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1.
Sleep ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792177

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: It is common to provide insomnia patients a second treatment when the initial treatment fails, but little is known about optimal treatment sequences for different patient types. This study examined whether pre-treatment characteristics/traits predict optimal treatment sequences for insomnia patients. METHODS: A community sample of 211 adults (132 women; Mage = 45.6 ± 14.9 years) with insomnia were recruited. Patients were first treated with behavioral therapy (BT) or zolpidem (Zol). Non-remitting BT recipients were randomized to a second treatment with either Zol or cognitive therapy; non-remitting Zol recipients underwent BT or Trazodone as a second treatment. Remission rates were assessed at the end of the first and second 6-week treatments. We then compared the remission rates of dichotomous groups formed on the basis of gender, age, pretreatment scores on SF36 and Multidimensional Fatigue Scale, the presence/absence of psychiatric/medical comorbidities or pain disorders, and mean subjective sleep duration and efficiency within and across treatment sequences. RESULTS: Lower remission rates were noted for those: with a pain disorder, poor mental health perceptions, high MFI fatigue scores, and lower sleep times and efficiencies. Patients with a pain disorder responded best to the BT-to-Zol sequence, whereas patients with more mental impairment, severe fatigue, short sleep, and low sleep efficiency responded poorly to treatment starting with BT. CONCLUSIONS: Pain, fatigue, poor mental health status, and subjective sleep duration and efficiency all affect response to different insomnia treatment sequences. Findings may guide clinicians in matching insomnia treatments to their patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01651442, Protocol version 4, April 20, 2011, registered June 26, 2012, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01651442?rslt=With&type=Intr&cond=Insomnia&cntry=US&state=US%3ACO&city=Denver&age=12&draw=2&rank=1.

2.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis-related insomnia is the most common form of comorbid insomnia among older Americans. A randomized clinical trial found that six sessions of telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) improved sleep outcomes in this population. Using these data, we evaluated the incremental cost-effectiveness of CBT-I from a healthcare sector perspective. METHODS: The study was based on 325 community-dwelling older adults with insomnia and osteoarthritis pain enrolled with Kaiser Permanente of Washington State. We measured quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) using the EuroQol 5-dimension scale. Arthritis-specific quality of life was measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Insomnia-specific quality of life was measured using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and nights without clinical insomnia (i.e., "insomnia-free nights"). Total healthcare costs included intervention and healthcare utilization costs. RESULTS: Over the 12 months after randomization, CBT-I improved ISI and WOMAC by -2.6 points (95% CI: -2.9 to -2.4) and -2.6 points (95% CI: -3.4 to -1.8), respectively. The ISI improvement translated into 89 additional insomnia-free nights (95% CI: 79 to 98) over the 12 months. CBT-I did not significantly reduce total healthcare costs (-$1072 [95% CI: -$1968 to $92]). Improvements in condition-specific measures were not reflected in QALYs gained (-0.01 [95% CI: -0.01 to 0.01]); at a willingness-to-pay of $150,000 per QALY, CBT-I resulted in a positive net monetary benefit of $369 with substantial uncertainty (95% CI: -$1737 to $2270). CONCLUSION: CBT-I improved sleep and arthritis function without increasing costs. These findings support the consideration of telephone CBT-I for treating insomnia among older adults with comorbid OA. Our findings also suggest potential limitations of the general quality of life measures in assessing interventions designed to improve sleep and arthritis outcomes.

3.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 13: 1711-1722, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675720

RESUMO

Purpose: Lifestyle and work habits have been drastically altered by restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Whether the associated changes in sleep timing modulate the risk of suffering from symptoms of insomnia, the most prevalent sleep disorder, is however incompletely understood. Here, we evaluate the association between the early pandemic-associated change in 1) the magnitude of social jetlag (SJL) - ie, the difference between sleep timing on working vs free days - and 2) symptoms of insomnia. Patients and Methods: A total of 14,968 anonymous participants (mean age: 40 years; 64% females) responded to a standardized internet-based survey distributed across 14 countries. Using logistic multivariate regression, we examined the association between the degree of social jetlag and symptoms of insomnia, controlling for important confounders like social restriction extension, country specific COVID-19 severity and psychological distress, for example. Results: In response to the pandemic, participants reported later sleep timing, especially during workdays. Most participants (46%) exhibited a reduction in their SJL, whereas 20% increased it; and 34% reported no change in SJL. Notably, we found that both increased and decreased SJL, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, were associated with later sleep midpoint (indicating a later chronotype) as well as more recurrent and moderate-to-severe symptoms of insomnia (about 23-54% higher odds ratio than subjects with unchanged SJL). Primarily those with reduced SJL shifted their bedtimes to a later timepoint, compared with those without changes in SJL. Conclusion: Our findings offer important insights into how self-reported changes to the stability of sleep/wake timing, as reflected by changes in SJL, can be a critical marker of the risk of experiencing insomnia-related symptoms - even when individuals manage to reduce their social jetlag. These findings emphasize the clinical importance of analyzing sleep-wake regularity.

4.
Sleep ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698868

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: High rates of sleep and mental health problems have been reported during the COVID-19 pandemic, but most of the evidence is retrospective without pre-pandemic data.This study documented rates of prevalent, incident, and persistent insomnia and psychological symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020) compared to pre-pandemic data (2018). METHODS: Data were derived from a longitudinal, population-based study of insomnia in Canada. When the first lockdown started in the province of Quebec, a subsample of participants who had completed the latest 2018 follow-up were surveyed (April-May 2020) about their sleep, insomnia, and psychological symptoms since the beginning of the pandemic. Prevalence, incidence, and persistence rates of insomnia, and severity of stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were estimated, as well as their associations with confinement, loneliness, social support, use of electronics, and other lifestyle changes occurring during the pandemic. A sleep/health survey and validated questionnaires of insomnia, sleep quality, stress, fatigue, anxiety, and depression were administered at both assessments. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 594 adults (mean age: 48.3 ± 13.1 years; 64.0% women). Prevalence of insomnia increased from 25.4% to 32.2% (symptoms) and from 16.8% to 19% (syndrome) from 2018 to 2020, for an overall 26.7% increase in insomnia rates. Of those classified as good sleepers in 2018 (n = 343), 32.6% (n = 112) had developed new insomnia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Among participants who had insomnia in 2018, the persistence rate was 76.5% two years later. There was a significant worsening of sleep quality, fatigue, anxiety and depression (all ps < 0.005) during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to 2018. Significant associations were found between sleep and psychological symptoms and with living alone and being in confinement, lower social support, increased time using electronic devices, reduced physical exercise, and higher financial stress. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with significant increases in insomnia and psychological symptoms compared to the pre-pandemic period. Large scale public sleep and mental health intervention programs should be prioritized during and after a pandemic such as the the COVID-19.

5.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 13: 1573-1591, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588830

RESUMO

Objective: Many have reported odd dreams during the pandemic. Given that dreams are associated with mental health, understanding these changes could provide crucial information about wellbeing during the pandemic. This study explored associations between COVID-19 and dream recall frequency (DRF), and related social, health, and mental health factors. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional web survey of 19,355 individuals in 14 countries from May to July 2020. We collected data on COVID-19, mental health, sleep and DRF during the pandemic. We performed McNemar Tests to compare low (<3 nights per week) and high DRF (≥3 nights per week) before and during COVID-19 and to evaluate changes in sleep variables segmented by DRF. Chi-square tests were conducted to compare characteristics between low and high DRF. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between various independent variables and DRF. Results: Reports of high DRF during the pandemic were higher than before the pandemic (P<0.001). Female gender (aOR=1.25, 95% CI 1.10-1.41), nightmares (aOR=4.22, 95% CI 3.45-5.17), sleep talking (aOR= 2.36, 1.73-3.23), sleep maintenance problems (aOR=1.34, 95% CI 1.15-1.56), symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD; aOR=1.24, 95% CI 1.09-1.41) and repeated disturbing thoughts (posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) were associated with high DRF. Age group 55-64 years (aOR=0.69, 95% CI 0.58-0.83) reported less high DRF than younger participants. Unadjusted OR showed associations between depression, anxiety, and DRF; however, in adjusted regression depression (aOR= 0.71, 0.59-0.86) and anxiety (aOR=0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.94) were negatively associated with high DRF. Conclusion and Relevance: DRF was higher than pre-pandemic levels across four continents. DRF was associated with gender and parasomnias like nightmares and RBD symptoms, sleep maintenance problems, PTSD symptoms and negatively associated with depression and anxiety. The results implicate that COVID-19 is reflected in our dreams as an expression of the emotional intensity of the pandemic.

6.
J Sleep Res ; : e13489, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535942

RESUMO

Insomnia is the most frequent sleep disorder, and the COVID-19 crisis has massively increased its prevalence in the population, due to psychosocial stress or direct viral contamination. KANOPEE_2 is a smartphone-based application that provides interactions with a virtual agent to autonomously screen and alleviate insomnia symptoms through an intervention programme giving personalized advices regarding sleep hygiene, relaxation techniques and stimulus-control. In this proof-of-concept study, we tested the effects of KANOPEE_2 among users from all over the country (France) who downloaded the app between 1 June and 26 October 2020 (to focus on effects after the end of COVID-19 confinement). Outcome measures include insomnia severity (Insomnia Severity Index) and sleep/wake schedules measured by a sleep diary. One-thousand and thirty-four users answered the screening interview (Mage  = 43.76 years; SD = 13.14), and 108 completed the two-step programme (Mage  = 46.64 years; SD = 13.63). Of those who answered the screening, 42.8% did not report sleep complaints, while 57.2% presented mild-to-severe insomnia symptoms. At the end of the intervention, users reported significantly fewer sleep complaints compared with the beginning of the intervention (Insomnia Severity Indexbeginning  = 13.58; Insomnia Severity Indexend  = 11.30; p < 0.001), and significantly increased their sleep efficiency (sleep efficiencybeginning  = 76.46%; sleep efficiencyend  = 80.17%; p = 0.013). KANOPEE_2 is a promising solution both to provide autonomous evaluation of individuals' sleep hygiene and reduce insomnia symptoms over a brief and simple intervention. These results are very encouraging for addressing the issue of insomnia management in people exposed to major psychosocial stress and the consequences of COVID-19 infection.

7.
Sleep ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516646

RESUMO

In a primary care population of 327 older adults (age 60+) with chronic osteoarthritis (OA) pain and insomnia, we examined the relationship between short-term improvement in sleep or pain and long-term sleep, pain, depression, and fatigue by secondary analyses of randomized controlled trial data. Study participants, regardless of trial arm, were classified as Sleep or Pain Improvers with ≥30% baseline to 2-month reduction on the Insomnia Severity Index or the Brief Pain Inventory, respectively, or Sleep or Pain Non-Improvers. After controlling for trial arm and potential confounders, both Sleep and Pain Improvers showed significant (p <.01) sustained improvements across 12 months compared to respective Non-Improvers for the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index, Brief Pain Inventory-short form (total, Interference, and Severity subscales), Patient Health Questionnaire, and Flinders Fatigue Scale.The effect sizes (Cohen's f 2) for the sustained benefits in both Sleep and Pain Improvers compared to their respective Non-Improvers for all variables were small (<0.15) with the exception of a medium effect size for sustained reduction in insomnia symptoms for the Sleep Improvers. We conclude that short-term sleep improvements in pain populations with co-morbid insomnia precede benefits not only for long-term improvement in sleep but also for reduced pain over the long-term, along with associated improvements in depression and fatigue. Short-term improvements in pain appear to have similar long-term sequelae. Successfully improving sleep in pain populations with co-morbid insomnia may have the additional benefits of improving both short and long term pain, depression and fatigue.

8.
Sleep Med ; 87: 38-45, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508986

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE AND STUDY OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has produced unprecedented changes in social, work, and leisure activities, which all have had major impact on sleep and psychological well-being. This study documented the prevalence of clinical cases of insomnia, anxiety, and depression and selected risk factors (COVID-19, confinement, financial burden, social isolation) during the first wave of the pandemic in 13 countries throughout the world. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: International, multi-center, harmonized survey of 22 330 adults (mean age = 41.9 years old, range 18-95; 65.6% women) from the general population in 13 countries and four continents. Participants were invited to complete a standardized web-based survey about sleep and psychological symptoms during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic from May to August 2020. RESULTS: Clinical insomnia symptoms were reported by 36.7% (95% CI, 36.0-37.4) of respondents and 17.4% (95% CI, 16.9-17.9) met criteria for a probable insomnia disorder. There were 25.6% (95% CI, 25.0-26.2) with probable anxiety and 23.1% (95% CI, 22.5-23.6) with probable depression. Rates of insomnia symptoms (>40%) and insomnia disorder (>25%) were significantly higher in women, younger age groups, and in residents of Brazil, Canada, Norway, Poland, USA, and United Kingdom compared to residents from Asian countries (China and Japan, 8% for disorder and 22%-25% for symptoms) (all Ps < 0.01). Proportions of insomnia cases were significantly higher among participants who completed the survey earlier in the first wave of the pandemic relative to those who completed it later. Risks of insomnia were higher among participants who reported having had COVID-19, who reported greater financial burden, were in confinement for a period of four to five weeks, and living alone or with more than five people in same household. These associations remained significant after controlling for age, sex, and psychological symptoms. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Insomnia, anxiety, and depression were very prevalent during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Public health prevention programs are needed to prevent chronicity and reduce long-term adverse outcomes associated with chronic insomnia and mental health problems.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sleep Med Rev ; 60: 101545, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571477

RESUMO

During the early days of the pandemic and in the context of a seemingly unknown global threat, several potential major sleep disruptors were identified by sleep researchers and practitioners across the globe. The COVID-19 pandemic combined several features that, individually, had been shown to negatively affect sleep health in the general population. Those features included state of crisis, restrictions on in-person social interactions, as well as financial adversity. To address the lack of a comprehensive summary of sleep research across these three distinctive domains, we undertook three parallel systematic reviews based on the following themes: 1) Sleep in times of crises; 2) Sleep and social isolation; and 3) Sleep and economic uncertainty. Using a scoping review framework, we systematically identified and summarized findings from these three separated bodies of works. Potential moderating factors such as age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, psychological predisposition, occupation and other personal circumstances are also discussed. To conclude, we propose novel lines of research necessary to alleviate the short- and long-term impacts of the COVID-19 crises and highlight the need to prepare the deployment of sleep solutions in future crises.

10.
Sleep ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432058

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Individual circadian type is a ubiquitous trait defining sleep, with eveningness often associated with poorer sleep and mental health than morningness. However, it is unknown whether COVID-19 pandemic has differentially affected sleep and mental health depending on the circadian type. Here, the differences in sleep and mental health between circadian types are examined globally before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The sample collected between May and August 2020 across 12 countries/regions consisted of 19,267 adults with information on their circadian type. Statistical analyses were performed by using Complex Sample procedures, stratified by country and weighted by the number of inhabitants in the country/area of interest and by the relative number of responders in that country/area. RESULTS: Evening-types had poorer mental health, well-being, and quality of life or health than other circadian types during the pandemic. Sleep-wake schedules were delayed especially on working days, and evening-types reported an increase in sleep duration. Sleep problems increased in all circadian types, but especially among evening-types, moderated by financial suffering and confinement. Intermediate-types were less vulnerable to sleep changes, although morningness protected from most sleep problems. These findings were confirmed after adjusting for age, sex, duration of the confinement or socio-economic status during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate an alarming increase in sleep and mental health problems, especially among evening-types as compared to other circadian types during the pandemic.

11.
J Psychiatr Res ; 142: 153-159, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359009

RESUMO

This article proposes to investigate how Sleep disorders have been conceptualized within the DSM-5 through symptom network analysis of the diagnostic criteria of the "Sleep-Wake Disorders" section in the DSM-5. We hypothesize that the analysis of the most central symptoms will allow us to better analyze the position of Sleep disorders in Mental disorders. We thus i) extracted the symptoms of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria of Sleep-Wake disorders, ii) built the Sleep-Wake disorder DSM-5 network representation, and iii) quantified its structure at local and global levels using classical symptom network analysis. Thirty-four different symptoms were identified among the 53 DSM-5 diagnostic criteria of the 9 main disorders of the "Sleep-Wake Disorders" section. The symptom network structure of this section showed that the most central sleep symptoms are "Daytime Sleepiness", the Insomnia symptoms group ("Insomnia initiating", "Insomnia maintaining" and "Non-restorative sleep"), and Behavioral sleep symptoms (such as "Altered oniric activity", "Ambulation", "Abnormal responsiveness"). This network analysis shown that the belonging of Sleep-Wake disorders in the DSM-5 have been associated with central sleep symptoms considered as "Mental", given their phenomenality (qualitative nature of the experience) and subjectivity (in personal mental lives). Such a symptom network analysis can serve as an organizing framework to better understand the complexity of Sleep-Wake disorders by promoting research to connect the architecture of the symptom network to relevant biological, psychological and sociocultural factors.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico
12.
Sleep Med ; 84: 283-288, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214960

RESUMO

Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and insomnia have long been recognized as important sleep disrupters often associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Although they are often seen as divergent conditions, mainly because their cardinal symptoms (excessive daytime sleepiness, and sleep loss) differ, these two sleep disorders present with many common symptoms, which may hinder diagnosis and treatment. In addition to possible bidirectional pathways between SDB and insomnia, other factors such as circadian timing may play a role. In this paper, we review the mechanisms, differential clinical aspects, and implications of Comorbid Insomnia and Sleep Apnea, sometimes termed COMISA.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Humanos , Sono , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia
13.
Sleep ; 44(11)2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228123

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the recommended first-line treatment for cancer-related insomnia, but its accessibility is very limited in routine care. A stepped care approach has been recommended as a cost-effective way to make CBT-I more widely accessible. However, no controlled study has yet been published about the efficacy of this approach. The goal of this noninferiority randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to compare the short and long-term efficacy of a stepped care CBT-I (StepCBT-I) to a standard face-to-face CBT-I (StanCBT-I). METHODS: A total of 177 cancer patients were randomized to: (1) StanCBT-I (6 face-to-face CBT-I sessions; n = 59) or (2) StepCBT-I (n = 118). In the StepCBT-I group, patients with less severe insomnia first received a web-based CBT-I (n = 65), while those with more severe insomnia received 6 face-to-face CBT-I sessions (n = 53). In both cases, patients could receive up to three booster sessions of CBT-I if they still had insomnia symptoms following this first step. RESULTS: Results indicated that the Step-CBT-I group showed an Insomnia Severity Index score reduction and a sleep efficiency (on a sleep diary) increase that was not significantly inferior to that of StanCBT-I at all post-treatment time points. Analyses of secondary outcomes indicated significant time effects (ps < .001) and no significant group-by-time interactions (ps from .07 to .91) on other sleep diary parameters, sleep medication use, depression, anxiety, fatigue, and quality of life scores. CONCLUSION(S): The efficacy of stepped care CBT-I is not inferior to that of a standard face-to-face intervention and is a valuable approach to making this treatment more widely accessible to cancer patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01864720 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01864720?term=Savard&draw=2&rank=6; Stepped Care Model for the Wider Dissemination of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia Among Cancer Patients).

14.
Sleep ; 44(11)2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089619

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Concomitant patterns of sleep aid use may provide insight for understanding the transition to chronic sleep medication use. Therefore, we sought to characterize the trajectories of concomitant natural product (NP), over-the-counter (OTC), and prescribed (Rx) sleep aid use in a population-based sample over 12-months. METHODS: Self-reported data on the use of NP, OTC, and Rx sleep aids were extracted from a Canadian longitudinal study on the natural history of insomnia (N = 3416, M age = 49.7 ± 14.7 years old; 62% women) at baseline, 6-month, and 12-month. Latent class growth modeling was used to identify latent class trajectories using MPlus Version 7. Participants completed a battery of clinical measures: Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test, abbreviated Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Insomnia Severity Index and, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Associations between class membership and baseline covariates were evaluated. RESULTS: Concurrent sleep aid use fell into six distinct latent class trajectories over a 12-month period: Minimal Use (74.5%), Rx-Dominant (11.3%), NP-Dominant (6.3%), OTC-Dominant (4.3%), Rx-NP-Dominant (2.4%), and Rx-OTC-Dominant (1.1%). The three latent classes with prominent prescribed agent use predicted greater incidence of healthcare professional consultations for their sleep (p < 0.05), poorer sleep quality (p < 0.001), elevated dysfunctional sleep beliefs (p < 0.001), and sleep reactivity (p < 0.001). Compared to the other four latent classes, clinical profiles of Rx-NP-dominant and Rx-OTC-dominant groups endorsed greater severity across measures. CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of sleep aid use may provide insight for identifying individuals who may be vulnerable to inappropriate self-medicating practices.

15.
Sleep Sci ; 14(1): 55-63, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104338

RESUMO

Insomnia remains the most prevalent sleep disorder worldwide, and its pathophysiology suggests an interface with circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWDs). Some epidemiological studies have linked insomnia and circadian misalignment with adverse cardiometabolic outcomes, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are still unclear. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been pointed out as a crucial/key mediator that triggers cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, a critical review of the literature focused on the past ten years was conducted to highlight the relationship between insomnia, circadian misalignment and cardiometabolic risk, with particular emphasis on the influence of the ANS. Shift work, as a model of circadian misalignment, was shown to increase both cardiovascular and metabolic risk and so may integrate a proof of concept on this link. Furthermore, there is good evidence from previous studies supporting that cardiac autonomic dysfunction is indeed a possible mechanism that potentiates cardiometabolic risk in insomniacs and individuals with a misalignment of the circadian timing system (e.g., shift workers), via changes in autonomic variables. Further research is however required in order to definitively establish this interactive relationship.

16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 655357, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017813

RESUMO

Background: The 2016 wildfires in Fort McMurray (Alberta, Canada) led to a massive displacement of 88,000 people and destroyed 2,400 homes. Although no direct human fatality resulted, many individuals feared for their lives or those of their loved ones. Objectives: (1) To estimate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress, major depressive, insomnia, generalized anxiety, and substance use disorders in the adult population of Fort McMurray 1 year after the evacuation; (2) To identify pre-, peri-, and post-disaster correlates of mental health disorders. Methods: A phone survey using random digit sampling was used to survey evacuees. A total of 1,510 evacuees (response rate = 40.2%, 55.5% women, mean age = 44.11, SD = 12.69) were interviewed between May 9th and July 28th, 2017. Five validated scales were administered: the PTSD Symptoms Checklist (PCL-5), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the depression and anxiety subscales of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9, GAD-7), and the CAGE Substance Abuse Screening Tool. Results: One year after the wildfires, 38% had a probable diagnosis of either post-traumatic stress, major depressive, insomnia, generalized anxiety, or substance use disorder, or a combination of these. Insomnia disorder was the most common, with an estimated prevalence of 28.5%. Post-traumatic stress, major depressive and generalized anxiety disorders were almost equally prevalent, with ~15% each. The estimated prevalence of substance use disorder was 7.9%. For all five mental health disorders, having a mental health condition prior to the fires was a significant risk factor, as well as having experienced financial stress or strain due to the economic decline already present in Fort McMurray. Five post-disaster consequences were significant predictors of four of the five disorders: decrease in work, decrease in social life, poorer current health status, increase in drug and alcohol use, and higher level of stress experienced since the fires. Conclusion: One year after the fires, more than one third of the evacuees had clinically significant psychological symptoms, including those of insomnia, post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and substance use. This study helped identify individuals more at risk for mental health issues after a natural disaster and could guide post-disaster psychosocial support strategies.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Incêndios Florestais , Adulto , Alberta , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico
17.
Sleep Breath ; 25(2): 849-860, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907966

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may increase the risk of severe COVID-19; however, the level of potential modulation has not yet been established. The objective of the study was to determine the association between high risk of OSA, comorbidities, and increased risk for COVID-19, hospitalization, and intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional population-based web survey in adults in 14 countries/regions. The survey included sociodemographic variables and comorbidities. Participants were asked questions about COVID-19, hospitalization, and ICU treatment. Standardized questionnaire (STOP questionnaire for high risk of OSA) was included. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted adjusting for various factors. RESULTS: Out of 26,539 respondents, 20,598 (35.4% male) completed the survey. Mean age and BMI of participants were 41.5 ± 16.0 years and 24.0 ± 5.0 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed OSA was 4.1% and high risk of OSA was 9.5%. We found that high risk of OSA (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.47) and diabetes (aOR 2.07, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.48) were associated with reporting of a COVID-19 diagnosis. High risk for OSA (aOR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.10-4.01), being male (aOR: 2.82, 95% CI: 1.55-5.12), having diabetes (aOR: 3.93, 95% CI: 1.70-9.12), and having depression (aOR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.15-4.77) were associated with increased risk of hospitalization or ICU treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Participants at high risk of OSA had increased odds of having COVID-19 and were two times more likely to be hospitalized or treated in ICU.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Ronco/epidemiologia
18.
Sleep Med ; 81: 365-374, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813233

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a very brief scale with selected items from the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and to investigate the psychometric properties of the proposed scale in a psychiatric sample. METHODS: Patient data from seven Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for insomnia trials and from regular care were used in psychometric analyses (N = 280-15 653). The samples included patients screening (N = 6936) or receiving treatment (N = 1725) for insomnia and other psychiatric conditions. Six criteria relating to component structure, sensitivity to change and clinical representativeness were used to select items. Psychometric analyses for the proposed very brief scale were performed. RESULTS: One item representing satisfaction/dissatisfaction with current sleep pattern and one item representing interferences with daily functioning, were selected to create the 2-item ISI version. Correlations with the full scale were high at screening, pre and post, and for change (0.82-0.94). Categorical omega was ⍵C = 0.86. With a cut-off of 6 points, the scale could detect Insomnia Disorder with a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 76%, which was close to the full ISI showing 86% and 80% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic psychometric evaluation based on a large sample from different contexts makes the proposed 2-item ISI version (ISI-2) a strong candidate for a very brief scale measuring insomnia, both for detecting cases and for measuring change during CBT with an overall high discriminative validity. ISI-2 is especially useful in clinical settings or population studies where there is a need to measure more than one condition at a time without overburdening patients. CLINICAL TRIALS: Trials used in this analysis: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01105052 (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01105052) (sample b), ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01256099 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01256099) (sample c and d), German clinical trial (DRKS), registration ID: DRKS00008745 (https://www.drks.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00008745) (sample e), ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01663844 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01663844) (sample f and g), ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02743338 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02743338) (sample h).


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Psicometria , Autorrelato , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia
19.
Sleep Med ; 82: 104-109, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910159

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the performance of the Insomnia Severity Index-3 (ISI-3) as a short screening tool to identify clinically significant insomnia derived from the 7-item ISI in an older primary care population. METHODS: We used results from two surveys including the 7-item ISI: Sample 1 (n = 3197) and Sample 2 (n = 247) individuals aged ≥60 years with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis from electronic health records. The 7 items were: difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, waking too early, sleep satisfaction, sleep interference with daytime functioning, noticeability of sleep problems by others, and worry about sleep. The ISI-3 included items with highest item-total correlations to the 7-item ISI from Sample 1. A 7-item ISI score ≥15 was defined as clinically significant insomnia and served as the primary criterion for the ISI-3. We derived operating characteristics to determine the diagnostic accuracy and cut-points to maximize sensitivity and specificity for both samples. RESULTS: The items with the highest item-total correlations were: sleep dissatisfaction, sleep interference with daily functioning, and worry about sleep problems (r = 0.78-0.81); while difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, waking too early and noticeability of sleep problems by others showed lower correlations (r = 0.60-0.74). The ISI-3 achieved high discriminant validity in identifying insomnia (AUC = 0.97-0.98). An ISI-3 score of ≥7 maximized sensitivity (0.94-0.97) and specificity (0.88-0.91) with kappa = 0.68-0.71, 89.1-91.5% agreement. CONCLUSIONS: The ISI-3 can effectively screen for insomnia to trigger a more thorough diagnostic evaluation including the 7-item ISI for research or clinical purposes. Future validation studies are needed in other community and clinical populations. CLINICAL TRIAL: This manuscript describes secondary analyses of data two National Institutes on Aging-funded clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01142349, NCT02946957).


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Ansiedade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Sleep Med Rev ; 57: 101467, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827029

RESUMO

In individuals with chronic pain, sleep disturbances have been suggested to increase suffering, perception of pain, and to negatively affect long-term prognosis. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to determine the pooled prevalence of sleep disturbances in chronic non-cancer pain patients with no other sleep disorders, using the patient-rated questionnaires Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Multiple databases were searched for studies reporting the prevalence of sleep disturbances in chronic pain patients. The meta-analysis was conducted to examine the pooled prevalence of PSQI and ISI data using the inverse-variance random-effects model and to examine mean differences in PSQI scores. The systematic search resulted in 25,486 articles and 20 were included for analysis. In 12 studies using PSQI, the pooled prevalence of sleep disturbance was 75.3% among 3597 chronic pain patients. In eight studies using ISI, the pooled prevalence was 72.9% among 2578 chronic pain patients. The meta-analysis showed a significant mean difference of 2.75 (p < 0.001) in the global PSQI score between the chronic pain group versus the non-chronic pain group. The relatively high prevalence of sleep disturbances in chronic pain patients emphasizes the importance of further characterizing the relationship between sleep and chronic pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Analgésicos Opioides , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia
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