlandAltman plots.Results: Bias was 3.7 (p=0.005) and 1.1 mg/dl (p=0.248), and accuracy was 86% and 93% in diabetic and non-diabetic patients, respectively. Among patients with diabetes, bias was 5 mg/dl (p=0.016) and 1.93 mg/dl (p=0.179), and accuracy was 83% and 88% in subjects with Hemoglobin A1C above 8 mg/dl versus below cutoff point, respectively. Bias was similar in patients without diabetes compared to patients with diabetes and HbA1C < 8 (1.1 and 1.93 mg/dl). Conclusion: FE is inaccurate among overall individuals with diabetes. However, when stratifying patients with diabetes into good and poor disease control, the first group behaves as if it does not have diabetes, with a good correlation between calculated and measured LDL-c.It is important to know when is it reasonable to use FE because an inaccurate estimation of LDL-c levels could result in undertreatment of dyslipidemia and predispose these patients to acute events


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , LDL-Colesterol/análise , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , VLDL-Colesterol/análise , VLDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Matemática , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Análise Estatística , Atenção Terciária à Saúde/métodos , Usos Terapêuticos , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/sangue
11.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 19(2): 307-16, 2016 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27532754

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Active aging is the process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation and security, aiming to improve quality of life as people age. A series of studies had demonstrated that a lower prevalence of depression is found among more active elderly. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between indicators of active aging and depressive symptoms among the elderly (aged 60 years or more). METHOD: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,006 elderly people (aged 60 years or over) from a small-sized Brazilian municipality. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale - 15, with cutoff point ≥ 6 symptoms. Active aging was evaluated using indicators such as: active occupational situation, manual work, reading and physical activities. Data analyses used modified Poisson regression to obtain crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR). RESULTS: Most of the elderly people were: white, women and aged between 60 and 74 years. All the indicators of active aging were associated with the outcome. After controlling for socioeconomic, demographic and health variables, elderly people who worked, participated in groups, did manual work and maintained interests such as reading and talking to friends had lower prevalence of depressive symptoms compared to those not doing these activities. CONCLUSIONS: Active aging approaches may serve as a valuable mental health promotion strategy aimed at the elderly.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Vida Independente , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
12.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 19(2): 307-316, Apr.-Jun. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-789566

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Introduction: Active aging is the process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation and security, aiming to improve quality of life as people age. A series of studies had demonstrated that a lower prevalence of depression is found among more active elderly. Objective: To evaluate the association between indicators of active aging and depressive symptoms among the elderly (aged 60 years or more). Method: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,006 elderly people (aged 60 years or over) from a small-sized Brazilian municipality. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale - 15, with cutoff point ≥ 6 symptoms. Active aging was evaluated using indicators such as: active occupational situation, manual work, reading and physical activities. Data analyses used modified Poisson regression to obtain crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR). Results: Most of the elderly people were: white, women and aged between 60 and 74 years. All the indicators of active aging were associated with the outcome. After controlling for socioeconomic, demographic and health variables, elderly people who worked, participated in groups, did manual work and maintained interests such as reading and talking to friends had lower prevalence of depressive symptoms compared to those not doing these activities. Conclusions: Active aging approaches may serve as a valuable mental health promotion strategy aimed at the elderly.


RESUMO: Introdução: Envelhecimento ativo é o processo de otimizar oportunidades para a saúde, participação e segurança, de modo a promover qualidade de vida enquanto as pessoas envelhecem. Estudos demonstram que menores prevalências de depressão são encontradas em idosos fisicamente ativos. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre indicadores de envelhecimento ativo e sintomas depressivos em idosos (60 ou mais anos de idade). Métodos: O delineamento foi transversal de base populacional. Entrevistas estruturadas foram realizadas com 1.006 idosos, pessoas com idade igual ou superior a 60 anos, residentes em um município de pequeno porte do Sul do Brasil. Sintomas depressivos foram mensurados através da Escala de Depressão Geriátrica com ponto de corte maior ou igual a seis pontos. O envelhecimento ativo foi avaliado com indicadores tais como: participação em grupos, situação ocupacional ativa, trabalhos manuais, leituras, conversa com amigos e atividades físicas. A análise dos dados utilizou Regressão de Poisson para obter as razões de prevalência (RP) brutas e ajustadas. Resultados: A maioria dos idosos eram mulheres, idade entre 60 e 74 anos e cor da pele branca. Todos os indicadores de envelhecimento ativo estavam associados com o desfecho. Após o controle para aspectos sociodemográficos, psicossociais e variáveis relacionadas à saúde, idosos com situação ocupacional ativa, que participavam em grupos, que relatavam realizar trabalhos manuais, com hábito de leitura e de socializar com os amigos possuíam menores prevalências de sintomas depressivos quando comparados àqueles que realizavam tais atividades. Conclusões: Abordagens com foco no envelhecimento ativo podem ser uma estratégia importante para promoção da saúde mental em idosos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Depressão/epidemiologia , Vida Independente , Atividades Cotidianas , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência
13.
RBM rev. bras. med ; 72(3)mar. 2015.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-743632

RESUMO

Dados epidemiológicos evidenciam a hipertrigliceridemia como um fator de risco independente para doenças cardiovasculares (DCV).Hipertrigliceridemia é causada por interações entre muitos fatores genéticos e ambientais. Uma causa comum de hipertrigliceridemia é naquela condição com resistência à insulina, como a síndrome metabólica e o diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Também pode surgir secundariamente devido a utilização de vários fármacos (corticosteroides, inibidores da protease para HIV, agentes bloqueadores beta-adrenérgicos e estrogênios), ingestão elevada de carboidratos, fumo, inatividade fisica, ingestão de álcool em excesso ou como um componente do sistema endócrino e de outras doenças inflamatórias, doenças genéticas raras. Nas dislipidemias genéticas subjacentes comuns, tais causas secundárias podem levar a elevações graves e muito graves de níveis de triglicerídeos e risco de pancreatite. As mudanças nos hábitos de vida são a terapia primária para triglicerídeos elevados nesses pacientes e inclui controle de peso corporal, atividade física regular, parar de fumar, restrição de uso álcool (quando consumido em excesso) e evitar dietas ricas em carboidratos.O tratamento farmacológico depende do contexto clínico global, incluindo severidade da hipertrigliceridemia, a presença concomitante de outros distúrbios lipídicos e o risco global de doença cardiovascular do paciente.

14.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 30(6): 573-9, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25132317

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the correlation between apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 and the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) dimension in an elderly population, using baseline data from the Bambui (Brazil) Cohort Study of Aging. DESIGN: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: The study took place at Bambui city, Minas Gerais State, Southeast Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1408 (87.7%) cohort participants had complete information on the MMSE and health measures. MEASUREMENTS: The association between each of five dimensions (concentration, language/praxis, orientation, attention, and memory) underlying the MMSE and APOE ε4 allele was assessed using multivariate linear regression models. Potential confounding variables included sociodemographic factors and selected biomarkers. RESULTS: The main finding is a strong negative association between the presence of APOE ε4 allele and memory dimension in the MMSE (fully adjusted ß coefficient = -0.14; 95% confidence interval: -0.27 to -0.04; p = 0.016). No other cognitive dimensions showed significant associations with the APOE ε4 allele. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to investigate the association between dimensions of the MMSE, obtained from principal component analysis and APOE ε4 carrier status in community-dwelling older adults taking into account a range of potential confounding factors. We found a strong negative association between the presence of APOE ε4 allele and scores on memory dimension of the MMSE, but no effect on other dimensions. Our results reinforce previous data on the literature that APOE ε4 allele has a significant effect on cognitive performance that can be detected even in screening tests, such as the MMSE.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Memória/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Atenção/fisiologia , Brasil , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/genética , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Análise de Regressão
15.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 2(6): 1009-1015, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25279190

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) allelic frequency, serum lipoproteins and breast cancer (BC). We conducted a nested case-control study within a cohort including 47 cases and 165 controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of the APOE polymorphism were performed. In general, participants with the genotype including alleles e2 and e3 tended to have lower serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels compared to participants homozygous for the e3 allele and participants heterozygous for the e3 and e4 alleles, respectively. BC patients exhibited higher mean levels of total serum cholesterol (P=0.070), dietary fat intake (P=0.020) and dietary cholesterol intake (P=0.017) compared to control subjects. The allelic distribution between the two groups revealed that the presence of the e2 allele was positively associated with the absence of BC, whereas the e4 allele was positively associated with the BC case group (P=0.019). The distribution of the APOE genotypes was not significantly different between cases and controls (P=0.172). The concomitant presence of the e2 and e4 alleles was positively associated with the absence of BC and e4/e4 homozygosity was positively associated with BC (P=0.021). Our findings suggested that APOE polymorphism plays an important role in the development of BC, particularly when associated with higher serum triglyceride levels.

16.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 59(3): 624-9, 2014 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25183439

RESUMO

The objective was to investigate the association between depressive symptoms and collective efficacy among the elderly in a municipality in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional population-based design was carried out. Structured interviews were held at the homes of 1007 elderly individuals. The presence of depressive symptoms was measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale, exposures were a standard 8-item collective efficacy scale and a single item about elderly participation in groups. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression to obtain the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs). The sample consisted mostly of female (63%), white (96%) and married (64%) elderly individuals. The mean age, income and educational level were, respectively: 73 years (SD=4), R$ 1836 (SD=2170) and 5 years of education (SD=4). After controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral and health-related variables, participants who reported low collective efficacy at the places where they lived presented a prevalence of depressive symptoms that was twice as high as the prevalence among those who reported high collective efficacy. In the same way, elderly individuals who did not participate in groups presented prevalence of the outcome around 64% higher than among those who took part in one or more groups. The study suggests that creation of and participation in social networks and community groups may be an important strategy for promoting mental health among the elderly.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Capital Social , Meio Social , Participação Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Características de Residência , Autoimagem
17.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2014: 121679, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24587705

RESUMO

Elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with leukoaraiosis in elderly brain. However, several studies indicate that leukoaraiosis is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. It is unknown how the effect of CRP on cognition is mediated by leukoaraiosis. The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between serum levels of CRP, the presence of leukoaraiosis, and cognitive impairment in a population of coronary patients over 50 years old. CRP levels explained 7.18% (P: 0.002) of the variance of the MMSE. The adjustment for the presence of leukoaraiosis little changed this variance (5.98%, P: 0.005), indicating that only a small portion of the CRP influence on cognition was mediated via leukoaraiosis. Patients with CRP levels ≥ 5.0 had 2.9 (95% CI: 1.26-6.44) times more chance to present cognitive impairment (P: 0.012). We found that elevated serum levels of CRP were associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment in elderly and it was not mediated by presence of leukoaraiosis.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/sangue , Cognição , Leucoaraiose/sangue , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucoaraiose/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Int J Cardiol ; 166(2): 431-9, 2013 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22192281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of statins in the reduction of cardiovascular events was demonstrated in several placebo-controlled trials. More intensive therapy seems to be associated with greater benefit. Our objective was to compare different statin doses in the reduction of cardiovascular events and deaths, combining direct and indirect evidence, through mixed treatment comparisons (MTC). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review in MEDLINE and Cochrane CENTRAL. A random-effects Bayesian MTC model was used to combine placebo-controlled and direct statin comparison trials. Intensity of statin doses was classified according to expected LDL-cholesterol reduction effect: ≤30% as low; 30-40%, intermediate, and ≥40%, high. Outcomes evaluated were non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, coronary revascularization and coronary, cardiovascular and all-cause death. Inconsistency was assessed with split-node methodology. RESULTS: 47 trials (11 with direct statin comparisons) were included. High doses reduced non-fatal MI by 28% (95% CI: 18%-36%) and by 14% (7%-21%) when compared to low and intermediate doses, respectively. High doses also diminished revascularization [RR versus low and intermediate doses of 0.81 (0.69-0.95) and 0.88 (0.77-0.99), respectively] and stroke [RR of 0.83 (0.68-0.99) against low doses]. Regimen intensity did not change death rates (e.g., for all-cause mortality, RRs of 0.93 (0.80-1.06) and 0.98 (0.87-1.08) for high vs. low and intermediate doses, respectively). No statistical inconsistencies were found in the analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, in which all available evidence from statin trials was simultaneously analyzed, the benefit of more intensive therapy was restricted to non-fatal events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 34(4): 440-445, Dec. 2012. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-662751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate if APOE E4 allelic status is associated with the cognitive functioning of elderly individuals. METHODS: Participants (n = 1,408) from the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging were selected based on the results from both variables (APOE genotype and MMSE score). Gender, age, education, marital status, skin color, GHQ score and biological measures were used as confounding factors for adjusting the logistic regression. RESULTS: The population was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and the APOE E4 allele frequency was 13.4%. APOE E4 allele homozygosity conferred a superior odds ratio (OR) for cognitive impairment (OR = 3.1) compared to E4 allele heterozygosity (OR = 0.99) even when adjusted for age, sex, education, marital status, skin color, triglycerides, HDL, systolic pressure, and GHQ (OR = 2.9). No differences were observed between the other covariates. CONCLUSIONS: The APOE E4 allele was observed to have a dramatic effect on cognitive impairment, especially in homozygotes, which comprised approximately 2% of the population.


OBJETIVO: Demonstrar que a presença do alelo APOE E4 está associada ao declínio cognitivo em idosos vivendo em comunidade. MÉTODO:Participaram do estudo 1408 residentes na cidade de Bambuí (MG) com 60 ou mais anos de idade. A variável dependente do estudo foi a função cognitiva, mensurada pelo Mini Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM). A variável de interesse do estudo foi o genótipo da apolipoproteína E (APOE). Para efeito de ajustamento na regressão logística foram consideradas como covariáveis o sexo, escolaridade, cor da pele, estado civil, sintomas depressivos, dosagem de triglicerídeos, HDL e pressão sistólica. RESULTADOS: A frequência alélica do gene APOE (E4, E3, E2) mostrou distribuição em equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg. Foi detectada uma forte associação entre a presença do alelo E4 e o comprometimento cognitivo quando em homozigose (OR: 3,1; IC 95%: 1,39-6,99) mesmo após ajustamento por todas as potenciais variáveis de confusão (OR: 2,9; IC95%: 1,15-7,71). CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostraram que existe uma forte associação entre a presença do alelo E4 da APOE e a função cognitiva em idosos. Esta associação existiu somente entre indivíduos homozigotos (E4E4), indicando dependência da dose gênica no comprometimento cognitivo.


Assuntos
Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alelos , /genética , Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Homozigoto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Frequência do Gene/genética , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
20.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 9(1): 97, 2012 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23113882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The soluble cell adhesion molecules and adipokines are elevated in patients with obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, breast cancer and atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between anthropometric profile, dietary intake, lipid profile and fasting glycemia with serum levels of adipokines (adiponectin and PAI-1) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) in women without breast cancer undergoing routine mammographic screening. DESIGN: Transversal study. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty-five women over 40-years old participated in this study. RESULTS: In 39.3% of cases the BMI was above 30 kg/m2; 46.9% had hypertension, 14.5% had type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, 31.7% had dyslipidemia and 88.3% presented a waist-to-hip ratio ≥ 0.8. A linear correlation was found between serum levels of PAI-1 and triglycerides, between serum levels of PAI-1 and WHR and between serum levels of VCAM-1 and BMI. CONCLUSION: We found a high prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PAI-1 and VCAM-1 levels were correlated with clinical indicators of obesity and overweight.

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