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1.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835476

RESUMO

Background: Consumption of fibre-enriched orange juice may be an appropriate way to supplement daily fibre intake and achieve beneficial effects on metabolic health. The present study aimed to assess the short-term effects of fibre-enriched orange juice on postprandial metabolism and satiety in a healthy adult population. Methods: In this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study 10 healthy subjects underwent two one-day trials in which they consumed an orange juice beverage containing 1.4 g/100 mL of citrus fibre (29.3% soluble and 41.9% insoluble) or a placebo (regular orange juice without added fibre). Postprandial glucose, insulin, gut hormones (GLP1, GIP and ghrelin), leptin and qualitative appetite/satiety assessment were measured every 15 or 30 min over the 120 min test period. Results: The fibre-enriched orange juice decreased postprandial serum glucose and circulating insulin levels at 15 min compared with the placebo. In addition, after intake of the fibre-enriched juice, a significant effect on qualitative feelings of satiety and fullness was observed at 15 and 120 min, and was accompanied by a significant decrease in GLP1 response at 15 min. No significant changes were observed in leptin, GIP and ghrelin after juice intake. Conclusions: In healthy individuals, a single acute consumption of fibre-enriched orange juice has short-term beneficial effects on postprandial glycaemia, circulating insulin levels and satiety through GLP1 secretion.

2.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(10): 654-662, dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184793

RESUMO

Las enfermedades endocrinas están experimentando un importante incremento de su prevalencia, debido a causas de diversa índole, entre ellas la epidemia de obesidad y de desnutrición, el envejecimiento de la población, pero también el efecto de los disruptores endocrinos, entre otros. Por otra parte, las nuevas tecnologías, tanto a nivel de analítica molecular y genética, de imagen y de nuevos dispositivos terapéuticos, obligan a que la comunidad profesional endocrina en España tenga que estar en constante formación. La conexión con los pacientes a través de sus asociaciones, cada vez más activas, y con la sociedad civil en general, el compromiso profesional y la demanda de diversos colectivos sociales de una atención moderna y equitativa, y a llevar a cabo investigación que facilite la consecución de avances para los pacientes, obligan al especialista en Endocrinología y Nutrición, y a la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición (SEEN), a posicionarse y dar respuesta a todos estos retos. En el presente documento, la SEEN expone sus propuestas y su estrategia hasta el 2022


Endocrine diseases are experiencing an important increase in their prevalence, due to causes of various kinds, including the epidemic of obesity and malnutrition, the aging of the population, but also the effect of endocrine disruptors, among others. On the other hand, new technologies, both in terms of molecular and genetic analysis, image and new therapeutic devices, require that the endocrine professional community in Spain must be in constant training. The connection with patients through their associations, increasingly active, and with the civil society in general, the professional commitment and demand of various social groups for a modern and equitable care, and to carry out research that facilitates the achievement of advances for patients, forces the specialist in endocrinology and nutrition and the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN) to position themselves and respond to all these challenges. In this document, the SEEN presents its proposals and its strategy until 2022


Assuntos
Endocrinologia/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/tendências , Estratégias , Endocrinologia/tendências , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde , Medicina/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde , Espanha
3.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr ; 66(10): 654-662, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272927

RESUMO

Endocrine diseases are experiencing an important increase in their prevalence, due to causes of various kinds, including the epidemic of obesity and malnutrition, the aging of the population, but also the effect of endocrine disruptors, among others. On the other hand, new technologies, both in terms of molecular and genetic analysis, image and new therapeutic devices, require that the endocrine professional community in Spain must be in constant training. The connection with patients through their associations, increasingly active, and with the civil society in general, the professional commitment and demand of various social groups for a modern and equitable care, and to carry out research that facilitates the achievement of advances for patients, forces the specialist in endocrinology and nutrition and the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN) to position themselves and respond to all these challenges. In this document, the SEEN presents its proposals and its strategy until 2022.

4.
Diabetes Ther ; 10(5): 1893-1907, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359366

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this Delphi study is to unveil the management of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and different levels of complexity in the clinical practice in Spain. METHODS: Based on the common management practices of T2D profiles reported by Spanish endocrinologists, a Delphi questionnaire of 55 statements was developed and responded to by a national panel (n = 101). RESULTS: A consensus was reached for 30 of the 55 statements. Regarding overweight patients inadequately controlled with metformin, treatment with a sodium-glucose transport protein 2 inhibitor (SGLT2-I) is preferred over treatment with a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4-I). If the patient is already being treated with a DPP4-I, an SGLT2-I is added on to the treatment regimen rather than replacing the DPP4-I. Conversely, if the treatment regimen includes a sulfonylurea, it is usually replaced by other antihyperglycemic agents. Current treatment trends in uncontrolled obese patients include the addition of an SGLT2-I or a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP1-RA) to background therapy. When the glycated hemoglobin target is not reached, triple therapy with metformin + GLP1-RA + SGLT2-I is initiated. Although SGLT2-Is are the treatment of choice in patients with T2D and heart failure or uncontrolled hypertension, no consensus was reached regarding the preferential use of SGLT2-Is or GLP1-RAs in patients with established cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSION: Consensus has been reached for a variety of statements regarding the management of several T2D profiles. Achieving a more homogeneous management of complex patients with T2D may require further evidence and a better understanding of the key drivers for treatment choice. FUNDING: Logistic support was provided by ESTEVE Pharmaceuticals S.A Spain.

5.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(11): 2200-2209, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between caloric restriction-mediated weight loss and the generation of ROS and its effects on atherosclerotic markers in obesity is not fully understood. Therefore, we set out to investigate whether dietary weight loss intervention improves markers of oxidative stress in leukocytes and subclinical parameters of atherosclerosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was an interventional study of 59 obese subjects (BMI > 35 kg/m2) who underwent 6 months of dietary therapy, including a 6-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) followed by an 18-week low-calorie diet (LCD). We determined clinical parameters, inflammatory markers-hsCRP, TNFα and NFκB -, oxidative stress parameters-total superoxide, glutathione, catalase activity and protein carbonyl groups-, soluble cellular adhesion molecules-sICAM, sP-selectin, sPSGL-1 -, myeloperoxidase (MPO), leukocyte-endothelium cell interactions-rolling flux, velocity and adhesion-and LDL subfractions, before and after the dietary intervention. RESULTS: After losing weight, an improvement was observed in the patients' anthropometric, blood pressure and metabolic parameters, and was associated with reduced inflammatory response (hsCRP, TNFα and NFκB). Oxidative stress parameters improved, since superoxide production and protein carbonyl content were reduced and antioxidant systems were enhanced. In addition, a significant reduction of subclinical markers of atherosclerosis-small and dense LDL particles, MPO, sP-selectin and leukocyte adhesion-and an increase in soluble PSGL-1 were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that the improvement of subclinical atherosclerotic markers after dietary weight loss intervention is associated with a reduction of oxidative stress in leukocytes and inflammatory pathways, suggesting that these are the underlying mechanisms responsible for the reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in obese subjects after losing weight.

6.
Mol Metab ; 19: 24-33, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385096

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In obese patients undergoing caloric restriction, there are several potential mechanisms involved in the improvement of metabolic outcomes. The present study further explores whether caloric restriction can modulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial function, as both are known to be mechanisms underlying inflammation and insulin resistance (IR) during obesity. METHODS: A total of 64 obese patients with BMI ≥35 kg/m2 underwent a dietary program consisting of 6 weeks of a very-low-calorie diet followed by 18 weeks of low-calorie diet. We evaluated changes in the metabolic and inflammatory markers -TNFα, hsCRP, complement component 3 (C3c), and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4)-, in the ER stress markers and modulators -eIF2α-P, sXBP1, ATF6, JNK-P, CHOP, GRP78, and SIRT1-, and in mitochondrial function parameters -mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), cytosolic Ca2+, and mitochondrial membrane potential. RESULTS: The dietary intervention produced an 8.85% weight loss associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity, a less marked atherogenic lipid profile, and a decrease in systemic inflammation (TNFα, hsCRP) and adipokine levels (RBP4 and C3c). Chronic ER stress was significantly reduced (ATF6-CHOP, JNK-P) and expression levels of SIRT1 and GRP78 - a Ca2+-dependent chaperone - were increased and accompanied by the restoration of Ca2+ depots. Furthermore, mROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential improvement were associated with the up-regulation of the antioxidant enzyme GPX1. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide evidence that moderate weight loss attenuates systemic inflammation and IR and promotes the amelioration of ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, increasing the expression of chaperones, SIRT1 and antioxidant GPX1.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto , Proteína C-Reativa , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Complemento C3 , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Proteínas Plasmáticas de Ligação ao Retinol , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Espanha , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
7.
J Clin Med ; 7(8)2018 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115863

RESUMO

The association between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is undetermined and controversial. This study aims to evaluate the impact of the main mtDNA haplogroups on glycaemic control and renal function in a Spanish population of 303 T2D patients and 153 healthy controls. Anthropometrical and metabolic parameters were assessed and mtDNA haplogroup was determined in each individual. Distribution of the different haplogroups was similar in diabetic and healthy populations and, as expected, T2D patients showed poorer glycaemic control and renal function than controls. T2D patients belonging to the JT haplogroup (polymorphism m.4216T>C) displayed statistically significant higher levels of fasting glucose and HbA1c than those of the other haplogroups, suggesting a poorer glycaemic control. Furthermore, diabetic patients with the JT haplogroup showed a worse kidney function than those with other haplogroups, evident by higher levels of serum creatinine, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and slightly higher (although not statistically significant) urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Our results suggest that JT haplogroup (in particular, change at position 4216 of the mtDNA) is associated with poorer glycaemic control in T2D, which can trigger the development of diabetic nephropathy.

8.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 48(8): e12985, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the relationship between leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and oxidative stress parameters in non-diabetic patients with different grades of obesity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, 225 subjects were recruited from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2016 and divided into groups according to BMI (<30 kg/m2 , 30-40 kg/m2 and >40 kg/m²). We determined clinical parameters, systemic inflammatory markers, soluble cellular adhesion molecules, leukocyte-endothelium cell interactions-rolling flux, velocity and adhesion-, oxidative stress parameters-total ROS, total superoxide, glutathione-and mitochondrial membrane potential in leukocytes. RESULTS: We verified that HOMA-IR and hsCRP increased progressively as obesity developed, whereas A1c, IL6 and TNFα were augmented in the BMI > 40 kg/m² group. The cellular adhesion molecule sP-selectin was increased in patients with obesity, while sICAM, total ROS, total superoxide and mitochondrial membrane potential were selectively higher in the BMI > 40 kg/m² group. Obesity induced a progressive decrease in rolling velocity and an enhancement of rolling flux and leukocyte adhesion. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal that endothelial dysfunction markers are altered in human obesity and are associated with proinflammatory cytokines and increased oxidative stress parameters.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Leucócitos/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Clin Nutr ; 37(6 Pt A): 2036-2044, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29042127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is known that pinitol acts as a mediator of the insulin-signaling pathway, though little is known about its anti-inflammatory effect in human obesity. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of pinitol on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissues (SAT), focusing on the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). METHODS: In the intervention study, thirteen obese subjects consumed a pinitol-enriched beverage (PEB) for 12 weeks. In the ex vivo study, a biopsy of VAT and SAT was removed from thirty-four obese patients and incubated with D-pinitol for 48 h. RESULTS: The consumption of a PEB reduced circulating levels of IL6 and TNFα and increased SIRT1 protein expression in PBMCs. Ex vivo experiments showed a decline in gene expression and protein levels of IL6 and TNFα in SAT and a reduction in ER stress parameters (ATF6 and CHOP), while VAT markers remained unaltered. Differential gene expression profiles revealed an up-regulation of SIRT1 and insulin-signaling pathways in SAT with respect to VAT. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggests that pinitol down-regulates the inflammatory pathway which may lead to novel treatment options for obesity and its metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Citocinas/sangue , Inositol/análogos & derivados , Obesidade/imunologia , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inositol/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo
10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 122: 46-53, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27810685

RESUMO

AIMS: To describe the views of healthcare providers about starting insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes and to determine the specific factors that contribute to delay insulin initiation. METHODS: Two-phases observational descriptive study. In the quantitative phase we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a sample of 380 healthcare professionals (general practitioners (GPs), endocrinologists, internists and nurses). In the qualitative phase, a discussion group reviewed the results of the survey to propose solutions. RESULTS: In poorly controlled patients, 46% of GPs vs. 43.2% of internists and 31.3% of endocrinologists waited 3-6months before starting insulin, and 71.4% of GPs vs. 66.7% of internists vs. 58.8% of endocrinologists need to confirm twice the HbA1c levels. The upper level of basal glucose more frequently considered as good control is 130mg/dL for GPs (35.7%), and 120mg/dL for internists (35.8%) and endocrinologists (37.5%). In patients without comorbidities, 32.5% of endocrinologists vs. 27.2% of internists vs. 17.9% of GPs initiated insulin when HbA1c was >7% while 26.3% of endocrinologists vs. 28.4% of internists vs. 38.4% of GPs initiated insulin when HbA1c was >8%. The interference of the therapy with the patient' social life and the need for time management were the most accepted barriers to initiate insulin. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant differences between GPs and endocrinologists regarding the insulin initiation and GPs and internists felt less empowered to manage patients with diabetes. Specific training for professionals and joint work with patients could improve the glycemic control.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 147(supl.esp.1): 49-53, nov. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-163184

RESUMO

Los inhibidores del cotransportador sodio-glucosa tipo 2 (iSGLT2) inhiben al SGLT2 de forma selectiva y reversible, promoviendo la excrecion renal de glucosa y reduciendo la glucemia plasmatica. Al aumentar la excrecion renal de glucosa se favorece el balance energetico negativo y condiciona un efecto reductor del peso, y su efecto hipoglucemiante es independiente de la insulina. A pesar de que su aparicion es reciente, ya estan incluidos en todas las guias nacionales e internacionales relevantes desde 2014. En esta revision se repasan las recomendaciones mas importantes respecto al manejo de los iSGLT2 en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 que figuran en las ultimas guias o consensos publicados (AU)


Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) selectively and reversibly inhibit sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2), promoting renal glucose excretion and reducing plasma glycaemia. By increasing renal glucose excretion, these drugs favour a negative energy balance, leading to weight loss. Their glucoselowering effect is independent of insulin. Although these drugs have only recently been developed, they have been included in all the main national and international guidelines since 2014. The present review summarises the most important recommendations on the use of SGLT2 in patients with DM2 contained in the most recently published guidelines and consensus statements (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/antagonistas & inibidores , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/uso terapêutico , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Programas de Estudo , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Índice de Massa Corporal
12.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 147 Suppl 1: 49-53, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28760226

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) selectively and reversibly inhibit sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2), promoting renal glucose excretion and reducing plasma glycaemia. By increasing renal glucose excretion, these drugs favour a negative energy balance, leading to weight loss. Their glucoselowering effect is independent of insulin. Although these drugs have only recently been developed, they have been included in all the main national and international guidelines since 2014. The present review summarises the most important recommendations on the use of SGLT2 in patients with DM2 contained in the most recently published guidelines and consensus statements.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Glucose , Glucosídeos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Sódio , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio
13.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 9: 1443-58, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26508841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess Spanish and Portuguese patients' and physicians' preferences regarding type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatments and the monthly willingness to pay (WTP) to gain benefits or avoid side effects. METHODS: An observational, multicenter, exploratory study focused on routine clinical practice in Spain and Portugal. Physicians were recruited from multiple hospitals and outpatient clinics, while patients were recruited from eleven centers operating in the public health care system in different autonomous communities in Spain and Portugal. Preferences were measured via a discrete choice experiment by rating multiple T2DM medication attributes. Data were analyzed using the conditional logit model. RESULTS: Three-hundred and thirty (n=330) patients (49.7% female; mean age 62.4 [SD: 10.3] years, mean T2DM duration 13.9 [8.2] years, mean body mass index 32.5 [6.8] kg/m(2), 41.8% received oral + injected medication, 40.3% received oral, and 17.6% injected treatments) and 221 physicians from Spain and Portugal (62% female; mean age 41.9 [SD: 10.5] years, 33.5% endocrinologists, 66.5% primary-care doctors) participated. Patients valued avoiding a gain in bodyweight of 3 kg/6 months (WTP: €68.14 [95% confidence interval: 54.55-85.08]) the most, followed by avoiding one hypoglycemic event/month (WTP: €54.80 [23.29-82.26]). Physicians valued avoiding one hypoglycemia/week (WTP: €287.18 [95% confidence interval: 160.31-1,387.21]) the most, followed by avoiding a 3 kg/6 months gain in bodyweight and decreasing cardiovascular risk (WTP: €166.87 [88.63-843.09] and €154.30 [98.13-434.19], respectively). Physicians and patients were willing to pay €125.92 (73.30-622.75) and €24.28 (18.41-30.31), respectively, to avoid a 1% increase in glycated hemoglobin, and €143.30 (73.39-543.62) and €42.74 (23.89-61.77) to avoid nausea. CONCLUSION: Both patients and physicians in Spain and Portugal are willing to pay for the health benefits associated with improved diabetes treatment, the most important being to avoid hypoglycemia and gaining weight. Decreased cardiovascular risk and weight reduction became the third most valued attributes for physicians and patients, respectively.

14.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 21(12): 1759-65, 2014 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25000244

RESUMO

Oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is related to type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the influence of glycemic control on these parameters and its relationship with leukocyte-endothelial interactions is not known. In our study population consisting of 164 diabetic patients, (102 with glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] <7% and 62 with HbA1c >7%) and 84 nondiabetic controls, we have verified a common anthropometric and metabolic pattern of T2D with dyslipidemia. Inflammatory parameters (high-sensitive C-reactive protein [hs-CRP] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα]) and E-selectin levels were enhanced in the HbA1c >7% group with regard to controls. O2 consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential were lower in diabetic patients than in controls. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was enhanced in diabetic patients than in controls and positively correlated with HbA1c levels. GRP78 levels were higher in both diabetic groups. However, HbA1c <7% patients displayed higher levels of spliced X-box binding protein 1 (sXBP1), whereas HbA1c >7% patients exhibited preferentially enhanced levels of CHOP (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein [C/EBP] homologous protein) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Reduced leukocyte rolling velocity and increased rolling flux and adhesion were observed in diabetic patients. Our findings lead to the hypothesis of an association between poor glycemic control in T2D and increased leukocyte ROS production and chronic ER stress that could finally promote leukocyte-endothelial interactions, which, in turn, poses a risk of vascular complications for these patients.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/metabolismo
15.
PLoS One ; 8(11): e78670, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24223837

RESUMO

Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipokine that may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. However, how this adipokine is affected and its possible involvement in lipid metabolism in obese patients with varying degrees of insulin resistance is yet to be determined. A total of 299 middle-aged morbid obese patients (BMI>40 kg/m(2)) were divided in euglycemic, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetic. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical variables and systemic RBP4 levels were determined. RBP4 levels were significantly higher in patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes than in euglycemic subjects (42.9±14.6; 42.3±17.0 and 37.4±11.7 µg/ml, respectively) and correlated with triglycerides but not with those of HOMA-IR in the whole population. The multivariate regression model revealed that triglycerides were the strongest predictor of systemic RBP4 levels. Analysis of lipoprotein subfractions in a subpopulation of 80 subjects showed an altered profile of insulin resistant states characterized by higher VLDL, sdLDL and small HDL percentages and lower large HDL percentage. Although RBP4 levels correlated significantly with LDL particle size and small HDL percentage, the latter parameter was independently associated only with RBP4. Our study reveals that systemic RBP4 levels could play an important role in lipid metabolism in morbid obesity, increasing triglyceride levels and contributing to the formation of small HDL.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Proteínas Plasmáticas de Ligação ao Retinol/metabolismo , Adulto , Aterosclerose/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , VLDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Dislipidemias/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Triglicerídeos/sangue
16.
Curr Pharm Des ; 19(32): 5730-41, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23448492

RESUMO

Evidence is mounting of the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in insulin resistance, diabetes and associated complications. This review aims to provide an overview of the effects of insulin resistance on mitochondrial function in several tissues. We consider the pathogenesis of insulin resistance from a mitochondrial perspective and contemplate potential beneficial effects of strategies aimed at modulating mitochondrial function in insulin resistance, including insulin and insulin-sensitizing drugs, antioxidants, and selectively targeting antioxidants to mitochondria.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Complicações do Diabetes/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular
20.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 138(4): 145-150, feb. 2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-98061

RESUMO

Fundamento y objetivo: Un gran número de pacientes con riesgo cardiovascular presentan síndrome metabólico (SM) y son atendidos por distintos especialistas. Se desconoce si existen diferencias en las características o en el tratamiento de dichos pacientes en función de la especialidad que los atiende. El objetivo del presente trabajo ha sido el de evaluar la existencia de diferencias en las características clínicas, el control de la presión arterial y el esfuerzo e inercia terapéuticos entre las distintas especialidades médicas en una cohorte de pacientes hipertensos con SM asociado.Pacientes y método: Estudio transversal de ámbito nacional, realizado en las 17 Comunidades Autónomas, en hipertensos afectos de SM reclutados de forma consecutiva en consultas de cardiología, medicina interna, endocrinología y nefrología. Se determinaron las características demográficas y clínicas, así como el grado de control de la presión arterial. El esfuerzo terapéutico se definió por la presencia de tratamiento con al menos 3 fármacos antihipertensivos. La inercia terapéutica se definió como la falta de modificaciones en el tratamiento antihipertensivo a pesar de un control insuficiente de la presión arterial (cifras ≥ 140 y/o 90mmHg). Resultados: Se incluyeron 2.453 pacientes (40% de mujeres), con una edad media (DE) de 64 (11) años. Se observaron algunas diferencias entre especialidades en relación a los componentes del SM, de forma que la dislipidemia aterogénica (elevación de triglicéridos [97%] y disminución del colesterol unido a lipoproteínas de alta densidad [colesterol HDL] [61%]) fue más frecuente entre los pacientes atendidos en consultas de cardiología. Por lo que respecta al control de la presión arterial, éste fue superior en los pacientes atendidos en consultas de nefrología (16-33% en función del criterio utilizado) (AU)


Background and objetive: A large number of patients with cardiovascular risk exhibit metabolic syndrome and are attended by several specialists. There is no information about possible differences in the clinical characteristics and management of these patients by these specialists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate possible differences in clinical features, blood pressure control, therapeutic effort, and therapeutic inertia among medical specialities attending hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). Patients and methods: Cross-sectional study carried out in 17 autonomous communities in Spain, in hypertensive patients with MS consecutively recruited in ambulatory units from departments of cardiology, internal medicine, endocrinology and nephrology. Demographic and clinical data, as well as blood pressure control were assessed. Therapeutic effort was defined as the proportion of patients using 3 or more antihypertensive drugs. Therapeutic inertia was defined as the proportion of patients without any change in antihypertensive treatment despite a lack of blood pressure control (values ≥ 140 and/or 90mmHg). Results: 2,453 patients (40% women) with a mean age of 64 (11) years were included in the study. We observed some differences in the specific MS components among specialities. Atherogenic dyslipidemia, defined as elevated triglycerides (97%) and/or HDL-cholesterol (61%) was more common in patients attended by cardiologists. Blood pressure control was better achieved by nephrologists (16-33%, depending on the criteria used), and it was accompanied by a greater therapeutical effort (59%). Therapeutical inertia in relation to antihypertensive treatment was more common among endocrinologists (56%) (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Circunferência Abdominal
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