Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 236
Filtrar
1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048120

RESUMO

Since 2013, the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) expert committee (EC) on Inborn Errors of Immunity (IEI) has published an updated phenotypic classification of IEI, which accompanies and complements their genotypic classification into ten tables. This phenotypic classification is user-friendly and serves as a resource for clinicians at the bedside. There are now 430 single-gene IEI underlying phenotypes as diverse as infection, malignancy, allergy, autoimmunity, and autoinflammation. We herein report the 2019 phenotypic classification, including the 65 new conditions. The diagnostic algorithms are based on clinical and laboratory phenotypes for each of the ten broad categories of IEI.

2.
Int J Hematol ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052319

RESUMO

The impact of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) on clinical outcomes was retrospectively analyzed in 960 patients with non-malignant diseases (NMD) who underwent a first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Grade III-IV acute GVHD (but not grade I-II) was significantly associated with a lower rate of overall survival (OS), and higher non-relapse mortality (NRM) than that seen in patients without acute GVHD. Extensive (but not limited) GVHD was significantly associated with a lower OS rate and higher NRM than that seen in patients without chronic GVHD. Any grade of acute (but not chronic) GVHD was significantly associated with a lower incidence of relapse and a lower proportion of patients requiring a second HSCT or donor lymphocyte infusion for graft failure or mixed chimerism, but its impact on OS was almost negligible. Acute GVHD was significantly associated with lower OS rates in all disease groups, whereas chronic GVHD was significantly associated with lower OS rates in the primary immunodeficiency and histiocytosis groups. In conclusion, acute and chronic GVHD, even if mild, was associated with reduced OS in patients receiving HSCT for NMD and effective strategies should, therefore, be implemented to minimize GVHD.

3.
J Clin Immunol ; 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953710

RESUMO

We report the updated classification of Inborn Errors of Immunity/Primary Immunodeficiencies, compiled by the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee. This report documents the key clinical and laboratory features of 416 inborn errors of immunity, including 64 gene defects that have either been discovered in the past 2 years since the previous update (published January 2018) or were characterized earlier but have since been confirmed or expanded upon in subsequent studies. The application of next-generation sequencing continues to expedite the rapid identification of novel gene defects, rare or common; broaden the immunological and clinical phenotypes of conditions arising from known gene defects and even known variants; and implement gene-specific therapies. These advances are contributing to greater understanding of the molecular, cellular, and immunological mechanisms of disease, thereby enhancing immunological knowledge while improving the management of patients and their families. This report serves as a valuable resource for the molecular diagnosis of individuals with heritable immunological disorders and also for the scientific dissection of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying inborn errors of immunity and related human diseases.

4.
Int J Hematol ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993940

RESUMO

Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are major mediators of mammalian self-tolerance via cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) signaling pathways. An immune dysregulation syndrome associated with heterozygous germline mutations in CTLA4 was recently reported. Clinical features include recurrent infections, systemic lymphadenopathy, various autoimmune conditions, hypogammaglobulinemia, and autosomal dominant inheritance, characteristic of primary immunodeficient disease (PID). PID symptoms are variable and few patients with sporadic de novo CTLA4 germline mutations have been described. Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old man with an immune dysregulation syndrome and a de novo CTLA4 germline mutation. The patient exhibited several clinical features associated with PID. Next-generation sequencing revealed a CTLA4 germline mutation, c.436G>A; p.G146R, in exon 2 of CTLA4. Sanger sequencing confirmed the patient was the only member of his family with this germline mutation. The patient was diagnosed with an immune dysregulation syndrome associated with de novo germline CTLA4 mutation, complicated by steroid-refractory rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment with abatacept, a CTLA4-immunoglobulin fusion molecule, was initiated, resulting in dramatic resolution of the patient's clinical symptoms. As PID with CTLA4 germline mutation is rare and patients may be under-diagnosed, physicians should be aware of the features of PID.

5.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(1): 103626, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711679

RESUMO

10q26 deletion syndrome is caused by a rare chromosomal abnormality, and patients with this syndrome present with an extensive and heterogeneous phenotypic spectrum. Several genes, such as EMX2 and FGFR2, were identified as the cause genital anomalies and facial dysmorphism in 10q26 deletion syndrome. However, the critical region for 10q26 deletion syndrome is not determined and the precise relationships between the causative genes and the phenotypes are still controversial. WD repeat domain 11 (WDR11), located at 10q25-26, was recently identified as a causative gene in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, but other clinical phenotypes caused by WDR11 variants have not been identified. In this study, we have identified a WDR11 missense mutation, NM_018117.11: c.2108G > A; p.(Arg703Gln); ClinVar accession SCV000852064, in a two-year-old boy with severe growth retardation, ventricular septal defect, and coloboma symptoms. The case suggests that WDR11 is partially responsible for the clinical features of 10q26 deletion syndrome and provides novel insights into the pathophysiology of this syndrome.

6.
Immunol Med ; 42(4): 162-168, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847720

RESUMO

This prospective, Phase 3, open-label, study (EudraCT: 2016-001631-12) evaluated pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics of 3-/4-weekly Privigen® (IgPro10, CSL Behring, King of Prussia, PA, USA) in Japanese patients with PID. PK parameters including serum trough immunoglobulin (IgG) level before next infusion during the wash-in/wash-out phase (Ctrough), area under the concentration-time curve from time point zero to the last time point with quantifiable concentration (AUC0-last), dose-adjusted AUC0-last (dAUC), lowest and highest observed IgG levels (Cmin, Cmax), time to reach Cmax (Tmax), and total clearance (CL) were analyzed for both regimens of Privigen® (dose: 138-554 mg/kg body weight). Ten patients were included in this analysis (3-/4-weekly: n = 2/n = 8). Ctrough levels achieved ranged 7.96-10.05 g/L. Cmax was observed approximately 1 h after the start of the infusion in both regimens. Mean (SD [not applicable for 3-weekly data]) PK parameters: Cmax, 16.60 and 14.20 (5.53) g/L; Cmin, 10.60 and 8.53 (3.89) g/L; AUC0-last, 5971 and 6591 (2633) g*h/L; dAUC, 0.41 and 0.46 (0.19) g*h/L/mg; CL, 2.53 and 2.53 (1.00) mL/h and median Tmax was 1.19 and 1.14 h, for 3-/4-weekly dosing regimens, respectively. Privigen® PK characteristics in Japanese patients were similar between dosing regimens and to previously-reported results in non-Japanese patients with PID.

7.
Clin Pediatr Endocrinol ; 28(4): 105-112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666763

RESUMO

In addition to malignant diseases, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is also a vital option as a curative therapy for non-malignant diseases, such as immunodeficiency, and other hematological disorders. Not only for malignant diseases, but for non-malignant diseases, cytotoxic therapy of conditioning regimens are associated with high risks of adverse effects; however, clinical details regarding the long term outcomes of cytotoxic therapy for non-malignant diseases are not documented yet. To clarify the endocrinological consequences of pediatric HSCT for non-malignant disease patients, we conducted a retrospective analysis. From 1983 to 2014, 75 patients that underwent HSCT for non-malignant diseases were selected for this study. Of these, 23 patients (19 men, 4 women) were continuously followed up in our institute, with regular health check-ups for late effects. Based on a multiple linear regression analysis, the glucocorticoid treatment duration for chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) and the conditioning regimen were found to be independent predictors of growth retardation. All four female patients developed hypogonadism, and required hormone replacement therapy. The conditioning regimen for the four female patients with hypogonadism was based on the use of alkylating agents, and two female patients were treated with a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen. Our study revealed that even the RIC regimen was toxic for the gonads in female patients, and that the survivors of both non-malignant and malignant diseases should be followed up carefully after pediatric HSCT.

8.
Endocr J ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708526

RESUMO

We herein report a case of a 28-year-old man with generalized lipodystrophy-associated progeroid syndrome treated by leptin replacement. He showed symptoms of generalized lipodystrophy around onset of puberty. His body mass index was 11.9 kg/m2, and he had a short stature, birdlike facies, dental crowding due to micrognathia, partial graying and loss of hair, and a high-pitched voice, all of which are typical features of the progeroid syndrome. Laboratory examinations and abdominal ultrasonography revealed diabetes mellitus, insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia, decreased serum leptin levels (2.2 ng/mL), elevated serum hepatobiliary enzyme levels and fatty liver. Whole exome sequencing revealed de novo heterozygous LMNA p.T10I mutation, indicating generalized lipodystrophy-associated progeroid syndrome, which is a newly identified subtype of atypical progeroid syndrome characterized by severe metabolic abnormalities. Daily injection of metreleptin [1.2 mg (0.04 mg/kg)/day] was started. Metreleptin treatment significantly improved his diabetes from HbA1c 11.0% to 5.4% in six months. It also elevated serum testosterone levels. Elevated serum testosterone levels persisted even 1 year after the initiation of metreleptin treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Japanese case report of generalized lipodystrophy-associated progeroid syndrome. Furthermore, we evaluated short and long-term effectiveness of leptin replacement on generalized lipodystrophy by monitoring metabolic and endocrine profiles.

9.
Cardiology ; 144(1-2): 53-59, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587008

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD) are rare in children and often associated with underlying genetic disorders accompanied with other systemic manifestations, including connective or osteo-articular tissue diseases. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 10-year-old girl with a novel nonsense SMAD3 mutation, p.Glu102X, who presented with familial TAAD without any signs of osteoarthritis. Histological analysis of aorta fragments from the patient with TAAD obtained during surgery revealed elastin degradation and inflammatory infiltration of T cells with dense CD31 + microvessels, which is consistent with previous findings. Interestingly, the family members with the SMAD3 mutation developed IgA nephropathy. CONCLUSION: Because the TGF-ß/Smad signalling pathway plays an important role in the primary pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy and TAAD, we presume that IgA nephropathy could be a novel clinical phenotype of SMAD3 deficiency. Further accumulation of genetically proven cases with SMAD3 deficiency is needed to more accurately characterize phenotypic variability and elucidate a wide spectrum of TGF-ß-associated disorders.

10.
Eur J Immunol ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549730

RESUMO

The NLRP3 inflammasome is a molecular complex that translates signals from pathogens and tissue damage into inflammatory responses, and plays crucial roles in numerous neurological diseases. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome leads to caspase-1 dependent cleavage of pro-IL-1ß to form mature IL-1ß. By acting on the P2X7 purinergic receptor, extracellular ATP is one of the major stimuli that activates the NLRP3 inflammasome. Although microglia express multiple purinergic receptors, their roles in inflammasome-mediated inflammation are largely unknown. We studied the role of the P2Y12 receptor, a metabotropic P2Y receptor enriched in microglia, on inflammation in vitro. Inhibition of the microglial P2Y12 receptor by PSB0739 or siRNA knockdown suppressed IL-1ß release. P2Y12 receptor-deficient microglia displayed markedly attenuated IL-1ß mRNA expression and release. P2Y12 receptor blockade also suppressed IL-6 production. Both IL-1ß and IL-6 responses were augmented by extracellular ADP or ADP-ßS and were abrogated by PSB0739. Mechanistically, ADP-ßS potentiated NF-κB activation. In addition, ADP altered mitochondrial membrane potential in combination with ATP and increased the number of caspase-1 positive cells through the P2Y12 receptor. These results elucidate a novel inflammatory mechanism by which extracellular ADP acts on the P2Y12 receptor to activate NF-κB and the NLRP3 inflammasome to enhance microglial inflammation.

11.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 20(7): 1035-1040, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322807

RESUMO

Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, and X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is an autoimmune disorder caused by the dysfunction of FOXP3, which leads to regulatory T-(Treg) cell dysfunction and subsequently autoimmunity including type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). Presently, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potential curative therapy for IPEX syndrome, but not for T1D. Generally, after complete loss of pancreatic ß-cells, HSCT cannot improve the prognosis of T1D. Here, we report the case of a 16-year-old adolescent with late-onset of FOXP3 R347H mutation associated IPEX syndrome with T1D, where insulin dependency was ameliorated following HSCT. This patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus required insulin dosage of 1.28 U/kg/day for 1 month before HSCT. Although the results of glucose homeostasis before HSCT revealed impaired insulin secretion and low ΔC-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR, 1.0 ng/mL), the patient withdrew insulin infusion and remained euglycemic at 15 months after HSCT, and had normal ß-cell function with improved ΔCPR (3.4 ng/mL) at 20 months after HSCT. The present case suggests that HSCT for T1D-associated IPEX syndrome improves Treg deficiency and prevents elimination of ß-cells. We speculate that the period from the onset of T1D to HSCT could affect the therapeutic efficacy for T1D with IPEX, and early intervention with HSCT before or immediately after the onset of DM can rescue ß-cells and remit T1D completely. Our study elaborates not only the therapeutic strategy for T1D with IPEX, but also the pathogenic mechanism in general T1D.

12.
Pediatr Neurol ; 100: 60-66, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ataxia telangiectasia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, telangiectases, immune defects, and a predisposition to malignancy. Quality of life is severely impaired by neurological symptoms. However, curative options for the neurological symptoms are limited. Recent studies have demonstrated short-term improvement in neurological symptoms with betamethasone therapy. However, the long-term and adverse effects of betamethasone are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects, benefits, and adverse effects of low-dose betamethasone in ataxia telangiectasia. METHODS: Six patients with ataxia telangiectasia received betamethasone at 0.02 mg/kg/day for two years. After cessation of betamethasone, the patients were observed for two additional years. Neurological assessments were performed, and adverse effects were monitored every three months throughout the four-year study period. RESULTS: Transient improvement of neurological symptom was observed in five of the six patients. However, after two years betamethasone treatment, only one of the six patients showed a slight improvement in the neurological score, one patient showed no change, and the neurological scores of the remaining four patients deteriorated. After the cessation of betamethasone treatment, neurological symptoms worsened in all patients. As an adverse effect of betamethasone, transient adrenal dysfunction was observed in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: Although these findings are in agreement with previous studies suggesting that short-term betamethasone treatment transiently benefits patients with ataxia telangiectasia, the long-term benefits and risks should be carefully considered.

13.
Int J Hematol ; 110(3): 364-369, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187438

RESUMO

We analyzed the outcomes of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) and risk factors for chimerism in 108 patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) who were registered with The Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation between January 1985 and December 2016. A preparative conditioning regimen consisting of myeloablative conditioning (MAC) was provided to 76 patients, and reduced-intensity conditioning was provided to 30 patients. Fifty-one patients received prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) with cyclosporine, and 51 patients received tacrolimus (Tac). Chimerism analyses had been performed in 91 patients. Neutrophil engraftment was achieved in 91 patients (84.3%). The engraftment rate was significantly higher in patients who received Tac for GVHD prophylaxis (p = 0.028). Overall survival rate (OS) was significantly higher in patients with complete chimerism than in patients with mixed chimerism (88.2 ± 6.1% and 66.7 ± 9.9%, respectively, p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that the rate of complete chimerism in patients who received MAC including cyclophosphamide (CY) at a dose of 200 mg/kg was significantly higher (p = 0.021) than that in patients who received other conditioning. Thus, MAC including CY at a dose of 200 mg/kg and Tac for GVHD prophylaxis were optimal conditions of SCT for patients with WAS under existing study.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Quimeras de Transplante/sangue , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/sangue , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 10(1): 185, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease modeling with patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is a powerful tool for elucidating the mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis and developing safe and effective treatments. Patient peripheral blood (PB) cells are used for iPSC generation in many cases since they can be collected with minimum invasiveness. To derive iPSCs that lack immunoreceptor gene rearrangements, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are often targeted as the reprogramming source. However, the current protocols generally require HSPC mobilization and/or ex vivo expansion owing to their sparsity at the steady state and low reprogramming efficiencies, making the overall procedure costly, laborious, and time-consuming. METHODS: We have established a highly efficient method for generating iPSCs from non-mobilized PB-derived CD34+ HSPCs. The source PB mononuclear cells were obtained from 1 healthy donor and 15 patients and were kept frozen until the scheduled iPSC generation. CD34+ HSPC enrichment was done using immunomagnetic beads, with no ex vivo expansion culture. To reprogram the CD34+-rich cells to pluripotency, the Sendai virus vector SeVdp-302L was used to transfer four transcription factors: KLF4, OCT4, SOX2, and c-MYC. In this iPSC generation series, the reprogramming efficiencies, success rates of iPSC line establishment, and progression time were recorded. After generating the iPSC frozen stocks, the cell recovery and their residual transgenes, karyotypes, T cell receptor gene rearrangement, pluripotency markers, and differentiation capability were examined. RESULTS: We succeeded in establishing 223 iPSC lines with high reprogramming efficiencies from 15 patients with 8 different disease types. Our method allowed the rapid appearance of primary colonies (~ 8 days), all of which were expandable under feeder-free conditions, enabling robust establishment steps with less workload. After thawing, the established iPSC lines were verified to be pluripotency marker-positive and of non-T cell origin. A majority of the iPSC lines were confirmed to be transgene-free, with normal karyotypes. Their trilineage differentiation capability was also verified in a defined in vitro assay. CONCLUSION: This robust and highly efficient method enables the rapid and cost-effective establishment of transgene-free iPSC lines from a small volume of PB, thus facilitating the biobanking of patient-derived iPSCs and their use for the modeling of various diseases.

15.
Cancer Sci ; 110(8): 2328-2336, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228211

RESUMO

Changes of nuclear localization of lineage-specific genes from a transcriptionally inert to permissive environment are a crucial step in establishing the identity of a cell. Noncoding RNA transcription-mediated genome folding and activation of target gene expression have been found in a variety of cell types. Noncoding RNA ThymoD (thymocyte differentiation factor) transcription at superenhancers is essential for mouse T-cell lineage commitment. The cessation of ThymoD transcription abolishes transcription-mediated demethylation, recruiting looping factors such as the cohesin complex, CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), ultimately leading to the phenotype of severe combined immunodeficiency and T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. In this review, we describe the functional role of RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription at enhancers and in genome folding. We also highlight the involvement of faulty activation or suppression of enhancer transcription and enhancer-promoter interaction in cancer development.


Assuntos
Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Genoma/genética , Neoplasias/genética , RNA não Traduzido/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Animais , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
16.
World Allergy Organ J ; 12(3): 100018, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937141

RESUMO

Background: X-linked agammaglobulinemia is an inherited immunodeficiency recognized since 1952. In spite of seven decades of experience, there is still a limited understanding of regional differences in presentation and complications. This study was designed by the Primary Immunodeficiencies Committee of the World Allergy Organization to better understand regional needs, challenges and unique patient features. Methods: A survey instrument was designed by the Primary Immunodeficiencies Committee of the World Allergy Organization to collect both structured and semi-structured data on X-linked agammaglobulinemia. The survey was sent to 54 centers around the world chosen on the basis of World Allergy Organization participation and/or registration in the European Society for Immunodeficiencies. There were 40 centers that responded, comprising 32 countries. Results: This study reports on 783 patients from 40 centers around the world. Problems with diagnosis are highlighted by the reported delays in diagnosis>24 months in 34% of patients and the lack of genetic studies in 39% of centers Two infections exhibited regional variation. Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis was seen only in countries with live polio vaccination and two centers reported mycobacteria. High rates of morbidity were reported. Acute and chronic lung diseases accounted for 41% of the deaths. Unusual complications such as inflammatory bowel disease and large granular lymphocyte disease, among others were specifically enumerated, and while individually uncommon, they were collectively seen in 20.3% of patients. These data suggest that a broad range of both inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune conditions can occur in patients. The breadth of complications and lack of data on management subsequently appeared as a significant challenge reported by centers. Survival above 20 years of age was lowest in Africa (22%) and reached above 70% in Australia, Europe and the Americas. Centers were asked to report their challenges and responses (n = 116) emphasized the difficulties in access to immunoglobulin products (16%) and reflected the ongoing need for education of both patients and referring physicians. Conclusions: This is the largest study of patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and emphasizes the continued morbidity and mortality of XLA despite progress in diagnosis and treatment. It presents a world view of the successes and challenges for patients and physicians alike. A pivotal finding is the need for education of physicians regarding typical symptoms suggesting a possible diagnosis of X-linked agammaglobulinemia and sharing of best practices for the less common complications.

17.
Clin Immunol ; 203: 9-13, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951839

RESUMO

Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is one of the inborn errors of immunity, characterized by impaired function of the regulatory T cells. Clinical manifestations of IPEX syndrome are characterized by various autoimmune diseases with autoantibodies. The comprehensive analysis for autoantibodies using human proteome microarrays in the four patients with IPEX syndrome was performed. The numbers of the highly expressed autoantibody showing relative log2 ratios greater than 1 were 1876, 513, 234 and 831 (mean: 864), respectively. Some novel autoantibodies which could explain the phenotypes of patients, adrenal dysfunction, muscular hypotonia, afibrinogenemia, enteropathy and pancytopenia were identified. Various kinds of autoantibodies targeting testis-specific antigens were also identified. Human proteome microarray is a powerful tool to understand the pathophysiology of IPEX syndrome. The larger cohort analysis using this method will provide further understanding of the impaired immune tolerance in humans.

18.
J Cell Sci ; 132(8)2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877223

RESUMO

The nuclear receptor NR5A1 is equally expressed and required for development of the gonadal primordia of both sexes, but, after sex determination, it is upregulated in XY testes and downregulated in XX ovaries. We have recently demonstrated, in mice, that this downregulation is mediated by forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) and hypothesized that adequate suppression of Nr5a1 is essential for normal ovarian development. Further, analysis of human patients with disorders/differences of sex development suggests that overexpression of NR5A1 can result in XX (ovo)testicular development. Here, we tested the role of Nr5a1 by overexpression in fetal gonads using a Wt1-BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) transgene system. Enforced Nr5a1 expression compromised ovarian development in 46,XX mice, resulting in late-onset infertility, but did not induce (ovo)testis differentiation. The phenotype was similar to that of XX mice lacking Notch signaling. The expression level of Notch2 was significantly reduced in Nr5a1 transgenic mice, and the ovarian phenotype was almost completely rescued by in utero treatment with a NOTCH2 agonist. We conclude that suppression of Nr5a1 during the fetal period optimizes ovarian development by fine-tuning Notch signaling.

19.
Int J Hematol ; 109(5): 603-611, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850927

RESUMO

X-Linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) is a severe form of primary immunodeficiency characterized by absence of T cells and NK cells. X-SCID is caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the IL2RG gene that encodes common gamma chain (γc), which plays an essential role in lymphocyte development. We report the first case of hypomorphic X-SCID caused by a synonymous mutation in the IL2RG gene leading to a splice anomaly, in a family including two patients with diffuse cutaneous warts, recurrent molluscum contagiosum, and mild respiratory infections. The mutation caused aberrant splicing of IL2RG mRNA, subsequently resulted in reduced γc expression. The leaky production of normally spliced IL2RG mRNA produced undamaged protein; thus, T cells and NK cells were generated in the patients. Functional assays of the patients' T cells and NK cells revealed diminished cytokine response in the T cells and absent cytokine response in the NK cells. In addition, the TCR repertoire in these patients was limited. These data suggest that a fine balance between aberrant splicing and leaky production of normally spliced IL2RG mRNA resulted in late-onset combined immunodeficiency in these patients.


Assuntos
Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina , Mutação , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Processamento de RNA , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/imunologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Masculino , Processamento de RNA/genética , Processamento de RNA/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/patologia
20.
Int J Hematol ; 109(4): 382-389, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758723

RESUMO

Mutation in the gene encoding tRNA nucleotidyl transferase, CCA-adding 1 (TRNT1), an enzyme essential for the synthesis of the 3'-terminal CCA sequence in tRNA molecules, results in a disorder that features sideroblastic anemia, B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fever, and developmental delay. Mutations in TRNT1 are also linked to phenotypes including retinitis pigmentosa, cataracts, and cardiomyopathy. To date, it has remained unclear how defective TRNT1 is linked to B-cell deficiency. Here we report the case of a 12-year-old boy without sideroblastic anemia who harbors novel compound heterozygous mutations in TRNT1. Immunophenotypic analysis revealed severely decreased levels of B cells and follicular helper T cells. In the bone marrow, B-cell maturation stopped at the CD19+CD10+CD20+/- pre-B-cell stage. Severe combined immunodeficiency mice transplanted with bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells from the patient showed largely normal B-cell engraftment and differentiation in the bone marrow and periphery at 24 weeks post-transplantation, comparable to those in mouse transplanted with healthy hematopoietic stem cells. Biochemical analysis revealed augmented endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in activated T cells. Peripheral B-cell deficiency of TRNT1 deficiency may be associated with augmented ER stress in immature B cells in the bone marrow.


Assuntos
Heterozigoto , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência , Nucleotidiltransferases , Antígenos CD/sangue , Antígenos CD/genética , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/patologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/patologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/sangue , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/patologia , Lactente , Masculino , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/patologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA