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Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632658


PURPOSE: An increasing body of evidence suggests that excreting a generous volume of diluted urine is associated with short- and long-term beneficial health effects, especially for kidney and metabolic function. However, water intake and hydration remain under-investigated and optimal hydration is poorly and inconsistently defined. This review tests the hypothesis that optimal chronic water intake positively impacts various aspects of health and proposes an evidence-based definition of optimal hydration. METHODS: Search strategy included PubMed and Google Scholar using relevant keywords for each health outcome, complemented by manual search of article reference lists and the expertise of relevant practitioners for each area studied. RESULTS: The available literature suggest the effects of increased water intake on health may be direct, due to increased urine flow or urine dilution, or indirect, mediated by a reduction in osmotically -stimulated vasopressin (AVP). Urine flow affects the formation of kidney stones and recurrence of urinary tract infection, while increased circulating AVP is implicated in metabolic disease, chronic kidney disease, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. CONCLUSION: In order to ensure optimal hydration, it is proposed that optimal total water intake should approach 2.5 to 3.5 L day-1 to allow for the daily excretion of 2 to 3 L of dilute (< 500 mOsm kg-1) urine. Simple urinary markers of hydration such as urine color or void frequency may be used to monitor and adjust intake.

Ann Nutr Metab ; 74 Suppl 3: 11-18, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203294


In children, maintaining adequate fluid intake and hydration is important for physiological reasons and for the adoption of healthy, sustainable drinking habits. In the Liq.In7 cross-sectional surveys involving 6,469 children (4-17 years) from 13 countries, 60% of children did not meet the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) adequate intake for water from fluids. Beyond fluid quantity, the quality of what children drink is important for health. In these surveys, the contribution of sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit juices to total fluid intake (TFI) in children exceeded that of water in 6 out of 13 countries. To assess the adequacy of children's fluid intake, urinary biomarkers of hydration such as urine osmolality, urine specific gravity, and urine color may be used. To date, while there are no widely accepted specific threshold values for urine concentration to define adequate hydration in children, the available literature suggests that many children have highly concentrated urine, indicating insufficient fluid intake. This is worrisome since studies have demonstrated a relationship between low fluid intake or insufficient hydration and cognitive performance in children. Furthermore, results of the Liq.In7 surveys showed that at school - where children spend a significant amount of time and require optimal cognitive performance - children drink only 14% of their TFI. Consequently, it is pertinent to better understand the barriers to drinking water at school and encourage the promotion of water intake through multicomponent interventions that combine educational, environmental, and behavioral aspects to support adequate hydration as well as optimal cognition in children.

Ann Nutr Metab ; 70 Suppl 1: 13-17, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28614807


The primary aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the total fluid intake (TFI; sum of drinking water and all other fluids) and the intake of water and all other types of beverages in a sample of pregnant and breastfeeding women representative of Java-Island, Indonesia. Therefore, 299 pregnant and 296 breastfeeding women completed a 7-day fluid-specific record. A secondary aim was to estimate the total water intake (TWI; sum of water from fluids and food moisture), and one 24-h recall was performed to determine water intake from food moisture. The median TFI of pregnant and breastfeeding women were 2,250 (1,800-2,800) and 2,360 (1,954-2,968) mL/day, respectively. The largest contributor to TFI was water (72 and 77% for pregnant/breastfeeding women, respectively). Pregnant women to the extent of 42% and 54% of breastfeeding women did not reach the adequate intake (AI) of water from fluids. In pregnant and breastfeeding women, the median water intake from foods was 592 and 613 mL/day, representing 21 and 20% of TWI. Concluding that a high proportion of the pregnant and breastfeeding subjects did not reach the AI of water from fluid, it seems important to put in place actions such as providing education materials and ensuring access to safe water. Moreover, future surveys should dedicate attention to the assessment of fluid intake and hydration status among pregnant and breastfeeding women in other countries.

Aleitamento Materno , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Gravidez/fisiologia , Adulto , Bebidas/classificação , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Recém-Nascido , Estado Nutricional , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
Nutrients ; 8(11)2016 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27879652


During pregnancy and lactation, the adequate intake (AI) for total water intake is increased. This cross-sectional survey aimed to assess Total Fluid Intake (TFI; sum of drinking water and all other fluids) of 300 pregnant and 300 breastfeeding women in Indonesia. A seven-day fluid specific record was used to assess TFI. Mean TFI of pregnant and breastfeeding women were 2332 ± 746 mL/day and 2525 ± 843 mL/day, respectively. No significant difference in TFI between pregnancy trimesters was observed, while TFI of women breastfeeding for 12-24 months postpartum (2427 ± 955 mL/day) was lower than that of the two other groups (0-5 months: 2607 ± 754 mL/day; 6-11 months: 2538 ± 807 mL/day, respectively). Forty-two and 54% of the pregnant and breastfeeding subjects, respectively, did not reach the AI of water from fluids. These AI were actually known by only 14% and 23% of the pregnant and breastfeeding subjects. However, having the knowledge about the AI did not increase the odds of reaching the AI. Concluding that a high proportion of the pregnant and breastfeeding subjects did not reach the AI of water from fluid, it seems pertinent to further assess the fluid intake, as well as their hydration status, in other countries.

Bebidas , Aleitamento Materno , Ingestão de Líquidos , Lactação , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Desidratação/etiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
Nutrients ; 8(10)2016 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27754402


Little has been published on the contribution of food moisture (FM) to total water intake (TWI); therefore, the European Food Safety Authority assumed FM to contribute 20%-30% to TWI. The aim of the present analysis was to estimate and compare TWI, the percentage of water from FM and from fluids in population samples of France and UK. Data from 2 national nutrition surveys (Enquête Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France (CCAF) 2013 and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008/2009-2011/2012) were analyzed for TWI and the contribution of water from FM and fluids. Children and adults TWI were significantly lower in France than in the UK. The contribution of water from foods was lower in the UK than in France (27% vs. 36%). As TWI increased, the proportion of water from fluids increased, suggesting that low drinkers did not compensate by increasing intake of water-rich foods. In addition, 80%-90% of the variance in TWI was explained by differences in water intake from fluids. More data on the contribution of FM to TWI is needed to develop more robust dietary recommendations on TWI and guidance on fluid intake for the general public.

Dieta , Ingestão de Líquidos , Comportamento Alimentar , Água/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Alimentos , França , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Reino Unido , Água/análise , Adulto Jovem