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1.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 61(1): 34-40, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336717

RESUMO

Some illegal dietary supplements contain phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, such as sildenafil, for exerting "therapeutic" effects in erectile dysfunction. This is apparently dangerous, and thus, should be appropriately regulated. Identification of descarbonsildenafil was first reported in Singapore in a coffee sample labeled to exert male sexual performance enhancement effects. However, it is unclear whether the compound possesses PDE5 inhibitory activity. We encountered during our survey of dietary supplements, a sexual enhancement product commercially available in Tokyo, in which a peak presumed to be of descarbonsildenafil was detected by LC-UV and electrospray ionization-tandem MS (ESI-MS/MS). The compound was isolated and identified as descarbonsildenafil with liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS), NMR, and X-ray crystal structural analysis. In addition, descarbonsildenafil showed PDE5 inhibitory activity in PDE5 inhibition assay, and its IC50 value for PDE5A1 was found to be 30 nmol/L. The results of INADEQUATE NMR and X-ray crystal structural analysis in this study provide information for the identification of descarbonsildenafil. Since this study indicates that this compound is a PDE5 inhibitor having adequate activity, it is regulated as a drug component in Japan.

2.
J Appl Toxicol ; 40(2): 234-244, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633820

RESUMO

Thioxanthone and its analogues, 2- or 4-isopropylthioxanthone, 2-chlorothioxanthone, 2,4-diethylthioxanthone (DETX) and xanthone, are used as photoinitiators of ultraviolet (UV) light-initiated curable inks. As these photoinitiators were found in numerous food/beverage products packaged in cartons printed with UV-cured inks, the cytotoxic effects and mechanisms of these compounds were studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. The toxicity of DETX was greater than that of other compounds. DETX elicited not only concentration (0-2.0 mm)- and time (0-3 hours)-dependent cell death accompanied by the depletion of cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and reduced glutathione (GSH) and protein thiol levels, but also the accumulation of GSH disulfide and malondialdehyde. Pretreatment of hepatocytes with either fructose at a concentration of 10 mm or N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) at a concentration of 5.0 mm ameliorated DETX (1 mm)-induced cytotoxicity. Further, the exposure of hepatocytes to DETX resulted in the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, both of which were partially prevented by the addition of NAC. These results indicate that: (1) DETX-induced cytotoxicity is linked to mitochondrial failure and depletion of cellular GSH; (2) insufficient cellular ATP levels derived from mitochondrial dysfunction were, at least in part, ameliorated by the addition of fructose; and (3) GSH loss and/or ROS formation was prevented by NAC. Taken collectively, these results suggest that the onset of toxic effects caused by DETX may be partially attributable to cellular energy stress as well as oxidative stress.

3.
Birth Defects Res ; 112(2): 141-161, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few published studies are reported for neurobehavioral toxicity of combined exposure to fungicides in mammals. This study was aimed to evaluate reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of maternal exposure to combined fungicides in mice. METHODS: Imazalil (IMZ) and thiabendazole (TBZ) were given in the diet to provide levels of 0/0% (control), 0.0015/0.006% (IMZ/TBZ), 0.006/0.018%, and 0.024/0.054% during the gestation and lactation periods. Selected reproductive and neurobehavioral parameters were measured in the F1 generation. RESULTS: No adverse effect of IMZ/TBZ was observed in litter size, litter weight, or sex ratio at birth. The average body weight of male and female offspring was increased significantly in treatment groups during the lactation period. With respect to behavioral developmental parameters, the swimming head angle on PND 7 of male offspring was significantly accelerated in the treatment groups. After weaning, the movement time of exploratory behavior shortened in a significant dose-related manner in adult males of the F1 generation. In adult females, the rearing time of exploratory behavior lengthened in a significant dose-related manner in the F1 generation. Spontaneous behavior examination indicated that longitudinal patterns of each of the total distance and number of rearing were different during the control and treatment groups in the F1 -generation females. Parallel width of the control and treatment groups was significantly different in the average time of movement and rearing in the F1 -generation females. CONCLUSIONS: The high-dose level of IMZ/TBZ in the present study produced several adverse effects in neurobehavioral parameters after weaning without concurrent chemical administration in mice.

4.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 60(4): 96-107, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474657

RESUMO

LC/Tribrid Orbitrap was developed to determine phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors and their analogs as adulterants in dietary supplements. High-resolution MS/MS and MS3 spectra of PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogs were obtained by LC/Tribrid Orbitrap using both higher-energy collisional dissociation and collision-induced dissociation. We investigated dietary supplements that claim to enhance men's sexual performance, and detected PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogs. We also estimated the structures of the PDE-5 inhibitor analogs and the impurities of PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogs in the dietary supplements.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5
5.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 139(1): 135-140, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606921

RESUMO

Nail tips are nail art materials that can be attached to the nail with adhesives. Recently, nail/finger injuries related to nail tips have been reported and one of the causes is considered to be the adhesives used for attaching nail tips. The components of nail adhesives are mostly cyanoacrylate, which is also used as an industrial instant adhesive. During curing, cyanoacrylate adhesives release formaldehyde through hydrolysis. When it is marketed as a nail adhesive, there is no regulation regarding its formaldehyde amount nor obligation to indicate its ingredients in Japan. Additionally, a biological safety test is not required for nail adhesives. Thus, because the safety of nail adhesives is inadequately confirmed, it is necessary to investigate their biological safety. Therefore, we purchased 5 commercially available nail adhesives and 1 medical adhesive and examined their formaldehyde content and cytotoxicity. We examined the cytotoxicity of the adhesives in V79 cells by a colony forming assay. In this test, 5 nail adhesives showed higher toxicity than 1 medical adhesive. Formaldehyde concentrations in the extract of adhesives were as follows: 17.5 to 24.2 µg/mL for nail adhesives and 7.4 µg/mL for medical adhesives. Cyanoacetate did not elicit cytotoxicity at the final concentration up to 1000 µM. However, formaldehyde showed cytotoxicity, with an IC50 of 79 µM (2.4 µg/mL). Taken together, the cytotoxicity of nail adhesives could be due to the formaldehyde generated by the hydrolysis of cyanoacrylate. It seems important that nail adhesives will be regulated by obligation and enhanced safety in the future.


Assuntos
Adesivos/toxicidade , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Cosméticos/toxicidade , Cianoacrilatos/toxicidade , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Formaldeído/toxicidade , Unhas , Adesivos/química , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Ensaio de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias/métodos , Cosméticos/química , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Cianoacrilatos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Formaldeído/análise , Humanos , Hidrólise , Japão , Pulmão/citologia , Segurança , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos
6.
Drug Test Anal ; 10(2): 284-293, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28544560

RESUMO

Despite the implementation of a new blanket scheduling system in 2013, new psychoactive substance (NPS) abuse remains a serious social concern in Japan. We present a fatal intoxication case involving 5F-ADB (methyl 2-[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate) and diphenidine. Postmortem blood screening by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOFMS) in the information-dependent acquisition mode only detected diphenidine. Further urinary screening using an in-house database containing NPS and metabolites detected not only diphenidine but also possible 5F-ADB metabolites; subsequent targeted screening by LC/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) allowed for the detection of a very low level of unchanged 5F-ADB in postmortem heart blood. Quantification by standard addition resulted in the postmortem blood concentrations being 0.19 ± 0.04 ng/mL for 5F-ADB and 12 ± 2.6 ng/mL for diphenidine. Investigation of the urinary metabolites revealed pathways involving ester hydrolysis (M1) and oxidative defluorination (M2), and further oxidation to the carboxylic acid (M3) for 5F-ADB. Mono- and di-hydroxylated diphenidine metabolites were also found. The present case demonstrates the importance of urinary metabolite screening for drugs with low blood concentration. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) fluorinated at the terminal N-alkyl position are known to show higher cannabinoid receptor affinity relative to their non-fluorinated analogues; 5F-ADB is no exception with high CB1 receptor activity and much greater potency than Δ9 -THC and other earlier SCs, thus we suspect its acute toxicity to be high compared to other structurally related SC analogues. The low blood concentration of 5F-ADB may be attributed to enzymatic and/or non-enzymatic degradation, and further investigation into these possibilities is underway.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Indazóis/química , Piperidinas/química , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Canabinoides/química , Humanos , Indazóis/metabolismo , Japão , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Psicotrópicos , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/química , Urinálise
7.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 148: 136-141, 2018 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29017110

RESUMO

Two analogs of sildenafil (compounds 1 and 2) were detected in three powder products acquired from online drug markets during an LC-UV-MS analysis of psychotropic drugs. Their structures were established by high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Compound 1 was identified as 5-(5-(3,5-dimethylpiperazine-1-carbonothioyl)-2-ethoxyphenyl)-1-methyl-3-propyl-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine-7(6H)-thione and named dimethyldithiodenafil. Compound 2 was identified as 5-(5-(3,5-dimethylpiperazine-1-carbonothioyl)-2-ethoxyphenyl)-1-methyl-3-propyl-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-one and named dimethylthiocarbodenafil. Compound 1 was subjected to the phosphodiesterase assay (IC50=0.20nM). The three powder products were found to contain 12-19mg of dimethyldithiodenafil and 1.4-3.9mg of dimethylthiocarbodenafil per tube.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase/química , Citrato de Sildenafila/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pós/química , Psicotrópicos/química , Pirimidinas/química
8.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 137(8): 1005-1015, 2017.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28768940

RESUMO

We developed a new inhalation exposure method to evaluate effects of synthetic cannabimimetics that are being distributed as new, unregulated drugs in the Tokyo area. We selected the commercial product "SOUTOU" containing AB-CHMINACA and 5F-AMB as the test drug and dried marshmallow (Althaea officinalis) leaves as the negative control. A half cigarette packed with dried marshmallow leaves or SOUTOU was ignited, then mainstream smoke from each was delivered to five mice in an exposure box. After the cigarettes were fully consumed, neurobehavioral observations and a catalepsy test were performed at 15, 30 and 60 min after exposure. The effluent air from the exposure box was poured into impingers containing acetonitrile (first impinger) and dimethyl sulfoxide (second impinger). The resulting solutions were analyzed to assess decomposition of the synthetic cannabimimetics. Mice exposed to SOUTOU smoke showed many excitement behaviors and some suppressive behaviors at 15, 30 and 60 min. These clearly included cannabimimetic specific pharmacological actions. Negative control mice also showed some suppressive behaviors at 15 min but these were attenuated at later times, nearly disappearing at 60 min. In addition, the behavioral effects observed in controls were less pronounced than those in SOUTOU exposed mice. The inhalation exposure method developed in our study would be effective for determining cannabinoid specific pharmacological effects of illegal drugs, as well as for assessing the presence of active compound(s) by comparing the test substance with a negative control.


Assuntos
Câmaras de Exposição Atmosférica , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Canabinoides/efeitos adversos , Drogas Ilícitas/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Acatisia Induzida por Medicamentos , Althaea , Animais , Canabinoides/química , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Folhas de Planta , Fatores de Tempo , Produtos do Tabaco
9.
Chirality ; 28(3): 204-8, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26769592

RESUMO

A direct chiral liquid chromatography-circular dichroism (LC-CD) method was developed for the simple and rapid identification of N-octylnortadalafil [(6R, 12aR)-6-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-octyl-2,3,6,7,12,12a-hexahydropyrazino[1',2':1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1,4-dione; RR-OTDF] and its stereoisomers in dietary supplements. Samples were extracted with methanol. Compounds were then separated by chiral LC-CD using Chiralcel OD-RH (4.6 × 150 mm, 5 µm) with 5 mM ammonium formate (pH 3)/0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile (95:5, v/v) mixture solution (mobile phase A) and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile (mobile phase B). The isocratic elution used was mobile phase A / mobile phase B (3:7, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The column temperature was held at 30°C. RR-OTDF and its stereoisomers were separated within 20 min with the resolution factors being over 2.0. Using this method, RR-OTDF and (6R, 12aS)-6-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-octyl-2,3,6,7,12,12a-hexahydropyrazino[1',2':1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1,4-dione were detected in a dietary supplement.


Assuntos
Carbolinas/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Dicroísmo Circular , Suplementos Nutricionais , Indicadores e Reagentes/química , Estereoisomerismo
10.
J Mass Spectrom ; 50(3): 586-91, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25800195

RESUMO

Like many new designer drugs of abuse, synthetic cannabinoids (SC) have structural or positional isomers which may or may not all be regulated under law. Differences in acute toxicity may exist between isomers which impose further burden in the fields of forensic toxicology, medicine and legislation. Isomer differentiation therefore becomes crucial from these standpoints as new designer drugs continuously emerge with just minor positional modifications to their preexisting analogs. The aim of this study was to differentiate the positional isomers of JWH-081. Purchased standard compounds of JWH-081 and its positional isomers were analyzed by gas chromatography-electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) first in scan mode to investigate those isomers who could be differentiated by EI scan spectra. Isomers with identical or near-identical EI spectra were further subjected to GC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis with appropriate precursor ions. EI scan was able to distinguish 3 of the 7 isomers: 2-methoxy, 7-methoxy and 8-methoxy. The remaining isomers exhibited near-identical spectra; hence, MS/MS was performed by selecting m/z 185 and 157 as precursor ions. 3-Methoxy and 5-methoxy isomers produced characteristic product ions that enabled the differentiation between them. Product ion spectrum of 6-methoxy isomer resembled that of JWH-081; however, the relative ion intensities were clearly different from one another. The combination of EI scan and MS/MS allowed for the regioisomeric differentiation of the targeted compounds in this study.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Indóis/análise , Indóis/química , Naftalenos/análise , Naftalenos/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Drogas Desenhadas , Indóis/isolamento & purificação , Isomerismo , Naftalenos/isolamento & purificação
11.
J Nat Med ; 68(4): 677-85, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24952707

RESUMO

In May 2011, numerous poppy plants closely resembling Papaver bracteatum Lindl., a type of narcotic plant that is illegal in Japan, were distributed directly from several large flower shops or through online shopping throughout Japan, including the Tokyo Metropolitan area. In order to better identify the narcotic plants, the relative nuclear DNA content at the vegetative stage was measured by flow cytometric (FCM) analysis in 3 closely-related species of the genus Papaver section Oxytona, namely P. orientale, P. pseudo-orientale, and P. bracteatum, based on the difference between the chromosome numbers of these species. The results showed that the nuclear DNA content differed between these 3 species, and that most of the commercially distributed plants examined in this study could be identified as P. bracteatum. The remaining plants were P. pseudo-orientale, a non-narcotic plant. In addition, the FCM results for the identification of P. bracteatum completely agreed with the results obtained by the morphological analysis, the inter-genic spacer sequence of rpl16-rpl14 (PS-ID sequence) of chloroplast DNA, and the presence of thebaine. These results clearly indicate the usefulness of FCM analysis for the identification of P. bracteatum plants, including when they are in their vegetative stage.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo , Papaver/classificação , DNA de Cloroplastos/química , Flores/química , Japão , Entorpecentes/análise , Papaver/anatomia & histologia , Papaver/química , Papaver/genética , Tebaína/análise
12.
J AOAC Int ; 95(4): 1048-52, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22970570

RESUMO

A sildenafil-related compound was detected in a dietary supplement marketed as an aphrodisiac. The compound was detected during analysis of the dietary supplement using LC-UV and LC/electrospray ionization-MS. The structure of the compound was established using high resolution MS, NMR spectrometry, and X-ray crystal structure analysis. The compound was identified as 5-(5-((3,5-dimethylpiperazin-1-yl)sulfonyl)-2-ethoxyphenyl)-l-methyl-7-((1-methyl-4-nitro-1H-imidazol-5-yl)thio)-3-propyl-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-d] pyrimidine. Based on this structure, the compound was named nitroprodenafil. The dietary supplement was found to contain 90 mg nitroprodenafil/capsule. This article describes the structural characterization of a new sildenafil-related compound. The compound was detected during analysis of a dietary supplement using LC-UV and LC/electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS. The structure was established using high resolution MS (HRMS), NMR spectrometry, and X-ray crystal structure analysis. The structures of methisosildenafil, thiomethisosildenafil, and this new analog, named nitroprodenafil (21), are shown in Figure 1. In the Demizu et al. report, the compound is named mutaprodenafil instead ofnitroprodenafil. Considering the naming right, the authors of this paper think the use of mutaprodenafil is appropriate as the compound name, although nitroprodenafil is used.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Piperazinas/análise , Sulfonas/análise , Cápsulas , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Modelos Químicos , Piperazinas/química , Purinas/análise , Purinas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Citrato de Sildenafila , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Sulfonas/química , Raios Ultravioleta
13.
J AOAC Int ; 94(6): 1770-7, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22320083

RESUMO

An analog of aildenafil, which is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 5, was found in a dietary supplement marketed for enhancement of sexual function. The compound was isolated by silica gel column chromatography, and its structure was identified by means of 13C-NMR spectrometry, 1H-NMR spectrometry, high-resolution MS, and X-ray structure determination. The compound was identified to be sulfoaildenafil (other names: thioaildenafil, dimethyl sildenafil thione, and thiomethisosildenafil). Sulfoaildenafil is very similar to the compound thiohomosildenafil. As it is difficult to distinguish between them by LC-photodiode array detector analysis, ultra-performance LC (UPLC)/MS, ion trap LC/MS/MS (LC/IT-MS/MS), and GC/MS were performed. The mass spectra of thiohomosildenafil by UPLC/MS and LC/IT-MS/MS showed mass fragments of m/z 58, 72, and 355, and the mass spectrum by GC/MS showed mass fragments of m/z 56, 72, and 420. Some of these fragments had low intensities, but they were useful for distinguishing between the two compounds. The relationship between aildenafil (other names: dimethylsildenafil and methisosildenafil) and homosildenafil is similar to that between sulfoaildenafil and thiohomosildenafil. Therefore, these compounds were also examined.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Piperazinas/análise , Sulfonas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
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