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1.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 60(3): 45-51, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391410

RESUMO

This study aimed to survey the trend of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli obtained from retail meat. We examined the susceptibilities of 1,115 E. coli isolates obtained from chicken, beef, pork, venison, and wild boar meat from 2011 to 2017 in Tokyo to 14 antimicrobials (ampicillin, cefotaxime (CTX), streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, tetracycline (TC), chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, fosfomycin, amikacin, imipenem, and meropenem). Of all the tested isolates, 18.7% (135/721) isolates from chicken, 77.0% (117/152) from beef, 46.6% (89/187) from pork, 100% (28/28) from venison, and 92.6% (25/27) from wild boar meat were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials. Furthermore, TC resistance was the most common, with rates as high as 56.7% (409/721) and 40.6% (76/187) in the isolates from chicken and pork, respectively. CTX resistance was detected in 4.9% (25/506) of the isolates from domestic chicken and 23.7% (51/215) of the isolates from imported chicken. Moreover, CTX resistance rate in isolates from domestic chicken was significantly lower in 2016 (0.9%, 1/111) and in 2017 (0.8%, 1/121) than in 2012 (10.6%, 17/161). In conclusion, E. coli isolates from retail meat were most commonly resistant to TC, and CTX resistance was higher in E. coli isolates from imported chicken than in E. coli isolates from domestic chicken.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Cervos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Suínos , Tóquio
2.
PLoS One ; 9(9): e107772, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25259950

RESUMO

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is the first line treatment for Guillain-Barré syndrome and multifocal motor neuropathy, which are caused by anti-ganglioside antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity. IVIG has many potential mechanisms of action, and sialylation of the IgG Fc portion reportedly has an anti-inflammatory effect in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity models. We investigated the effects of different IVIG glycoforms on the inhibition of antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Deglycosylated, degalactosylated, galactosylated and sialylated IgG were prepared from IVIG following treatment with glycosidases and glycosyltransferases. Sera from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome and multifocal motor neuropathy associated with anti-ganglioside antibodies were used. Inhibition of complement deposition subsequent to IgG or IgM autoantibody binding to ganglioside, GM1 or GQ1b was assessed on microtiter plates. Sialylated and galactosylated IVIGs more effectively inhibited C3 deposition than original IVIG or enzyme-treated IVIGs (agalactosylated and deglycosylated IVIGs). Therefore, sialylated and galactosylated IVIGs may be more effective than conventional IVIG in the treatment of complement-dependent autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Gangliosídeos/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/imunologia , Gangliosídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicosilação , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/farmacologia , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
3.
Biochem J ; 463(1): 93-102, 2014 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25000122

RESUMO

OPN (osteopontin) is a multiphosphorylated extracellular glycoprotein, which has important roles in bone remodelling, inflammation and cancer metastasis. OPN regulates cell spreading and adhesion primarily through its association with several integrins such as αvß3, and its phosphorylation affects these processes. However, the mechanism by which OPN O-glycosylation affects these processes is not completely understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that OPN O-glycosylation self-regulates its biological activities and also affects its phosphorylation status. We prepared two recombinant OPNs, WT (wild-type)-OPN and mutant OPN (ΔO-OPN), which lacks five O-glycosylation sites at a threonine/proline-rich region. O-glycan defects in OPN increased its phosphorylation level, as observed by dephosphorylation assays. Moreover, compared with WT-OPN, ΔO-OPN exhibited enhanced cell spreading and adhesion activities and decreased associations with ß1 integrins. This suggested that defects in O-glycans in OPN altered these activities, and that ß1 integrins have a less important role in adhesion to ΔO-OPN. The cell-adhesion activity of dephosphorylated ΔO-OPN was higher than the cell-adhesion activities of ΔO-OPN and dephosphorylated WT-OPN. This suggested that some of the phosphorylation in ΔO-OPN caused by O-glycan defects and O-glycans of OPN suppressed the OPN cell-adhesion activity. Thus functional activities of OPN can be determined by the combined glycosylation and phosphorylation statuses and not by either status alone.


Assuntos
Integrina alfaVbeta3/metabolismo , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glicosilação , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Integrina alfaVbeta3/genética , Osteopontina/genética , Fosforilação/fisiologia
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