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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726557

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the safety margin in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the hepatic dome who underwent computed tomography (CT)- or ultrasound (US)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Included in this single-center study were 46 patients with 56 HCCs in the hepatic dome undergoing RFA after transarterial chemoembolization from January 2009 to December 2016. Thirty were addressed with CT fluoroscopy and 26 with US guidance. The technical success, safety margin, and local tumor progression (LTP) were evaluated. RESULTS: Technical success rate was 100% in the CT-RFA and 84.6% in the US-RFA group (p = .04). The average safety margin was 4.8 mm in the CT-RFA and 3.0 mm in the US-RFA group (p = .01). There was no LTP among the HCCs with a safety margin >3 mm achieved in 73.3% CT-RFA and 42.3% US-RFA group tumors (p = .03). Of the US-RFA group, six required additional RFA. There was no significant inter-group difference in LTP (p = .36). CONCLUSION: CT-guided RFA was superior to US-guided RFA with respect to the technical success rate and the acquisition of an appropriate safety margin in patients with HCC in the hepatic dome.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257513, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is associated with a high mortality rate in older adults; therefore, it is important for medical institutions to take measures to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. This study aimed to assess the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers (HCWs) and the effectiveness of infection control measures. METHODS: This study had a cross-sectional component and a prospective cohort component. The cross-sectional component comprised an anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody survey among HCWs at a medical center in Saitama City, Japan. In the prospective cohort component, HCWs at the same medical center were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies monthly over a 3-month period (May to July 2020) to assess the effectiveness of infection prevention measures, including personal protective equipment use. All participants in the cohort study also participated in the antibody survey. The primary outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody (measured using Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2) positivity based on whether participants were engaged in COVID-19-related medical care. Other risk factors considered included occupational category, age, and sex. RESULTS: In total, 607 HCWs participated in the antibody survey and 116 doctors and nurses participated in the cohort study. Only one of the 607 participants in the survey tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. All participants in the cohort study were anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody negative at baseline and remained antibody negative. Engaging in the care of COVID-19 patients did not increase the risk of antibody positivity. During the study period, a total of 30 COVID-19 in-patients were treated in the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The infection control measures in the hospital protected HCWs from nosocomially acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection; thus, HCWs should engage in COVID-19-related medical care with confidence provided that they adhere to infectious disease precautions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Controle de Infecções/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Infecção Hospitalar/sangue , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
3.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e694, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567577

RESUMO

Aim: This study describes the clinical characteristics and outcomes as well as the prognostic factors of patients with accidental hypothermia (AH) using Japan's nationwide registry data. Methods: The Hypothermia study 2018 and 2019, which included patients aged 18 years or older with a body temperature of 35°C or less, was a multicenter registry conducted at 87 and 89 institutions throughout Japan, with data collected from December 2018 to February 2019 and December 2019 to February 2020, respectively. Results: In total, 1363 patients were enrolled in the registry, of which 1194 were analyzed in this study. The median (interquartile range) age was 79 (68-87) years, and the median (interquartile range) body temperature at the emergency department was 30.8°C (28.4-33.6°C). Forty-three percent of patients with AH had a mild condition, 35.2% moderate, and 21.9% severe. AH occurred in an indoor setting in 73.4% and was caused by acute medical illness in 49.3% of patients. A total of 101 (8.5%) patients suffered from cardiopulmonary arrest on arrival at the hospital. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 24.5%, the median (interquartile range) intensive care unit stay was 4 (2-7) days, and the median (interquartile range) hospital stay was 13 (4-27) days. In the multivariable logistic analysis, the prognostic factors were age (≥75 years old), male, activities of daily living (needing total assistance), cause of AH (trauma, alcohol), Glasgow Coma Scale score, and potassium level (>5.5 mEq/L). Conclusion: The mortality rate of AH was 24.5% in Japan. The prognostic factors developed in this study may be useful for the early prediction, prevention, and awareness of severe AH.

4.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 507, 2021 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty has been associated with a risk of adverse outcomes, and mortality in patients with various conditions. However, there have been few studies on whether or not frailty is associated with mortality in patients with accidental hypothermia (AH). In this study, we aim to determine this association in patients with AH using Japan's nationwide registry data. METHODS: The data from the Hypothermia STUDY 2018&19, which included patients of ≥18 years of age with a body temperature of ≤35 °C, were obtained from a multicenter registry for AH conducted at 120 institutions throughout Japan, collected from December 2018 to February 2019 and December 2019 to February 2020. The clinical frailty scale (CFS) score was used to determine the presence and degree of frailty. The primary outcome was the comparison of mortality between the frail and non-frail patient groups. RESULTS: In total, 1363 patients were included in the study, of which 920 were eligible for the analysis. The 920 patients were divided into the frail patient group (N = 221) and non-frail patient group (N = 699). After 30-days of hospitalization, 32.6% of frail patients and 20.6% of non-frail patients had died (p < 0.001). Frail patients had a significantly higher risk of 90-day mortality (Hazard ratio [HR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-2.17; p < 0.001). Based on the Cox proportional hazards analysis using multiple imputation, after adjustment for age, potassium level, lactate level, pH value, sex, CPK level, heart rate, platelet count, location of hypothermia incidence, and rate of tracheal intubation, the HR was 1.69 (95% CI, 1.25-2.29; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that frailty was associated with mortality in patients with AH. Preventive interventions for frailty may help to avoid death caused by AH.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Hipotermia , Idoso , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipotermia/diagnóstico , Japão/epidemiologia
5.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e687, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377497

RESUMO

Background: Procalcitonin, a biomarker used to detect systemic bacterial infection, can be elevated in other conditions. Some case reports have suggested procalcitonin elevation induced by drug overdose. Case Presentation: A 20-year-old woman with insignificant medical history presented with vomiting, fever, and impaired consciousness. Her vital signs showed an altered mental status (Glasgow Coma Scale score, 11 [E4V1M6]) and high fever (38.0°C), and no significant neurological signs were detected. Laboratory tests revealed that her serum procalcitonin level was significantly high (>10 ng/dL). Gradually, her level of consciousness improved, and she admitted that she had taken an overdose of sympathomimetic drugs. She was discharged from the hospital on day 5 without any problems. Conclusion: Drug overdose is seldom mentioned as one of the causes of serum procalcitonin level elevation. Sympathomimetic drug overdose can be one of the causes of procalcitonin elevation.

6.
Am J Emerg Med ; 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030906

RESUMO

A cholinergic crisiss is a state characterized by excess acetylcholine owing to the ingestion of cholinesterase inhibitors or cholinergic agonists. We report the first case of a cholinergic crisis after the ingestion of a carpronium chloride solution, a topical solution used to treat alopecia, seborrhea sicca, and vitiligo. An 81-year-old woman with no prior medical history was transported to our emergency department because the patient had disturbance of consciousness after ingesting three bottles of FUROZIN® solution (90 mL, 4500 mg as carpronium chloride). A family member who found the patient called for emergency medical services (EMS) personnel, who contacted the patient ten minutes after ingestion. The patient's Glasgow Coma Scale score was 12 (E4V3M5), and vital signs were as follows: blood pressure, 80/40 mmHg; heart rate, 40 beats/min. The patient vomited repeatedly in the ambulance. On arrival to the ED, the patient's systolic blood pressure and heart rate temporarily decreased to 80 mmHg and 40 beats/min, respectively. Seventy-eight minutes after ingestion, gastric lavage was performed. The patient's symptoms, which included excess salivation, sweating, and hot flush, improved 24 h after ingestion, and the patient's vital signs stabilized without atropine or vasopressors. On the second day of admission, the patient was examined by a psychiatrist and discharged without suicidal ideation. Carpronium chloride has a chemical structure similar to that of acetylcholine; therefore, it exhibits both cholinergic and local vasodilatory activities. There is limited information on the pharmacokinetics of ingested carpronium chloride; therefore, physicians should be made aware that ingesting a carpronium chloride solution may cause a cholinergic crisis.

7.
Oncology ; 99(8): 507-517, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946070

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib-transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (LEN-TACE) sequential therapy for patients (n = 88) with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Eighty-eight patients who obtained tumor control by LEN treatment were analyzed; 30 received LEN followed by TACE (LEN-TACE sequential therapy), and 58 received LEN monotherapy. Propensity score matching was performed, and the outcomes of 19 patients in the LEN-TACE group and 19 patients in the LEN-alone group were compared. Objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), incidence of adverse events (AEs), and change in albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score were evaluated. RESULTS: After matching, baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. The ORR was 63.2% with LEN-TACE group and 63.2% with the LEN-alone group. Multivariate analysis showed that addition of TACE during LEN treatment (hazard ratio [HR] 0.264, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.087-0.802, p = 0.019) and Child-Pugh score 5 (HR 0.223, 95% CI 0.070-0.704, p = 0.011) were the significant factors for PFS. Median PFS was 11.6 months with LEN-TACE and 10.1 months with LEN-alone. The survival rate of the LEN-TACE group was significantly higher than that of the LEN-alone group (median survival time; not reached vs. 16.9 months, p = 0.007). The incidence of common LEN-associated AEs was similar between groups. Although elevated aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase and fever were more frequent with LEN-TACE group, these events were manageable. CONCLUSION: For patients with intermediate-stage HCC, LEN-TACE sequential therapy may provide a deep response and favorable prognosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Pontuação de Propensão , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Oncology ; 99(8): 491-498, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000725

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study compared clinical outcomes of 2nd- and 3rd-line regorafenib in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 48 patients were treated with regorafenib for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Thirty-five and 13 patients were initiated on 2nd- and 3rd-line therapy, respectively. We assessed the responses to and safety of the therapy. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in clinical characteristics at the start of 2nd- or 3rd-line regorafenib therapy. The overall response rate of 2nd- and 3rd-line regorafenib was 20 and 8%, respectively. The disease control rate was 57 and 54%, respectively. Median overall survival (mOS) from the start of 2nd-line regorafenib was 17.5 months. mOS from the start of 3rd-line regorafenib was not obtained. Median progression-free survival of 2nd- and 3rd-line regorafenib was 4.9 and 2.3 months, respectively. mOS from 1st-line therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitor plus sorafenib-regorafenib-lenvatinib was 29.5 months; that with lenvatinib-sorafenib-regorafenib was not obtained. Patients on 3rd-line therapy tended to have better Child-Pugh scores and tumor factors at the start of 1st-line therapy than other patients. CONCLUSION: Patients on 2nd- and 3rd-line regorafenib showed favorable responses. Good Child-Pugh scores and tumor factors may be associated with a better response rate and OS.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem , Sorafenibe/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9501, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947902

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to develop and validate a machine learning-based mortality prediction model for hospitalized heat-related illness patients. After 2393 hospitalized patients were extracted from a multicentered heat-related illness registry in Japan, subjects were divided into the training set for development (n = 1516, data from 2014, 2017-2019) and the test set (n = 877, data from 2020) for validation. Twenty-four variables including characteristics of patients, vital signs, and laboratory test data at hospital arrival were trained as predictor features for machine learning. The outcome was death during hospital stay. In validation, the developed machine learning models (logistic regression, support vector machine, random forest, XGBoost) demonstrated favorable performance for outcome prediction with significantly increased values of the area under the precision-recall curve (AUPR) of 0.415 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.336-0.494], 0.395 [CI 0.318-0.472], 0.426 [CI 0.346-0.506], and 0.528 [CI 0.442-0.614], respectively, compared to that of the conventional acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE)-II score of 0.287 [CI 0.222-0.351] as a reference standard. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values were also high over 0.92 in all models, although there were no statistical differences compared to APACHE-II. This is the first demonstration of the potential of machine learning-based mortality prediction models for heat-related illnesses.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Aprendizado de Máquina/estatística & dados numéricos , APACHE , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Pancreas ; 50(3): 371-377, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835968

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), early enteral nutrition (EN) is recommended by major clinical practice guidelines, but the exact timing for the initiation of EN is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a post hoc analysis of the database for a multicenter (44 institutions) retrospective study of patients with SAP in Japan. The patients were classified into 3 groups according to the timing of EN initiation after the diagnosis of SAP: within 24 hours, between 24 and 48 hours, and more than 48 hours. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Of the 1094 study patients, 176, 120, and 798 patients started EN within 24 hours, between 24 and 48 hours, and more than 48 hours after SAP diagnosis, respectively. On multivariable analysis, hospital mortality was significantly better with EN within 48 hours than with more than 48 hours (adjusted odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.83; P < 0.001) but did not significantly differ between the groups with EN starting within 24 hours and between 24 and 48 hours (P = 0.29). CONCLUSIONS: Enteral nutrition within 24 hours may not confer any additional benefit on clinical outcomes compared with EN between 24 and 48 hours.

12.
Cardiovasc Interv Ther ; 36(4): 444-451, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862370

RESUMO

In most areas in Japan, patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) would be transferred to the secondary hospitals or tertiary hospitals according to the judgement of emergency medical service (EMS) staff members. We hypothesized that in-hospital outcomes would be worse in STEMI patients judged as tertiary emergency than in those judged as secondary emergency, which may support the judgement of the current EMS systems. The purpose of this study was to compare in-hospital outcomes of STEMI between patients judged as secondary emergency and those judged as tertiary emergency. We included 238 STEMI patients who were transferred to our institution using EMS hotline, and divided those into the secondary emergency group (n = 106) and the tertiary emergency group (n = 132). The primary endpoint was in-hospital death. The prevalence of shock was significantly higher in the tertiary emergency group than in the secondary emergency group (32.6% vs. 10.4%, p < 0.001). The GRACE score was significantly higher in the tertiary emergency group than the secondary emergency group [146 (118-188) vs. 134 (101-155), p < 0.001]. The incidence of in-hospital death was significantly higher in the tertiary emergency group than in the secondary emergency group (8.0% vs. 2.1%, p = 0.014). The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the tertiary emergency was significantly associated with in-hospital death (OR 3.52, 95% CI 1.24-10.02, p = 0.018) after controlling age and gender. In conclusion, the tertiary emergency was significantly associated with in-hospital death. Our results might validate the judgement of levels of emergency by local EMS staff members.

13.
J Gen Fam Med ; 21(5): 188-190, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014670

RESUMO

An 82-year-old man with untreated diabetes mellitus (DM) had anterior chest wall swelling and ulcers 2 years following blunt chest trauma. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed sternal fracture with osteolytic change and subcutaneous abscess. Blood and sternal cultures were positive for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Transesophageal echocardiogram showed vegetation on the right coronary cusp and moderate aortic regurgitation. The patient received a diagnosis of infective endocarditis associated with chronic sternal osteomyelitis complicated by subcutaneous abscess because of MSSA. This case report showed that trivial trauma in patients with uncontrolled DM can cause chronic sternal osteomyelitis resulting in infective endocarditis.

14.
Hepatol Res ; 50(11): 1234-1243, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914512

RESUMO

AIM: Combination therapy with sofosbuvir (SOF) plus velpatasvir (VEL) is approved for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related decompensated cirrhosis. We analyzed the real-world efficacy of SOF/VEL therapy. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis (25 and eight patients with Child B and C, respectively) were treated with SOF/VEL for 12 weeks. The HCV non-structural protein (NS)5A and NS5B drug resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) were determined by direct sequencing. RESULT: Thirty-two of 33 patients completed the treatment, but the remaining patient discontinued the therapy during third week of the treatment due to aggravation of hepatic encephalopathy. Serum HCV-RNA became negative during the treatment in all patients but relapsed after the end of therapy in five patients. In total, 28 out of 33 patients (85%) achieved sustained virological response 12 weeks following completion of treatment (SVR12). The SVR12 rate was 96% in patients with Child B, but significantly lower, at 50%, in patients with Child C (P < 0.05). In genotype 1b HCV-infected patients, all eight patients without baseline NS5A RASs, but only three of seven patients with RASs, achieved SVR12. Multivariate analysis identified Child B (odds ratio, 35.8 for Child C; P = 0.045) as an independent predictor of SVR12. Median serum albumin levels significantly increased only in patients who achieved SVR12. Child-Pugh scores improved in 16 of 28 patients (57%) following achievement of SVR12. CONCLUSION: The effect of SOF/VEL therapy is lower for patients with Child C. Improvement of hepatic function is expected after viral eradication with SOF/VEL therapy in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

15.
Oncology ; 98(11): 787-797, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a strong antitumor effect of lenvatinib (LEN) has been noted for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), there are still no reports on the prognosis for patients with disease progression after first-line LEN therapy. METHODS: Patients (n = 141) with unresectable HCC, Child-Pugh class A liver function, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS) of 0 or 1 who were treated with LEN from March 2018 to December 2019 were enrolled. RESULTS: One hundred and five patients were treated with LEN as first-line therapy, 53 of whom had progressive disease (PD) at the radiological evaluation. Among the 53 patients with PD, there were 27 candidates for second-line therapy, who had Child-Pugh class A liver function and an ECOG-PS of 0 or 1 at progression. After progression on first-line LEN, 28 patients were treated with a molecular targeted agent (MTA) as second-line therapy (sorafenib: n = 26; ramucirumab: n = 2). Multivariate analysis identified modified albumin-bilirubin grade 1 or 2a at LEN initiation (odds ratio 5.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.465-18.31, p = 0.011) as a significant and independent factor for candidates. The median post-progression survival after PD on first-line LEN was 8.3 months. Cox hazard multivariate analysis showed that a low alpha-fetoprotein level (<400 ng/mL; hazard ratio [HR] 0.297, 95% CI 0.099-0.886, p = 0.003), a relative tumor volume <50% at the time of progression (HR 0.204, 95% CI 0.07-0.592, p = 0.03), and switching to MTAs as second-line treatment after LEN (HR 0.299, 95% CI 0.12-0.746, p = 0.01) were significant prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: Among patients with PD on first-line LEN, good liver function at introduction of LEN was an important and favorable factor related to eligibility for second-line therapy. In addition, post-progression treatment with MTAs could improve the prognosis for patients who had been treated with first-line LEN.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Acute Med Surg ; 7(1): e516, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551124

RESUMO

Aim: Heat-related illness is common, but its epidemiology and pathological mechanism remain unclear. The aim of this study was to report current clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and outcomes of heat-related illness in Japan. Methods: We undertook a prospective multicenter observational study in Japan. Only hospitalized patients with heat-related illness were enrolled from 1 July to 30 September 2017 and 1 July to 30 September 2018. Results: A total of 763 patients were enrolled in the study. Median age was 68 years (interquartile range, 49-82 years) and median body temperature on admission was 38.2°C (interquartile range, 36.8-39.8°C). Non-exertional cause was 56.9% and exertional cause was 40.0%. The hospital mortality was 4.6%. The median Japanese Association for Acute Medicine disseminated intravascular coagulation (JAAM DIC), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores on admission were 1 (0-2), 4 (2-6), and 13 (8-22), respectively. To predict hospital mortality, areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.776 (JAAM DIC score), 0.825 (SOFA), and 0.878 (APACHE II). There were 632 cases defined as heatstroke by JAAM heat-related illness criteria, 73 cases diagnosed as having DIC. A total of 16.6% patients had poor neurological outcome (modified Rankin Scale ≥ 4) at hospital discharge. In the multivariate analysis, Glasgow Coma Scale and platelets were independent predictors of mortality. Type of heatstroke, Glasgow Coma Scale, and platelets were independent predictors of poor neurological outcome. Body temperature was not associated with mortality or poor neurological outcome. Conclusions: In this study, hospital mortality of heat-related illness was <5%, one-sixth of the patients had poor neurological outcome. The APACHE II, SOFA, and JAAM DIC scores predicted hospital mortality. Body temperature was not associated with mortality or poor neurological outcome.

17.
J Emerg Med ; 59(2): 227-237, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of institutional volume of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases on outcomes remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the relationship between institutional volume of adult, nontraumatic OHCA cases and 1-month favorable neurologic outcomes. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed data between January 2012 and March 2013 from a prospective observational study in the Kanto area of Japan. We analyzed adult patients with nontraumatic OHCA who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation by emergency medical service personnel and in whom spontaneous circulation was restored. Based on the institutional volume of OHCA cases, we divided institutions into low-, middle-, or high-volume groups. The primary and secondary outcomes were 1-month favorable neurologic outcomes and 1-month survival, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for propensity score and in-hospital variables was performed. RESULTS: Of 2699 eligible patients, 889, 898, and 912 patients were transported to low-volume (40 institutions), middle-volume (14 institutions), and high-volume (9 institutions) centers, respectively. Using low-volume centers as the reference, transport to a middle- or high-volume center was not significantly associated with a favorable 1-month neurologic outcome (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.21 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.84-1.75] and adjusted OR 0.77 [95% CI 0.53-1.12], respectively) or 1-month survival (adjusted OR 1.10 [95% CI 0.82-1.47] and adjusted OR 0.76 [95% CI 0.56-1.02], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Institutional volume was not significantly associated with favorable 1-month neurologic outcomes or 1-month survival in OHCA. Further investigation is needed to determine the association between hospital characteristics and outcomes in patients with OHCA.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Adulto , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 5(1): e000443, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426527

RESUMO

Background: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) should be safely placed at zone 1 or 3, depending on the location of the hemorrhage. Ideally, REBOA placement should be confirmed via fluoroscopy, but it is not commonly available for trauma bays. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of REBOA placement using the external measurement method in a Japanese trauma center. Methods: A retrospective review identified all trauma patients who underwent REBOA and were admitted to our trauma center from 2008 to 2018. Patient characteristics, REBOA placement accuracy, and complications according to target zones 1 and 3 were reviewed. Results: During the study period, 38 patients met our inclusion criteria. The in-hospital mortality rate was 57.9%. REBOA was mainly used for bleeding from the abdominal (44.7%) and pelvic (36.8%) regions. Of these, 30 patients (78.9%) underwent REBOA for target zone 1, and 8 patients (21.1%) underwent REBOA for target zone 3. The proportion of abdominal bleeding source in the target zone 1 group was greater than that in the target zone 3 group (56.7% vs. 0%). Overall, the proportion of REBOA placement was 76.3% in zone 1, 21.1% in zone 2, and 2.6% in zone 3. The total REBOA placement accuracy was 71.1%. At each target zone, the REBOA placement accuracy for target zone 3 was significantly lower than that for target zone 1 (12.5% vs. 86.7%, p<0.001). No significant associations between non-target zone placement and patient characteristics, complications, or mortality were found. Conclusions: The REBOA placement accuracy for target zone 3 was low, and zone 2 placement accounted for 21.1% of the total, but no complications and mortalities related to non-target zone placement occurred. Further external validation study is warranted. Level of evidence: Level IV.

19.
World J Surg ; 44(7): 2229-2236, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage control for pelvic fractures remains challenging. There are several kinds of hemostatic interventions, including angiography/angioembolization (AG/AE), external fixation (EF), and resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA). However, no large studies have been conducted for the comparative review of each intervention. In this study, we examined the usage trend of therapeutic interventions in Japan for patients with pelvic fractures in shock and the influence of these interventions on mortality. METHODS: Data of adult patients with pelvic fracture who were in shock were obtained from the Japanese Trauma Data Bank (2004-2014). The primary endpoint was the influence of each intervention (AG/AE, EF, and REBOA) on in-hospital mortality. We also investigated the frequency of each intervention. RESULTS: A total of 3149 patients met all our inclusion criteria. Specifically, 1131 (35.9%), 496 (15.8%), and 256 (8.1%) patients underwent AG, EF, and REBOA interventions, respectively. Therapeutic AE was performed in 690 patients who underwent AG (61.0%). The overall mortality rate was 31.4%. Multiple regression analysis identified that AG/AE (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.52-0.80) and EF (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58-0.98) were significantly associated with survival, whereas REBOA (OR 4.17, 95% CI 3.00-5.82) was significantly associated with worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In Japan, patients with pelvic fracture who were in shock had high mortality rates. AG/AE and EF were associated with decreased mortality. AG may benefit from the early detection of arterial bleeding, leading to decreased mortality of patients with pelvic fracture in shock.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Hemorragia/terapia , Ossos Pélvicos/lesões , Choque/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Oclusão com Balão , Embolização Terapêutica , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/mortalidade , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque/mortalidade
20.
Case Rep Dent ; 2020: 8691270, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148976

RESUMO

The prevalence of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adults is lower than that in adolescents and it is more prevalent in patients with psychiatric disorders. Sleep disturbances such as nightmares are associated with NSSI after accounting for depression; thus, persons with major NSSI sometimes present at medical institutions during the night seeking emergency treatment. Gingival tissues comprise the most frequent target of self-injury of the oral cavity using oral hygiene tools. Most NSSI in the oral cavity is minor because such tools are blunt. Major NSSI such as autoamputation of the tongue is rare. We describe two patients who partially autoamputated the apex of their own tongues using edged tools. Case 1 was a 55-year-old female with depression who had defaulted from psychiatric intervention. She had cut off her tongue using a Japanese kitchen knife and presented with the dry, necrotic amputated portion and blood oozing from the remainder of her tongue. We debrided and sutured the remainder of the tongue without reattaching the amputated portion. Her postoperative course was uneventful, and she was free of adverse events such as functional disability and wound infection. Case 2 was a 69-year-old female with schizophrenia who had defaulted from psychiatric intervention and had cut off her tongue using scissors. The amputated portion of the tongue was lost and the remainder, which was oozing blood, was debrided and sutured. She defaulted on a follow-up appointment. Neither of these patients had suicidal intent. The prevalence of NSSI across all age groups has recently increased, and the risk that self-injury will become normalized has become a concern. Thus, dentists as well as oral and maxillofacial surgeons should be aware of the possibility that patients will present with major NSSI requiring emergency treatment.

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