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1.
Regen Med ; 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075804

RESUMO

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the 2-year outcomes from a clinical trial of recombinant human FGF-2 (rhFGF-2) for osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Patients & methods: Sixty-four patients with nontraumatic, precollapse and large ONFHs were percutaneously administered with 800 µg rhFGF-2 contained in gelatin hydrogel. Setting the end point of radiological collapse, we analyzed the joint preservation period of the historical control. Changes in two validated clinical scores, bone regeneration and safety were evaluated. Results: Radiological joint preservation time was significantly higher in the rhFGF-2 group than in the control group. The ONFHs tended to improve to smaller ONFHs. The postoperative clinical scores significantly improved. Thirteen serious adverse events showed recovery. Conclusion: rhFGF-2 treatment increases joint preservation time with clinical efficacy, radiological bone regeneration and safety.

2.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carboplatin is a key drug for ovarian cancer. However, it sometimes induces hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) that result in the discontinuation of the treatment. Although various desensitization protocols have been reported in previous retrospective studies, a limited number of prospective studies have analyzed these protocols. METHODS: Patients with platinum-sensitive relapsed ovarian cancer who experienced carboplatin-induced HSRs were treated with diluted solutions of 1/1000, 1/100, 1/10 and an undiluted solution of carboplatin over a 1-h period. If no HSRs occurred within the first two cycles, a short protocol regimen over a 30-min period per solution was followed. The primary endpoint was treatment completion rate. RESULTS: Between May 2015 and September 2018, 21 patients were enrolled from two institutions. One patient experienced platinum-sensitive recurrence after the desensitization protocol; thus, 22 sessions were analyzed. Epinephrine use, treatment-related death, and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions did not occur. The median number of desensitization cycles was 6 (range 1-6). Two sessions were discontinued early because of grade 2 dysgeusia and grade 2 malaise. Treatment in two (9.1%) patients was discontinued because of HSR development. The treatment completion rate was 90.9%. Six (27.3%) sessions met the criteria for transition to the short protocol regimen. In 14 (63.6%) sessions, HSRs were observed during infusion of the undiluted solution. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 14.8 and 23.8 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: This 4-step, 2-h carboplatin desensitization protocol is safe and feasible. Patients require careful monitoring with a rapid response to HSRs, especially during the administration of undiluted solutions.

4.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825929

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic performance of biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (bpMRI) versus multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) for the staging of well-differentiated endometrioid endometrial cancer (EC) in potential candidates for fertility-sparing management. METHODS: This multi-center retrospective study included 48 potential candidates for fertility-sparing management (age <46 years, grade 1 endometroid EC) who did not wish to undergo fertility-sparing management and thus underwent definitive surgery. Two readers (R1, R2) independently reviewed bpMRI (T1, T2, and diffusion-weighted imaging) and mpMRI (bpMRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, DCE) during two separate sessions spaced one month apart for the presence of myometrial invasion (MI), cervical stromal involvement (CSI), malignant adnexal disease (mAD), and pelvic lymphadenopathy (pLNM). Each reader also recorded maximum tumor diameter, tumor volume, and tumor-to-uterine volume ratio (TVR) on T2-weighted imaging. The diagnostic performance of bpMRI and mpMRI was determined for each reader with surgical pathology serving as a gold standard. RESULTS: The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) for bpMRI versus mpMRI was 0.76/0.78 (R1/R2) versus 0.84/0.83 for MI, 0.79/0.76 versus 0.99/0.80 for CSI, 0.84/0.84 versus 0.84/0.80 for mAD, and 0.82/0.82 for pLMN. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI for detecting tumor spread beyond the endometrium were 71%/77% and 71%/65% for bpMRI (R1/R2) vs. 84%/90% and 71%/65% for mpMRI (R1/R2), respectively. The AUC of maximum tumor diameter, tumor volume, and TVR for MI was 0.71/0.61, 0.73/0.75, and 0.75/0.77 for R1/R2, respectively. CONCLUSION: MRI had moderate diagnostic performance across potential candidates for fertility-sparing treatment of EC. mpMRI outperformed bpMRI for detecting EC spreading beyond the endometrium.

5.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthracycline (A) or taxane T-based regimens are the standard early-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer (BC). A previous study has shown a survival benefit of eribulin in heavily pretreated advanced/recurrent BC patients. The present study aimed to compare the benefit of eribulin with treatment of physician's choice (TPC) as first- or second-line chemotherapy for recurrent HER2-negative BC. METHODS: Patients with recurrent HER2-negative BC previously receiving anthracycline and taxane AT-based chemotherapy in the adjuvant or first-line setting were eligible for this open-label, randomized, parallel-group study. Patients were randomized 1:1 by the minimization method to receive either eribulin (1.4 mg/m2 on day one and eight of each 21-day cycle) or TPC (paclitaxel, docetaxel, nab-paclitaxel or vinorelbine) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included time to treatment failure (TTF), overall response rate (ORR), duration of response, and safety (UMIN000009886). RESULTS: Between May 2013 and January 2017, 58 patients were randomized, 57 of whom (26 eribulin and 31 TPC) were analyzed for efficacy. The median PFS was 6.6 months with eribulin versus 4.2 months with TPC (hazard ratio: 0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.40-1.30], p = 0.276). Median TTF was 6.0 months with eribulin versus 3.6 months with TPC (hazard ratio: 0.66 [95% CI, 0.39-1.14], p = 0.136). Other endpoints were also similar between groups. The most common grade ≥ 3 adverse event was neutropenia (22.2% with eribulin versus 16.1% with TPC). CONCLUSIONS: Eribulin seemed to improve PFS or TTF compared with TPC without statistical significance. Further validation studies are needed.

6.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905897

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A histologic grading system for invasive lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) has been proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Pathology Committee in June 2020. This study evaluated the prognostic value of the IASLC histologic grading system (the IASLC system) in a large Japanese cohort. METHODS: We performed comprehensive histologic subtyping using the semiquantitative estimation of five major patterns and complex glandular patterns in patients with a completely resected lung ADC and determined the histologic grade using the IASLC system. Concordance index and receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the clinical utility of the IASLC system for recurrence and death; the comparison was performed with the architectural-pattern system (the Arch system) and the grading system on the basis of the two most predominant patterns (the Sica's system). RESULTS: Of 1002 patients with invasive ADC, 235 had recurrent disease and 166 died of lung cancer. The concordance index and area under the curve of the IASLC system were 0.777 and 0.807 for recurrence and 0.767 and 0.776 for death, respectively. These were similar to those of the Arch system (0.763 and 0.796 for recurrence, 0.743 and 0.755 for death) and the Sica's system (0.786 and 0.814 for recurrence, 0.762 and 0.773 for death). CONCLUSIONS: We reported that the IASLC system for invasive lung ADC has prognostic significance by evaluating a large Japanese cohort. We believe that the IASLC grading system will provide physicians with better information for postsurgery treatment.

7.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915251

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab-) paclitaxel for previously treated patients with advanced NSCLC. METHODS: In this randomized, open-label, noninferiority phase 3 trial, we enrolled patients with advanced NSCLC previously treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive docetaxel (60 mg/m2) on day 1 or nab-paclitaxel (100 mg/m2) on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 21-day cycle. The primary end point was overall survival (OS) analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. RESULTS: Between May 22, 2015, and March 12, 2018, a total of 503 patients were randomly allocated to the treatment. Median OS was 16.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.4-19.0) for the 252 patients allocated to nab-paclitaxel and 13.6 months (95% CI: 10.9-16.5) for the 251 patients allocated to docetaxel (hazard ratio = 0.85, 95.2% CI: 0.68-1.07). Median progression-free survival was 4.2 months (95% CI: 3.9-5.0) for the nab-paclitaxel group versus 3.4 months (95% CI: 2.9-4.1) for the docetaxel group (hazard ratio = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63-0.92, p = 0.0042). The objective response rate was 29.9% (95% CI: 24.0-36.2) for the nab-paclitaxel group and 15.4% (95% CI: 10.9-20.7) for the docetaxel group (p = 0.0002). Adverse events of grade greater than or equal to 3 included febrile neutropenia (5 of 245 patients [2%] in the nab-paclitaxel group versus 55 of 249 patients [22%] in the docetaxel group) and peripheral sensory neuropathy (24 [10%] versus 2 [1%], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Nab-paclitaxel was noninferior to docetaxel in terms of OS. It should, thus, be considered a standard treatment option for previously treated patients with advanced NSCLC.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763789

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate clinical usefulness of eribulin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. METHODS: Patients in group A (aged < 65 years with homologous recombination deficiency, HRD, score ≥ 42, or those at any age with germline BRCA mutation, gBRCAm) were randomized to 4 cycles of paclitaxel plus carboplatin (group A1) or eribulin plus carboplatin (group A2), followed by 4 cycles of anthracycline. Patients in group B (aged < 65 years with HRD score < 42, or aged ≥ 65 years without gBRCAm) were randomized to 6 cycles of eribulin plus cyclophosphamide (group B1) or eribulin plus capecitabine (group B2); non-responders to the first 4 cycles of the eribulin-based therapy received anthracycline. Primary endpoint was pCR rate (ypT0-is, ypN0; centrally confirmed). Main secondary endpoint was safety. RESULTS: The full analysis set comprised 99 patients. The pCR rate was 65% (90% CI, 46%-81%) and 45% (27%-65%) in groups A1 and A2, respectively, and 19% (8%-35%) in both groups B1 and B2. No major difference was seen in secondary endpoints, but peripheral neuropathy incidence was 74% in group A1, whereas it was 32%, 22%, and 26% in groups A2, B1, and B2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In patients aged < 65 years with high HRD score or gBRCAm, weekly paclitaxel plus carboplatin and eribulin plus carboplatin followed by anthracycline resulted in a pCR rate of > 60% and > 40%, respectively, suggesting potential usefulness of patient stratification using HRD; pCR tended to be low in patients with HRD-negative tumors. Neurotoxicity was less frequent with the eribulin-based regimen. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study has been registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry ( http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index-j.htm ) with unique trial number UMIN000023162. The Japan Breast Cancer Research Group trial number is JBCRG-22.

9.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 208, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is most common among older individuals. However, polypharmacy and comorbidities, which are also more common in older individuals, can limit treatment options. Previous studies suggest that afatinib can be used safely and effectively in elderly patients. This study investigated the anti-tumour activity and safety profile of first-line afatinib in previously-untreated elderly Japanese patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: This was a single-arm, open-label, phase II study, performed in multiple centres in Japan. Previously untreated patients, aged ≥75 years, with EGFR mutation-positive (Del19 or L858R) advanced NSCLC were treated with afatinib 40 mg until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Adverse events (AEs) were managed with protocol-defined dose adjustments. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) by central review. RESULTS: In total, 38 patients received at least one dose of afatinib, and 37 were evaluable for response. Median age was 77.5 years (range 75-91), all patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and 60.5% had Del19-positive disease. Median follow-up was 838 days. ORR was 75.7% (2 complete responses and 26 partial responses). Median progression-free survival was 14.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.5-19.0). Median overall survival (OS) was 35.2 months (95% CI, 35.2-not reached); the 2-year OS rate was 78.3%. The most common grade 3/4 treatment-related AEs (TRAEs) were diarrhoea (28.9%), paronychia (23.7%), and rash/acne (15.8%). Dose reductions due to TRAEs were reported in 78.9% of patients, and eight (21.1%) patients discontinued afatinib due to TRAEs. No treatment-related deaths were reported. CONCLUSION: Although dose adjustments were relatively common in this small group of Japanese patients aged ≥75 years with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC, discontinuation occurred much less frequently, and most patients were able to stay on treatment for well over a year. Further, afatinib was associated with high response rates and prolonged PFS and OS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered with Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (JRCT) as trial number 031180136 (date of initial registration: 19 February 2019), and the University Hospital Network (UMIN) as trial number 000017877 (date of initial registration: 11 June 2015).


Assuntos
Afatinib/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Afatinib/administração & dosagem , Afatinib/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente
10.
Anticancer Res ; 41(3): 1671-1676, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of first-line gemcitabine monotherapy for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and its effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared with treatment of physician's choice (TPC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 96 patients into the first-line gemcitabine group (n=47) or other treatment of physician's choice (TPC) group (n=49) from May 2010 to April 2013. HRQoL was evaluated every 4 weeks. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the median time to treatment failure (5.3 vs. 4.6 months, hazard ratio=0.87, p=0.546) and the incidence rates of grade 3/4 haematological toxicity (10.6% vs. 8.1%, p=0.677) and grade 3/4 non-haematological toxicity (4.2% vs. 8.1%, p=0.429) between the gemcitabine and TPC groups. Changes in HRQoL from baseline to 12 weeks were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: Gemcitabine achieves similar efficacy and HRQoL benefit to other chemotherapy and can be used as first-line treatment for MBC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Médicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Falha de Tratamento
11.
Oncologist ; 26(6): e954-e962, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with capecitabine was suggested to be associated with poor outcomes in gastrointestinal cancers. We analyzed the differential impact of PPI use on capecitabine and fluorouracil using the data set from the AXEPT trial, a phase III randomized trial that demonstrated the noninferiority of mXELIRI (modified XELIRI: capecitabine plus irinotecan) to FOLFIRI (leucovorin, fluorouracil, and irinotecan), either with or without bevacizumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Out of the per-protocol set (n = 620), patients with information on concomitant medications (n = 482) were included in this post hoc analysis. PPI use was defined as concomitant exposure of capecitabine and the use of any PPI for 20% or more of the study period. The treatment-by-PPI-use interaction was examined after adjusting for stratification factors. RESULTS: Of the 482 patients, 49 (10.1%) used PPI. Among the PPI users, the mXELIRI group tended to have poorer overall survival compared with the FOLFIRI group. In contrast, among the nonusers, the overall survival of the mXELIRI group was significantly better than that of the FOLFIRI group. Similarly, a trend of worse progression-free survival with mXELIRI compared with FOLFIRI was observed in PPI users but not in nonusers. Treatment-by-PPI-use interaction was significant for overall survival and progression-free survival. CONCLUSION: The significant interaction between PPI use and the type of fluoropyrimidine in terms of overall and progression-free survival suggests that fluorouracil could be a more favorable option than capecitabine for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer using PPIs. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study showed a significant interaction between the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and the type of fluoropyrimidines. This interaction mainly comes from the positive impact of PPIs in the survival outcomes in the fluorouracil arm rather than a negative impact of PPIs in the capecitabine arm. The possible drug-drug interaction shown in this study suggests that fluorouracil, rather than capecitabine, could be a more appropriate choice of fluoropyrimidine for patients who are taking PPIs in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572323

RESUMO

Bridging studies are designed to fill the gap between two populations in terms of clinical trial data, such as toxicity, efficacy, comorbidities and doses. According to ICH-E5 guidelines, clinical data can be extrapolated from one region to another if dose-reponse curves are similar between two populations. For instance, in Japan, Phase I clinical trials are often repeated due to this physiological/metabolic paradigm: the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for Japanese patients is assumed to be lower than that for Caucasian patients, but not necessarily for all molecules. Therefore, proposing a statistical tool evaluating the similarity between two populations dose-response curves is of most interest. The aim of our work is to propose several indicators to evaluate the distance and the similarity of dose-toxicity curves and MTD distributions at the end of some of the Phase I trials, conducted on two populations or regions. For this purpose, we extended and adapted the commensurability criterion, initially proposed by Ollier et al. (2019), in the setting of completed phase I clinical trials. We evaluated their performance using three synthetic sets, built as examples, and six case studies found in the literature. Visualization plots and guidelines on the way to interpret the results are proposed.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Teorema de Bayes , Simulação por Computador , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Japão , Dose Máxima Tolerável
13.
J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci ; 28(4): 317-326, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The conventional H category-based classification for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) was created by equal weighting of tumor number and tumor size; however, our previous nomogram to predict postoperative disease-free survival demonstrated that CRLM ≥5 as a parameter provided 4.5 times greater impact compared with a largest CRLM size >5 cm. METHODS: A total of 3815 patients newly diagnosed with CRLM between 2005 and 2007, including 2220 resectable cases, were investigated. Six groups were created based on largest lesion size (≤ 5 vs >5 cm) and lesion number (1, 2-4, and ≥5). RESULTS: The novel (n) H1, nH2, and nH3 categories were defined as solitary lesions with a size ≤5 cm; lesions other than nH1 or nH3; and ≥5 lesions with any lesion size, respectively. In the resectable cohort, the 5-year cumulative overall survival rates were 64.0%, 53.5%, and 42.6% in the nH1, nH2, and nH3 groups, respectively (P < .001), and no significant differences were observed between the conventional H2 and H3 categories. In the overall cohort, the discrimination ability of the two classifications were comparable. CONCLUSION: The novel H category-based classification might be beneficial in predicting overall survival in patients with CRLM independent of their resectability.

14.
Cancer Sci ; 112(4): 1567-1578, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548159

RESUMO

Oxaliplatin (OX) and irinotecan (IRI) are used as key drugs for the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, no biomarkers have been identified to decide which of the drugs is initially used. In this translational research (TR) of the TRICOLORE trial, the advanced colorectal cancer subtype (aCRCS) was analyzed as a potential biomarker for the selection of OX or IRI. We collected 335 (68.8%) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) primary tumor specimens from 487 patients registered in the TRICOLORE trial and performed direct sequencing and immunohistochemical staining of CRC-related genes, comprehensive gene-expression analysis, and genome-wide methylation analysis. The progression-free survival (PFS) of the IRI group was significantly better compared with the OX group in BRAF wild-type (WT), PTEN-positive, and aCRCS A1 patients. Among the molecular factors, aCRCS were only associated with the PFS of OX and IRI groups. The PFS of the IRI group was significantly better compared with the OX group in aCRCS A1 + B1 (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.41-0.82; P = .0023). In contrast, the OX group had better PFS compared with the IRI group in aCRCS B2, although this was not statistically significant (HR = 1.66; 95% CI = 0.94-2.96; P = .083). Nearly half of patients with mCRC (46.8%, aCRCS A1 + B1) respond well to IRI, while only about 18.5% (aCRCS B2) of patients with mCRC responded well to OX. In conclusion, the aCRCS might be a predictive factor for the clinical outcomes of OX-based and IRI-based therapies.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Adulto Jovem
15.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(3): 386-394, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410885

RESUMO

Importance: Although treatment with first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) plus antiangiogenic inhibitor has shown promising efficacies in patients with EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma, recent single-arm studies have suggested that osimertinib plus antiangiogenic inhibitor might not work synergistically. Objective: To explore the efficacy and safety of osimertinib plus bevacizumab compared with osimertinib alone in patients with lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR T790M mutation. Design, Setting, and Participants: Patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma that progressed with prior EGFR-TKI treatment (other than third-generation TKI) and acquired EGFR T790M mutation were enrolled. This study comprises a lead-in part with 6 patients and a subsequent phase 2 part. In phase 2, patients were randomized to osimertinib plus bevacizumab or osimertinib alone in a 1:1 ratio. Interventions: The combination arm received oral osimertinib (80 mg, every day) plus intravenous bevacizumab (15 mg/kg, every 3 weeks) until progression or unacceptable toxic effects. The control arm received osimertinib monotherapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) assessed by investigators. Secondary end points consisted of overall response rate, time to treatment failure, overall survival, and safety. Results: From August 2017 through September 2018, a total of 87 patients were registered (6 in the lead-in part and 81 in the phase 2 part [intention-to-treat population]). Among those randomized, the median (range) age was 68 (41-82) years; 33 (41%) were male; 37 (46%) had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0; and 21 (26%) had brain metastasis. Although the overall response rate was better with osimertinib plus bevacizumab than osimertinib alone (68% vs 54%), median PFS was not longer with osimertinib plus bevacizumab (9.4 months vs 13.5 months; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.44; 80% CI, 1.00 to 2.08; P = .20). Median time to treatment failure was also shorter in the combination arm vs the osimertinib arm (8.4 months vs 11.2 months; P = .12). Median overall survival was not different in the combination arm vs osimertinib arm (not reached vs 22.1 months; P = .96). In the combination arm, common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were proteinuria (n = 9; 23%), hypertension (n = 8; 20%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial comparing osimertinib plus bevacizumab vs osimertinib alone, the combination arm failed to show prolongation of PFS in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR T790M mutation. Trial Registration: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: UMIN000023761.

16.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 74, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Japan, approximately half of all lung cancer patients are aged > 75 years, and the proportion of older patients is increasing. In older patients, it is necessary to consider comorbidities and concomitant drug use to ensure optimal cancer treatment; however, geriatric assessment (GA) is not widely performed. We plan to conduct a study (ENSURE-GA) of GA in older lung cancer patients to determine whether GA with intervention improves patient satisfaction with their treatment. METHODS: The study will be a phase III comparative clinical trial with a cluster-randomized design, and it will be conducted at 81 sites distributed throughout Japan. Approximately 1000 lung cancer patients aged ≥ 75 years will be enrolled in the study. All participants will undergo a standardized GA before starting treatment (using an iPad). At the intervention sites, the GA results and intervention method recommended on the basis of the GA results will be returned as an instant report to guide the physician's choice of intervention. At the control sites, the physician will decide on interventions based on standard practice. All participants will complete a patient satisfaction survey before treatment initiation (after the GA) and 3 months later. DISCUSSION: The purpose of the ENSURE-GA study is to evaluate whether GA with interventions improves patient satisfaction with treatment outcomes. The study may lead to the increased use of GA and improved treatment of cancer in older adults. The results will also be used to prepare guidelines for treating older cancer patients and will provide a foundation for the development of a standardized geriatric oncology system. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study has been registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network database (no. UMIN000037590). The registration date is August 4, 2019, and the protocol version is 2.0. ( https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000042853 .).


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Drugs R D ; 21(1): 65-78, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangements (ALKr) resulting in EML4-ALK proteins occur in a subset of solid tumors and are targeted by ALK inhibitors. Given the development of drug resistance to ALK inhibitors, ALK inhibitors with different kinase selectivity are required. METHODS: This phase I, non-randomized, open-label study evaluated the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of ASP3026, a second-generation ALK inhibitor, in Japanese patients with solid tumors. Between 1 June 2011 and 20 January 2014, 29 patients received different daily doses of ASP3026 in the escalation (25 mg, n = 3; 50 mg, n = 3; 75 mg, n = 3; 125 mg, n = 4; 200 mg, n = 3; or 325 mg, n = 7) and expansion (200 mg, n = 6) cohorts. RESULTS: Three patients had DLTs at the 325-mg dose: cataract exacerbation, increased aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase, and impaired hepatic function (all Grade 3 severity). Thus, the maximum tolerated dose was 200 mg. The treatment-emergent adverse event incidence was 100%; the most common events were nausea (n = 8, 27.6%), decreased appetite (n = 10, 34.5%), and fatigue (n = 9, 31.0%) of mild or moderate severity. Six patients were positive for ALK protein and three had ALKr. Two patients achieved partial responses: one with Ewing sarcoma (75-mg dose group) and one with an ALKr-positive inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (125-mg dose group). CONCLUSION: ASP3026 at a 200-mg dose may provide therapeutic benefit for patients with solid tumors, with a tolerable safety profile. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under the identifier NCT01401504 on July 25, 2011.

19.
J AOAC Int ; 103(6): 1610-1618, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PixeeMo™ is a compact instrument that enables bacterial cell counting using microfluidic chips instead of counting of colonies on culture media. Chips containing electrodes, based on fluid, electric filtering and sorting technology (FES), allow the selection of bacterial cells from other components in the sample. In the United States (US), surface water or ground water affected by surface water must be treated to reduce the total microbial load to less than 500 CFU/mL. In Japan, drinking water regulations limit the total bacterial load to 100 CFU/mL. OBJECTIVE: To validate the PixeeMoTM aerobic bacteria method based on the Japanese regulation in the range of 30-300 CFU/mL in drinking water. METHOD: PixeeMoTM aerobic bacteria method was compared to the Standard Method for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (SMEWW) 9215B (2017) using naturally contaminated drinking water. RESULTS: The maximum repeatability standard deviation of the PixeeMoTM method was 14.8%. The difference of mean log10 values between the PixeeMoTM and SMEWW 9215B methods ranged from -0.015 to 0.258. Similar results were obtained in the independent laboratory study. CONCLUSIONS: The PixeeMoTM method is equivalent to that of the SMEWW 9215B methods. The product consistency and stability study demonstrated no significant difference within the expiration date. The robustness study confirmed that there was no effect within the expected range. The instrument variation study also demonstrated no significant difference among the data of three PixeeMoTM instruments. HIGHLIGHTS: Total counts of bacteria in drinking water can be determined accurately within 1 h with PixeeMoTM.

20.
Heart ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Natriuretic peptides are an important prognostic marker in patients with heart failure (HF). However, little is known regarding their prognostic significance in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) without HF and natriuretic peptides levels are underused in these patients in daily practice. METHODS: The Fushimi AF Registry is a community-based prospective survey of patients with AF in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, Japan. We investigated patients with AF without HF (defined as prior HF hospitalisation, New York Heart Association functional class≥2 or left ventricular ejection fraction<40%) using the data of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP, n=388) or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, n=771) at enrolment. BNPs were converted to NT-proBNP using a conversion formula. We divided the patients according to quartiles of NT-proBNP levels and compared the backgrounds and outcomes. RESULTS: Of 1159 patients (mean age: 72.1±10.2 years, median CHA2DS2-VASc score: 3 and oral anticoagulant (OAC) prescription: 671 (56%)), the median NT-proBNP level was 488 (IQR 169-1015) ng/L. Patients with high NT-proBNP levels were older, had higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores and had more OAC prescription (all p<0.001). Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated that NT-proBNP levels were significantly associated with higher incidences of stroke/systemic embolism, all-cause death and HF hospitalisation during a median follow-up period of 5.0 years (log rank, all p<0.001). Multivariable Cox regression analyses revealed that NT-proBNP levels were an independent predictor of adverse outcomes even after adjustment by various confounders. CONCLUSION: NT-proBNP levels are a significant prognostic marker for adverse outcomes in patients with AF without HF and may have clinical value. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN000005834.

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