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1.
In Vivo ; 34(3): 1377-1386, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of paclitaxel and bevacizumab (PB) compared with other chemotherapies in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer is unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 301 patients with HER2- ABC who received first-line chemotherapy from January 2011 to December 2016. RESULTS: We included 114 patients who received PB and 187 patients who received other chemotherapies. After propensity score matching, the PB group showed a significantly superior overall response rate (77.8% vs. 38.9%, p<0.0001) and median time to treatment failure (7.3 vs. 5.9 months, p=0.035). In subgroup analyses, PB improved the median overall survival of patients with pleural lesions or pulmonary lymphangiopathy (not reached vs. 18.9 months, p=0.037), and of patients with three or more metastatic sites without liver metastases, (48.0 vs. 27.3 months, p=0.015). CONCLUSION: Compared with conventional chemotherapy, PB improved the overall response rate and time to treatment failure in patients with HER2- advanced breast cancer and improved overall survival in some patient subgroups.

2.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409572

RESUMO

It is well known that the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is increased in patients with obesity or metabolic comorbidities. However, the way in which the prevalence of SDB increases in relation to comorbidities according to the severity of obesity remains unclear.This cross-sectional study evaluated 7713 community participants with nocturnal oximetry ≥2 nights. SDB was assessed by the 3% oxygen desaturation index corrected for sleep duration obtained by wrist actigraphy (Acti-ODI3%). SDB severity was defined by Acti-ODI3%. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥25 kg·/m-2The prevalence of SDB was 41.0% (95% CI 39.9-42.1), 46.9% (45.8-48.0), 10.1% (9.5-10.8), and 2.0% (1.7-2.3) in normal, mild, moderate, and severe SDB, respectively, with notable sex differences evident (men >post-menopausal women >pre-menopausal women). Comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome were independently associated with the prevalence of moderate-to-severe SDB, and coincidence of any one of these with obesity was associated with a higher probability of moderate-to-severe SDB (OR 8.2, 95% CI 6.6-10.2; 7.8, 5.6-10.9; 6.7, 5.2-8.6, respectively). Dyslipidemia in addition to obesity was not additively associated with the prevalence of moderate to-severe SDB. The number of antihypertensive drugs was associated with SDB (p for trend <0.001). Proportion of a high cumulative percentage of sleep time with SpO2 <90% increased even among moderate-to-severe SDB with increases in obesity.Metabolic comorbidities contribute to SDB regardless of the degree of obesity. We should recognise the extremely high prevalence of moderate-to-severe SDB in patients with obesity and metabolic comorbidities.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 132: 159-167, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Second-line chemotherapy (SLC) improves survival in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Patients receiving SLC are categorized into two disease status groups: tumour progression after first-line chemotherapy and early recurrence after adjuvant chemotherapy. Differences between these groups have not yet been clarified. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 163 eligible patients registered in the randomized phase III TRICS trial evaluating SLC for patients with AGC was classified into the progressive disease (PD) group (n = 55) or the early relapse (ER) group (n = 108). We compared overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), and safety. Adjusted OS and adjusted PFS were estimated using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). RESULTS: The ER group had a lower median age than the PD group (66 vs. 72 years; P = 0.016), performance status (PS) 0 was more frequently seen in the ER group (87% vs. 71%; P = 0.012). The adjusted median OS was 13.7 months in the ER group and 13.6 months in the PD group (IPTW hazard ratio [HR]: 1.023; P = 0.854). The adjusted median PFS was 4.9 months in the ER group and 4.4 months in the PD group (IPTW HR: 0.707; P = 0.004). ORR was significantly better in the ER group than the PD group (21.3% vs. 4.9%; P = 0.020). No significant differences were observed in the incidence of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: ER was associated with improved PFS and better ORR than PD, although no difference in survival was demonstrated. From the viewpoint of treatment outcome, it seems appropriate to treat patients with ER in the same way as patients with PD. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN 000002571.

4.
Trials ; 21(1): 391, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trastuzumab (Tmab), pertuzumab (Pmab), and taxane has been a standard first-line treatment for recurrent or metastatic human epidermal growth factor (HER2)-positive breast cancer (HER2+ mBC) but has some safety issues due to taxane-induced toxicities. This has led to ongoing efforts to seek less toxic alternatives to taxanes that are equally effective when used in combination with Tmab plus Pmab. This study aims to show the non-inferiority of eribulin, a non-taxane microtubule inhibitor, against taxane, as a partner for dual HER2 blockade. METHODS/DESIGN: This multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, phase III study will involve a total of 480 Japanese women with HER2+ mBC who meet the following requirements: (1) age 20-70 years; (2) no prior cytotoxic chemotherapy (excluding trastuzumab-emtansine) for mBC; (3) ≥ 6 months after prior neoadjuvant or adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy; (4) presence of any radiologically evaluable lesion; (5) left ventricular ejection fraction ≥ 50%; (6) Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0 or 1; (7) adequate organ function; and (8) life expectancy of at least 6 months. They will be randomized 1:1 to receive eribulin (1.4 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8) or taxane (docetaxel 75 mg/m2 on day 1 or paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15) in combination with Tmab (8 mg/kg then 6 mg/kg) plus Pmab (840 mg then 420 mg) on day 1 of each 21-day cycle. The treatment will be continued until disease progression or unmanageable toxicity. The primary endpoint is progression-free survival as per investigator according to RECIST v1.1 criteria. Key secondary endpoints include objective response rate, overall survival, quality of life and safety. Non-inferiority will be tested with two margins of 1.33 and 1.25 in a stepwise manner. If non-inferiority is shown with a margin of 1.25, superiority will then be tested. DISCUSSION: If this study shows the non-inferiority, or even superiority, of Tmab, Pmab, and eribulin against the existing taxane-containing regimen, this new regimen may become a standard first- or second-line treatment option for HER2+ mBC in Japan. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03264547. Registered on 28 June 2017.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281742

RESUMO

To collect large-scale data for further research to improve treatment outcomes in patients with colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM), the Joint Committee for Nationwide Survey on CRLM was established by the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum and the Japanese society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery. The joint committee was initiated to collect data since 2014 and has already reported data including the prognostic data of 3,820 patients newly diagnosed with CRLM between 2005 and 2007. The data of patients newly diagnosed with CRLM after 2013 have continuously being registered prospectively, and herein, we report the data of the patients newly diagnosed with CRLM in 2013 and 2014. The data of 3,839 patients newly diagnosed with CRLM in 2013 and 2014 were registered from 156 departments (75%) of 152 institutions among 209 departments (from 201 institutions) that agreed to participate in this database system at its initiation. Finally, 3,525 patients were enrolled in this study after a quality management process conducted by the joint committee. We report the comprehensive data obtained from 3,525 patients, including clinicopathological findings, treatment strategies, and implementation status of chemotherapy. The joint committee will provide these raw data while updating prognostic data to researchers who will conduct meaningful studies that meet the aim of the joint committee.

6.
Biometrics ; 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339262

RESUMO

A utility-based Bayesian population finding (BaPoFi) method was proposed by Morita and Müller to analyze data from a randomized clinical trial with the aim of identifying good predictive baseline covariates for optimizing the target population for a future study. The approach casts the population finding process as a formal decision problem together with a flexible probability model using a random forest to define a regression mean function. BaPoFi is constructed to handle a single continuous or binary outcome variable. In this paper, we develop BaPoFi-TTE as an extension of the earlier approach for clinically important cases of time-to-event (TTE) data with censoring, and also accounting for a toxicity outcome. We model the association of TTE data with baseline covariates using a semiparametric failure time model with a Pólya tree prior for an unknown error term and a random forest for a flexible regression mean function. We define a utility function that addresses a trade-off between efficacy and toxicity as one of the important clinical considerations for population finding. We examine the operating characteristics of the proposed method in extensive simulation studies. For illustration, we apply the proposed method to data from a randomized oncology clinical trial. Concerns in a preliminary analysis of the same data based on a parametric model motivated the proposed more general approach.

7.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(5): 608-615, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Large, randomized, controlled trials targeting higher hemoglobin level with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for Western patients with CKD showed harm. However, the effect of anemia correction using erythropoiesis-stimulating agents may differ between CKD subpopulations. The Prevention of ESKD by Darbepoetin Alfa in CKD Patients with Non-diabetic Kidney Disease study, a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group study, aimed to examine the effect of targeting hemoglobin levels of 11-13 g/dl using darbepoetin alfa with reference to a low-hemoglobin target of 9-11 g/dl on kidney outcome in patients with advanced CKD without diabetes in Japan. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We enrolled 491 patients with CKD without diabetes, and an eGFR of 8-20 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Of these 491 patients, 239 and 240 were ultimately assigned to the high- and low-hemoglobin groups, respectively (12 patients were excluded). The primary outcome was a kidney composite end point (starting maintenance dialysis, kidney transplantation, eGFR≤6 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and 50% reduction in eGFR). RESULTS: Mean hemoglobin levels were 11.2±1.1 and 10.0±0.9 g/dl in the high- and low-hemoglobin groups, respectively, during the mean study period of 73.5±29.7 weeks. The kidney composite end point occurred in 105 (44%) and 116 (48%) patients in the high- and low-hemoglobin groups, respectively (log-rank test; P=0.32). The adjusted Cox proportional hazards model showed that the hazard ratio for the high- versus low-hemoglobin group was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.60 to 1.03; P=0.08). Cardiovascular events occurred in 19 (8%) and 16 (7%) patients in each group, respectively, with no significant between-group difference (log-rank test; P=0.66). CONCLUSIONS: Targeting a higher hemoglobin level (11-13 g/dl) with darbepoetin alfa did not improve kidney outcome compared with targeting a lower hemoglobin level (9-11 g/dl) in patients with advanced CKD without diabetes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER: Prevention of ESKD by Darbepoetin Alfa in CKD Patients with Non-diabetic Kidney Disease (PREDICT), NCT01581073.

8.
Ann Hematol ; 99(5): 1063-1072, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248251

RESUMO

These are the results of phase II study of bortezomib-melphalan-prednisolone (VMP) induction therapy followed by lenalidomide-dexamethasone (Rd) consolidation and lenalidomide maintenance in transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), overall response rates (ORRs), and safety. Eighty-three eligible patients were enrolled between October 2012 and August 2014. The median PFS was 28.0 months (95% CI 19.6-36.7) and the median OS was 55.3 months (95% CI 51.6-NA). Among the patients who received lenalidomide maintenance therapy, median PFS was significantly improved in patients who had achieved a very good partial response (VGPR) or better (41.8 vs 20.7 months, p = 0.0070). As the best response, the rates of partial response or better were 85.5% comprising stringent complete response (sCR, 21.7%), complete response (CR, 10.8%), VGPR (18.1%), and partial response (PR, 34.9%). The most frequently observed grade 3 or higher adverse events during the VMP therapy were anemia (28.9%), neutropenia (15.6%), thrombocytopenia (6.0%), and peripheral neuropathy (2.4%). The most frequently observed grade 3 or higher adverse events during the Rd therapy were anemia (3.5%), neutropenia (1.8%), and skin rush (5.3%). The most frequently observed grade 3 or higher adverse events during lenalidomide maintenance therapy were anemia (7.4%) and neutropenia (24.1%). Thus, VMP induction therapy followed by Rd consolidation and lenalidomide maintenance is considered a well-tolerated and effective regimen in transplant-ineligible NDMM. This trial is registered with UMIN-CTR with the identification number UMIN000009042.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Melfalan/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Prednisolona/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 180(3): 715-724, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170634

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our primary objective was to determine the benefit/risk of anthracycline-free regimens by comparing docetaxel + cyclophosphamide (TC) alone, fluorouracil + epirubicin + cyclophosphamide (FEC) followed by TC, or TC followed by FEC as a primary treatment for patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative BC. METHODS: We randomized patients with stage I-III HR-positive HER2-negative, operable BC to receive either six cycles of TC (TC6), three cycles of FEC followed by three cycles of TC (FEC-TC), or three cycles of TC followed by three cycles of FEC (TC-FEC). The primary endpoint was the pathological response. Secondary endpoints included clinical response, type of surgical procedure, recurrence, death, and adverse events (by NCI-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v.3.0). We conducted all statistical analyses using SAS Version 9.2. RESULTS: We enrolled 195 patients and analyzed data from 193 as the intention-to-treat population. Pathological complete response rates were numerically higher in the TC6 group than in the other groups (p = 0.321). The breast conservation rate was significantly higher in the TC6 group (73%) than in the other groups (FEC-TC 51%, TC-FEC 45%, p = 0.007). Adverse events with grade > 3 were not common in the treatment groups (p = 0.569). The overall and distant disease-free survivals were similar among the groups with median follow-up of 5.80 years. CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar long-term efficacy and safety profile, the higher breast conservation rate in the TC6 group suggests that preoperative chemotherapy without an anthracycline may benefit patients with HR-positive HER2-negative BC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN000003283 https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000003873.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229068, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053676

RESUMO

Kyoto University Substance (KUS) 121, an ATPase inhibitor of valosin-containing protein, is a novel neuroprotectant. We tested the safety and effectiveness of KUS121 in patients with acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). We conducted an investigator-initiated, first-in-humans, phase 1/2 clinical trial. Nine patients with non-arteritic CRAO symptoms lasting for 4-48 h were enrolled. These patients received daily intravitreal injections of KUS121 for 3 days: 25 µg (low-dose) in the first three patients and 50 µg (high-dose) in the next six patients. The primary endpoint was the safety of the drug. As a secondary endpoint, pharmacokinetics was evaluated. Other key secondary endpoints were changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart, visual field scores, and retinal sensitivities between baseline and week 12; and decimal BCVA at week 12. Administration of KUS121 did not result in serious adverse events. All nine patients (100%) showed significant improvement of BCVA. Average readable letter counts, visual field scores, and retinal sensitivities also improved. Decimal BCVA at week 12 was better than 0.1 in four patients (44%) and equal to or better than 0.05 in seven patients (78%). This first-in-humans clinical trial provides support for the safety and efficacy of intravitreal KUS121 injection. To substantiate the safety and effectiveness for patients with acute CRAO, further larger scale clinical studies will be needed.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Acuidade Visual/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 103, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-sensitizing mutation, exon 19 deletion consists of several molecular variants. Influences of these variants on clinical response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors remain elusive. METHODS: West Japan Oncology Group 8114LTR is a prospective, multi-institutional biomarker study. Treatment naïve, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with EGFR-sensitizing mutation received afatinib monotherapy. We conducted a preplanned subset analysis of patients harboring exon 19 deletion. Tumor tissue exon 19 deletion molecular variants were identified by blocking-oligo-dependent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by Luminex Technology. Plasma cfDNA was also obtained before and after the treatment and EGFR mutations were detected with multiplexed, pico-droplet digital PCR assay. RESULTS: Among 57 registered patients, twenty-nine patients were exon 19 deletion. Tissue DNA and cfDNA were available in 26 patients. Among the detected seven molecular variants, the most frequent was p.E746_A750delELREA (65.4%). According to the various classifications of molecular variants, twenty one (80.8%) were classified into 15-nucleotide deletion, one (3.8%) into 18-nucleotide deletion, and four patients (15.4%) into other insertion/substitution variant subgroups. The patient subgroup with 15-nucleotide deletion showed significantly longer progression-free survival than patients in other mixed insertion/substitution variant subgroup (p = 0.0244). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical significance of molecular variants of exon 19 deletion on the first line afatinib monotherapy is reported here for the first time. Further investigation is needed for development of better therapeutic strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered at UMIN Clinical Trials Registry at 2014/12/4 (UMIN000015847).

12.
Breast Cancer ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous large trials of trastuzumab (TZM) demonstrated improved outcomes in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer. However, its effectiveness and safety in Japanese patients is not yet clear. Recently, new anti-HER2 agents were developed to improve treatment outcomes, but the patient selection criteria remain controversial. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of TZM therapy as perioperative therapy for HER2-positive operable breast cancer in daily clinical practice and to create a recurrence prediction model for therapeutic selection. METHODS: An observational study was conducted in Japan (UMIN000002737) to observe the prognosis of women (n = 2024) with HER2-positive invasive breast cancer who received TZM for stage I-III C disease between July 2009 and June 2011. Moreover, a recurrence-predicting model was designed to evaluate the risk factors for recurrence. RESULTS: The 5- and 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 88.9 (95% CI 87.5-90.3%) and 82.4% (95% CI 79.2-85.6%), respectively. The 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 96% (95% CI 95.1-96.9%) and 92.7% (95% CI 91.1-94.3%), respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk factors for recurrence were an age of ≥ 70 years, T2 or larger tumors, clinically detected lymph node metastasis, histological tumor diameter of > 1 cm, histologically detected lymph node metastasis (≥ n2), and the implementation of preoperative treatment. The 5-year recurrence rate under the standard treatment was estimated to be > 10% in patients with a score of 3 or greater on the recurrence-predicting model. CONCLUSION: The recurrence-predicting model designed in this study may improve treatment selection of patients with stage I-III C disease. However, further studies are needed to validate the scores generated by this model.

13.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 115, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel plus cisplatin in chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced NSCLC were eligible. In the phase I dose-escalation cohort (3 + 3 design), patients received nab-paclitaxel (80 or 100 mg/m2 given intravenously on days 1, 8 and 15) plus cisplatin (60 or 75 mg/m2 given intravenously on day 1) every 4 weeks. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached. Nab-paclitaxel (100 mg/m2 given intravenously on days 1, 8 and 15) plus cisplatin (75 mg/m2 given intravenously on day 1) every 4 weeks was selected for the phase II cohort. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). RESULTS: Twenty-three patients (phase I, n = 6; phase II, n = 17) were enrolled, and 22 patients were eligible. The median age was 67.5 years (range 37-75), 90.9% were males, 45.5% had adenocarcinoma and 81.8% had stage IV disease. The ORR was 59.1% (90% confidence interval (CI); 41.8-74.4), and the disease control rate was 86.4% (95% CI; 66.7-95.3). The median progression-free survival was 5.1 months (95% CI; 4.0-6.7), and the median overall survival was 24.2 months (95% CI; 8.4 months to not estimable). The common grade ≥ 3 adverse events were neutropenia (31.8%), leukopenia (27.3%), lung infection (18.2%) and hyponatremia (18.2%). There was one instance of grade 2 interstitial pneumonia and no treatment-related death. CONCLUSIONS: Nab-paclitaxel plus cisplatin was well tolerated and associated with encouraging response outcomes in chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced NSCLC. Further investigation is warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry: UMIN000011776; Date of registration: 17 September 2013; Date of enrolment of the first participant to the trial: 23 January 2014.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228852, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053642

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To clarify the relationship between dietary habit and disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: This study enrolled RA patients who met the ACR/EULAR 2010 classification criteria from Kyoto University Rheumatoid Arthritis Management Alliance (KURAMA) cohort in 2015. 22-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was taken for the measurement of dietary habit in a single-institution cohort of RA (Kyoto University Rheumatoid Arthritis Management Alliance: KURAMA) in 2015. The disease activities of RA using the Disease Activity Score calculated based on the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR), Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and serum matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) level, the use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), disease duration, rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated antibody, and body mass index were also examined. All of them were combined and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: 441 RA patients (81% women; mean age 65 years; mean disease duration 15 years) were enrolled from the KURAMA cohort. Average Disease Activity Score-28 using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) was 2.7. Univariate analysis showed that intake frequency of vegetables had a statistically significant negative correlation with disease activity markers, such as DAS28-ESR (ρ = -0.11, p<0.01), Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) (ρ = -0.16, p<0.001), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) (ρ = -0.21, p<0.0001), and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) (ρ = -0.13, p<0.01). Factor analysis with varimax rotation was done to simplify the relevance of disease activity to various food items. 22 foods were categorized into five dietary patterns: "seafoods", "vegetables/fruits", "meats/fried foods", "snacks", and "processed foods". The multivariate analysis adjusted for clinically significant confounders showed that "seafoods" had statistically significant negative correlations with DAS28-ESR (ß = -0.15, p<0.01), SDAI (ß = -0.18, p<0.001), MMP-3 (ß = -0.15, p<0.01), and HAQ (ß = -0.24, p<0.0001). "Vegetables/fruits" had statistically significant negative correlations with SDAI (ß = -0.11 p<0.05), MMP-3 (ß = -0.12, p<0.01), and HAQ (ß = -0.11, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that high intake frequency of vegetables/fruits and/or seafoods might correlate with low disease activity.

15.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(6): 1908-1917, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oligometastatic recurrence involves relapsed tumors for which locoregional treatment (LT) may yield a survival benefit. However, there are no clear criteria for selecting patients for LT or determining the effects of LT in recurrent biliary tract cancer (BTC). The aim of this retrospective study is to assess the effects of LT on survival outcomes and to identify potential criteria for selecting LT in recurrent BTC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present work, 232 consecutive patients with recurrent BTC who initially underwent curative surgery between 1996 and 2015 were evaluated. The primary outcome was length of survival after recurrence (SAR). Propensity score stratification with various tumor-related factors was used to identify patients who would likely benefit from LT. RESULTS: Among the cohort, 60 (25.9%) patients underwent LT, whereas 172 (74.1%) patients did not. The multivariate Cox model identified carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels of > 50 U/mL, multiorgan recurrence, tumor number > 3, tumor size > 30 mm, and early recurrence (≤ 1 year) as independent predictors of poor SAR (P < 0.001 for each factor). In the propensity-score-stratified analysis, LT was associated with survival benefits for patients representing single-organ recurrence with at most three tumors and late-onset recurrence (> 1 year) (median SAR: 48.6 vs. 14.2 months, n = 33 vs. n = 34, hazard ratio: 0.10, 95% confidence interval: 0.04-0.20, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with recurrent BTC may benefit from LT if they have single-organ recurrence with at most three tumors and late-onset recurrence. We propose that these patients may have clinically relevant "oligometastatic recurrence" of BTC.

16.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 50(2): 198-205, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917421

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia (AE-IP) is a lethal complication after lung surgery. We conducted a prospective, multi-institutional phase II trial to assess the efficacy and safety of prophylactic measures. METHOD: Patients with lung cancer with dorsal subpleural fibrotic changes occupying three or more segments of both lower lobes and planned anatomical lung resection were enrolled. Prior to surgery, patients received a 125-mg bolus injection of methylprednisolone and continuous intravenous infusion of sivelestat sodium hydrate (sivelestat) for 2 days. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients were analysed. Preoperative high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) showed 37 (53.6%) cases presented with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and possible UIP pattern. There were 60 lobectomies and 9 segmentectomies. Thirty-eight cases were in clinical stage I. No adverse events associated with prophylaxis were observed. There were four cases of AE-IP (5.8%), higher than the expected 2.0%. Three of the four cases showed inconsistencies with the UIP pattern in preoperative HRCT and were pathologically diagnosed as UIP. All patients died of respiratory failure. Overall, 89.9% were diagnosed as idiopathic interstitial pneumonias; UIP was found in 48 patients (69.6%). Severe post-operative complications occurred in 11.6% of the cases. There were 35 deaths, 17 cases of lung cancer and 11 cases related to interstitial pneumonias. The overall survival rate at 3 years was 41.8% of the total and 47.2% of cases with clinical stage I. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative use of sivelestat and low-dose methylprednisolone in patients with anatomical lung resection was safe but did not prove to be a prophylactic effect for AE-IP.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/cirurgia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Prospectivos , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Exacerbação dos Sintomas
17.
Cancer Med ; 9(5): 1779-1789, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether patients' self-perceptions of symptoms at baseline clinically impact the prognostic relevance, treatment efficacy, or toxicity profiles in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with the first-line cetuximab and standard chemotherapy. METHODS: The data were collected from a prospective trial that assessed the relationships between quality of life (QOL), treatment efficacy, and adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: The analysis of 137 mCRC patients revealed a significant association between the presence of baseline tumor-related symptoms and a lower overall survival (OS) compared to the absence of symptoms (HR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.37-4.62; P = .003). The asymptomatic responders had favorable outcomes compared to the symptomatic nonresponders (2-year OS rates: 83.6% and 35.9%, respectively), while the symptomatic responders had similar outcomes to the asymptomatic nonresponders. The median postprogression survival differed significantly: 10.2 months for the symptomatic patients and 15.9 months for the asymptomatic patients (HR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.25-4.29, P = .008). The objective response rates and patient toxicity profiles were similar irrespective of the severity of baseline symptoms. CONCLUSION: Baseline symptoms were associated with worse OS but not with impaired treatment efficacy or more frequent AEs in mCRC patients treated with cetuximab in addition to chemotherapy.

18.
Ther Innov Regul Sci ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The design and sample size of a phase III study for new medical technologies were historically determined within the framework of frequentist hypothesis testing. Recently, drug development using predictive biomarkers, which can predict efficacy based on the status of biomarkers, has attracted attention, and various study designs using predictive biomarkers have been suggested. Additionally, when choosing a study design, considering economic factors, such as the risk of development, expected revenue, and cost, is important. METHODS: Here, we propose a method to determine the optimal phase III design and sample size and judge whether the phase III study will be conducted using the expected net present value (eNPV). The eNPV is defined using the probability of success of the study calculated based on historical data, the revenue that will be obtained after the success of the phase III study, and the cost of the study. Decision procedures of the optimal phase III design and sample size considering historical data obtained up to the start of the phase III study were considered using numerical examples. RESULTS: Based on the numerical examples, the optimal study design and sample size depend on the mean treatment effect in the biomarker-positive and biomarker-negative populations obtained from historical data, the between-trial variance of response, the prevalence of the biomarker-positive population, and the threshold value of probability of success required to go to phase III study. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the design and sample size of a biomarker-driven phase III study can be appropriately determined based on the eNPV.

20.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 19(1): 22-31.e6, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX) as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer has not been established. This randomized phase III study was designed to verify the superiority of SOX over tegafur-uracil and leucovorin (UFT/LV) in patients with high-risk stage III colon cancer (any T, N2, or positive nodes around the origin of the feeding arteries). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent curative resection for pathologically confirmed high-risk stage III colon cancer were randomly assigned to receive either UFT/LV (300 mg/m2 of UFT and 75 mg/day of LV on days 1-28, every 35 days, 5 cycles) or SOX (100 mg/m2 of oxaliplatin on day 1 and 80 mg/m2 of S-1 on days 1-14, every 21 days, 8 cycles). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: A total of 478 patients in the UFT/LV group and 477 patients in the SOX group were included in the primary analysis. The 3-year DFS was 60.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 56.0%-64.9%) in the UFT/LV group and 62.7% (95% CI, 58.1%-66.9%) in the SOX group. The stratified hazard ratio for DFS was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.74-1.09; stratified log-rank test, P = .2780). In the N2b subgroup, the 3-year DFS was 46.0% (95% CI, 37.5%-54.0%) in the UFT/LV group and 54.7% (95% CI, 45.7%-62.7%) in the SOX group (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.55-1.05). CONCLUSION: As postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, SOX was not superior to UFT/LV in terms of DFS in patients with high-risk stage III colon cancer.

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