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1.
Semin Perinatol ; : 151177, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493856

RESUMO

Immediately after birth through spontaneous breaths, infants' clear lung liquid replacing it with air, and gradually establishing a functional residual capacity to achieve gas exchange. Most infants start breathing independently after birth and ~3% of infants who require positive pressure ventilation. When newborns fail to start breathing the current neonatal resuscitation guidelines recommend initiatingpositive pressure ventilationusing a face mask and a ventilation device. Adequate ventilation is the cornerstone of successful neonatal resuscitation; therefore, it is mandatory that anybody involved in neonatal resuscitation is trained in mask ventilation techniques. One of the main problems with mask ventilation is that it is very subjective with direct feedback lacking and not uncommonly, the resuscitator does not realise that their technique is unsatisfactory. Many studies have shown that monitoring tidal volume and leak around the mask or endotracheal tube enables the resuscitator to identify the problem and adjust their technique to reduce the leak and deliver and appropriate tidal volume. This chapter discusses the currently available monitoring devices used during stabilization/resuscitation in the delivery room.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare tidal volumes, inflating pressures and other ventilator variables of infants receiving synchronized intermitted mandatory ventilation with volume guarantee during emergency neonatal transport with those of infants receiving synchronized intermitted mandatory ventilation without volume guarantee. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: A regional neonatal emergency transport service. PATIENTS: We enrolled 77 infants undergoing emergency neonatal transfer. Forty-five infants were ventilated with synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation with volume guarantee and 32 with synchronized intermitted mandatory ventilation without volume guarantee. INTERVENTIONS: Infants received synchronized intermitted mandatory ventilation with or without volume guarantee during interhospital emergency neonatal transport using a Fabian + nCPAP evolution neonatal ventilator (Software Version: 4.0.1; Acutronic Medical Instruments, Hirzel, Switzerland). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We downloaded detailed ventilator data with 0.5 Hz sampling rate. We analyzed data with the Python computer language and its data science packages. The mean expiratory tidal volume of inflations was lower and less variable in infants ventilated with volume guarantee than in babies ventilated without volume guarantee (group median 4.8 vs 6.0 mL/kg; p = 0.001). Babies ventilated with synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation with volume guarantee had on average lower and more variable peak inflating pressures than babies ventilated without volume guarantee (group median 15.5 vs 19.5 cm H2O;p = 0.0004). With volume guarantee, a lower proportion of the total minute ventilation was attributed to ventilator inflations rather than to spontaneous breaths between inflations (group median 66% vs 83%; p = 0.02). With volume guarantee, babies had fewer inflations with tidal volumes greater than 6 mL/kg and greater than 8 mL/kg (group medians 3% vs 44% and 0% vs 7%, respectively; p = 0.0001). The larger tidal volumes in the non-volume guarantee group were not associated with significant hypocapnia except in one case. CONCLUSIONS: During neonatal transport, synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation with volume guarantee ventilation reduced the occurrence of excessive tidal volumes, but it was associated with larger contribution of spontaneous breaths to minute ventilation compared with synchronized intermitted mandatory ventilation without volume guarantee.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the performance of the Fabian +NCPAP evolution ventilator during volume guarantee (VG) ventilation in neonates at maintaining the target tidal volume and what tidal and minute volumes are required to maintain normocapnia. METHODS: Clinical and ventilator data were collected and analysed from 83 infants receiving VG ventilation during interhospital transfer. Sedation was used in 26 cases. Ventilator data were downloaded with a sampling rate of 0.5 Hz. Data were analysed using the Python computer language and its data analysis packages. RESULTS: ~107 hours of ventilator data were analysed, consisting of ~194 000 data points. The median absolute difference between the actual expiratory tidal volume (VTe) of the ventilator inflations and the target tidal volume (VTset) was 0.29 mL/kg (IQR: 0.11-0.79 mL/kg). Overall, VTe was within 1 mL/kg of VTset in 80% of inflations. VTe decreased progressively below the target when the endotracheal tube leak exceeded 50%. When leak was below 50%, VTe was below VTset by >1 mL/kg in less than 12% of inflations even in babies weighing less than 1000 g. Both VTe (r=-0.34, p=0.0022) and minute volume (r=-0.22, p=0.0567) showed a weak inverse correlation with capillary partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2) values. Only 50% of normocapnic blood gases were associated with tidal volumes between 4 and 6 mL/kg. CONCLUSIONS: The Fabian ventilator delivers volume-targeted ventilation with high accuracy if endotracheal tube leakage is not excessive and the maximum allowed inflating pressure does not limit inflations. There is only weak inverse correlation between tidal or minute volumes and Pco2.

5.
J Perinatol ; 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30232377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report how peak inflating pressure (PIP), tidal volume (VT) and low-tidal volume alarms are affected by maximum allowed inflating pressure (Pmax) during volume guarantee (VG) ventilation. STUDY DESIGN: Ventilation data were analysed with 1 Hz sampling rate from 25 neonates receiving synchronised intermittent positive pressure ventilation with VG for >12 h. RESULTS: The difference between Pmax and PIP (Pdiff) ranged between 5 and 20 mbar (median = 11 mbar) despite a protocol to keep Pmax 5 mbar above the "working PIP". Pmax was reached in 5.2% of inflations. Computational modelling demonstrated that had Pdiff been kept at 5 mbar more consistently, >10% of inflations would have reached Pmax. The frequency of low-tidal volume alarms showed inverse correlation with Pdiff. CONCLUSIONS: It is difficult to implement a simple Pmax strategy due to variability of PIP. Setting Pmax close to the "working PIP" limits VT delivery and triggers frequent alarms.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is widely used in neonatology. The Dräger Babylog VN500 ventilator offers volume-guaranteed HFOV (HFOV-VG) mode when the high-frequency tidal volume (VThf) to be delivered can be set. We investigated how HFOV-VG maintains VThf in the short and longer term and how it affects other ventilator parameters and blood gases. METHODS: We downloaded ~3.2 million seconds (36.7 days) of ventilator data from 17 infants ventilated using HFOV-VG during clinical care with 1 Hz sampling rate. To process and analyse the data, we used the Python computer language. RESULTS: Overall, the median VThf was 1.93 mL/kg (IQR 1.64-2.45 mL/kg). The difference between set and delivered tidal volume was <0.2 mL/kg for 83% of time. In the individual recordings, the median VThf ranged between 1.44 and 3.31 mL/kg. During HFOV-VG, the VThf varied from 1 second to another, but it was very close to the target value when averaged over 5 min periods. After weight correction, the VThf or the diffusion coefficient of carbon dioxide (DCO2) showed weak inverse correlation with partial pressure of CO2(pCO2) (for VThf, r=-0.162, 95% CI -0.282 to -0.037, p=0.01). Uncorrected values showed no correlation. Of the 53 blood gas measurements taken when VThf was >2.5 mL/kg, there were only six (11%) with a pCO2 >8 kPa. CONCLUSIONS: During HFOV-VG, the tidal volume of oscillations varies in the short term but is maintained very close to the target over the longer term. VThf or DCO2 have poor correlation with CO2 levels but a volume of >2.5 mL/kg VThf is rarely needed.

7.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 19(9): 861-868, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29933287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate how compensating for endotracheal tube leaks by targeting the leak-compensated tidal volume affects measured physiologic and ventilator variables during neonatal mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: A level III Neonatal ICU. PATIENTS: We enrolled 30 neonates who were ventilated using synchronized intermittent positive pressure mode with volume guarantee and had at least 12 hours of continuous detailed recording of ventilation variables. INTERVENTIONS: Infants were treated using the Dräger VN500 ventilator (Dräger, Lübeck, Germany), which uses a proprietary algorithm to measure and compensate for endotracheal tube leaks. Eleven were ventilated without leak compensation and 19 with leak compensation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Detailed ventilation data were collected and analyzed at 1 Hz, with intermittent blood gas values. The percentage of leak was less than 20% in 73% of leak-compensated inflations, and the volume of the leak compensation was less than 1 mL/kg in 97.3% of inflations. Between the two groups, ventilation variables were comparable, except the percentage of leak that was significantly (p = 0.005) higher in the recordings with leak compensation. Without leak compensation, the mean expired tidal volume was maintained very close to the set level up to 50% leak, but with leaks greater than 50%, it declined progressively. With leak compensation, the mean leak-compensated expired tidal volume was well maintained even with leak greater than 90% although with large variability. Without leak compensation, the difference between the maximum allowed inflating pressure and the peak inflating pressure decreased progressively as the leak increased. This did not occur with leak compensation. The median PCO2 was slightly higher with leak compensation. CONCLUSIONS: During volume guarantee ventilation with a Dräger VN500 ventilator, without leak compensation the expired tidal volume declined after 50% leak. With leak compensation, the tidal volume was maintained even with a large leak. With leak compensation, there was a more stable peak inflating pressure, although the PCO2 was slightly higher.

8.
JAMA ; 319(21): 2190-2201, 2018 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872859

RESUMO

Importance: There are potential benefits and harms of hyperoxemia and hypoxemia for extremely preterm infants receiving more vs less supplemental oxygen. Objective: To compare the effects of different target ranges for oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (Spo2) on death or major morbidity. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospectively planned meta-analysis of individual participant data from 5 randomized clinical trials (conducted from 2005-2014) enrolling infants born before 28 weeks' gestation. Exposures: Spo2 target range that was lower (85%-89%) vs higher (91%-95%). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of death or major disability (bilateral blindness, deafness, cerebral palsy diagnosed as ≥2 level on the Gross Motor Function Classification System, or Bayley-III cognitive or language score <85) at a corrected age of 18 to 24 months. There were 16 secondary outcomes including the components of the primary outcome and other major morbidities. Results: A total of 4965 infants were randomized (2480 to the lower Spo2 target range and 2485 to the higher Spo2 range) and had a median gestational age of 26 weeks (interquartile range, 25-27 weeks) and a mean birth weight of 832 g (SD, 190 g). The primary outcome occurred in 1191 of 2228 infants (53.5%) in the lower Spo2 target group and 1150 of 2229 infants (51.6%) in the higher Spo2 target group (risk difference, 1.7% [95% CI, -1.3% to 4.6%]; relative risk [RR], 1.04 [95% CI, 0.98 to 1.09], P = .21). Of the 16 secondary outcomes, 11 were null, 2 significantly favored the lower Spo2 target group, and 3 significantly favored the higher Spo2 target group. Death occurred in 484 of 2433 infants (19.9%) in the lower Spo2 target group and 418 of 2440 infants (17.1%) in the higher Spo2 target group (risk difference, 2.8% [95% CI, 0.6% to 5.0%]; RR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.04 to 1.31], P = .01). Treatment for retinopathy of prematurity was administered to 220 of 2020 infants (10.9%) in the lower Spo2 target group and 308 of 2065 infants (14.9%) in the higher Spo2 target group (risk difference, -4.0% [95% CI, -6.1% to -2.0%]; RR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.63 to 0.86], P < .001). Severe necrotizing enterocolitis occurred in 227 of 2464 infants (9.2%) in the lower Spo2 target group and 170 of 2465 infants (6.9%) in the higher Spo2 target group (risk difference, 2.3% [95% CI, 0.8% to 3.8%]; RR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.10 to 1.61], P = .003). Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospectively planned meta-analysis of individual participant data from extremely preterm infants, there was no significant difference between a lower Spo2 target range compared with a higher Spo2 target range on the primary composite outcome of death or major disability at a corrected age of 18 to 24 months. The lower Spo2 target range was associated with a higher risk of death and necrotizing enterocolitis, but a lower risk of retinopathy of prematurity treatment.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Oxigênio/sangue , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Surdez/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Oximetria , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Neonatology ; 113(4): 387-392, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29852487

RESUMO

Stabilisation and resuscitation of babies at birth is one of the most frequently performed procedures and requires considerable skill. If it is not done well, the baby may suffer prolonged hypoxia and bradycardia. Over the last few years there has been a growing interest in carefully evaluating an infant's condition at birth and the details of what is happening during resuscitation. Clinical assessment of an infant at this time is difficult and often inaccurate. Assessments of heart rate, colour, chest excursions, mask leak, tidal volume, inflation and expiration times, endotracheal intubation, and spontaneous breathing are imprecise. Detailed monitoring of gas flow in and out of the baby, integrated to tidal volume and used to calculate the leak around the face mask or endotracheal tube, together with ventilation pressures, pulse oximetry, ECG, and capnography add objectivity to the clinical assessments. These physiological parameters can be used directly to guide care but are also very useful for debriefing, feedback, audit, teaching, and research. With simultaneous video recording of the resuscitation it is possible to see exactly what is happening during the procedure. Endotracheal intubation is a difficult skill to learn and teach. However, this is now much easier with video laryngoscopy showing the intubator and supervisors exactly what is happening at the larynx.

10.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 103(4): F307-F311, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29079651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency and cause of neonatal ventilator alarms. Neonatal ventilators frequently alarm and also disturb babies, parents and nurses. If frequent they may cause alarm fatigue and be ignored. The number, frequency and details of neonatal ventilator alarms are unreported. METHODS: We developed programs for retrieving and analysing ventilator data each second on alarms and ventilation parameters from 46 babies ventilated with Dräger Babylog VN500 ventilators using various modes. RESULTS: A mean of 60 hours was recorded per baby. Over 116 days, 27 751 alarms occurred. On average, that was 603 per baby and 10 per hour. Median (IQR) alarm duration was 10 (4-21) s. Type, frequency and duration varied between infants. Some babies had >10% of their time with alarms. Eight alarm types caused ~99% of all alarms. Three alarms, 'MV high limit' and 'respiratory rate >high limit', caused 46.6%, often due to inappropriate settings. 49.9% were due to a low expired tidal volume during volume guarantee ventilation, often due to the maximum pressure being set too low. 26 106 (94.1%) of all alarms lasted <1 min. However, 86 alarms lasted >10 min and 16 alarms >1 hour. Similar alarms were frequently clustered, sometimes >100/hour. CONCLUSIONS: Frequent ventilator alarms are caused by physiological variability in the respiratory rate or minute volume, inappropriate alarm limits or too low maximum peak inflating pressure during volume-targeted ventilation. While most alarms were very short, sometimes alarms were ignored by neonatal intensive care unit staff for long periods.


Assuntos
Alarmes Clínicos/normas , Falha de Equipamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Ventiladores Mecânicos , Alarmes Clínicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Respiração Artificial/métodos
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD003666, 2017 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29039883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Damage caused by lung overdistension (volutrauma) has been implicated in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Modern neonatal ventilation modes can target a set tidal volume as an alternative to traditional pressure-limited ventilation (PLV) using a fixed inflation pressure. Volume-targeted ventilation (VTV) aims to produce a more stable tidal volume in order to reduce lung damage and stabilise the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). OBJECTIVES: To determine whether VTV compared with PLV leads to reduced rates of death and death or BPD in newborn infants and to determine whether use of VTV affected outcomes including air leak, cranial ultrasound findings and neurodevelopment. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 12), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 13 January 2017), Embase (1980 to 13 January 2017) and CINAHL (1982 to 13 January 2017). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. We contacted the principal investigators of studies to obtain supplementary information. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing VTV versus PLV in infants of less than 44 weeks' postmenstrual age and reporting clinically relevant outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We assessed risk of bias for each trial using Cochrane methodology. We evaluated quality of evidence for each outcome using GRADE criteria. We tabulated mortality, rates of BPD, short-term clinical outcomes and long-term developmental outcomes. STATISTICS: for categorical outcomes, we calculated typical estimates for risk ratios (RR), risk differences (RD) and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB). For continuous variables, we calculated typical estimates for mean differences (MD). We used 95% confidence intervals (CI) and assumed a fixed-effect model for meta-analysis. MAIN RESULTS: Twenty randomised trials met our inclusion criteria; 16 parallel trials (977 infants) and four cross-over trials (88 infants). No studies were blinded and the quality of evidence for outcomes assessed varied from moderate to low.We found no difference in the primary outcome, death before hospital discharge, between VTV modes versus PLV modes (typical RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.07; low quality evidence). However, there was moderate quality evidence that the use of VTV modes resulted in a reduction in the primary outcome, death or BPD at 36 weeks' gestation (typical RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.89; typical NNTB 8, 95% CI 5 to 20) and the following secondary outcomes: rates of pneumothorax (typical RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.87; typical NNTB 20, 95% CI 11 to 100), mean days of mechanical ventilation (MD -1.35 days, 95% CI -1.83 to -0.86), rates of hypocarbia (typical RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.72; typical NNTB 3, 95% CI 2 to 5), rates of grade 3 or 4 intraventricular haemorrhage (typical RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.77; typical NNTB 11, 95% CI 7 to 25) and the combined outcome of periventricular leukomalacia with or without grade 3 or 4 intraventricular haemorrhage (typical RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.80; typical NNTB 11, 95% CI 7 to 33). VTV modes were not associated with any increased adverse outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Infants ventilated using VTV modes had reduced rates of death or BPD, pneumothoraces, hypocarbia, severe cranial ultrasound pathologies and duration of ventilation compared with infants ventilated using PLV modes. Further studies are needed to identify whether VTV modes improve neurodevelopmental outcomes and to compare and refine VTV strategies.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/métodos , Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/mortalidade , Pressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20172017 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28794088

RESUMO

A neonate presented with early encephalopathy deteriorated and was intubated and ventilated. Ventilator data were monitored and recorded at 100 Hz for 24 hours.The infant had many sudden deep inspirations during this time which were initially thought to be seizures. These were characterised by short, rapid, large inspirations when the airway pressure was reduced well below the positive end expiratory pressure level. Analysis of the ventilator data showed that these were hiccupping episodes misinterpreted by the ventilator as spontaneous breaths and triggering ventilator inflations. The expired tidal volumes during the hiccupping episodes were more than double the set 4.5 mL/kg. During these episodes, there was no change in the level of consciousness or in the amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram signal. Detailed respiratory recording of pathological hiccups has not been reported.Metabolic screening diagnosed non-ketotic hyperglycinaemia. Hiccups commonly occur in this condition and should not be misinterpreted as seizures, spontaneous breaths or gasps.


Assuntos
Hiperglicinemia não Cetótica/diagnóstico , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Evolução Fatal , Soluço/etiologia , Humanos , Hiperglicinemia não Cetótica/complicações , Hiperglicinemia não Cetótica/terapia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Respiração Artificial
13.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 52(10): 1316-1322, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28682001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbon-dioxide elimination during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is thought to be proportional to the carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient (DCO2 ) which is calculated as frequency x (tidal volume)2 . DCO2 can be used to as an indicator of CO2 elimination but values obtained in different patients cannot be directly compared. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the relationship between DCO2 , the weight-corrected DCO2 (DCO2 corr) and blood gas PCO2 values obtained from infants receiving HFOV. METHODS: DCO2 data were obtained from 14 infants at 1/s sampling rate and the mean DCO2 was determined over 10 min periods preceding the time of the blood gas. DCO2 corr was calculated by dividing the DCO2 by the square of the body weight in kg. RESULTS: Weight-correction significantly reduced the inter-individual variability of DCO2 . When data from all the babies were combined, standard DCO2 showed no correlation with PCO2 but DCO2 corr showed a weak but statistically significant inverse correlation. The correlation was better when the endotracheal leak was <10%. There was significant inverse but weaker correlation between the HFOV tidal volume (VThf) and the PCO2 . In any baby, DCO2 corr >50 mL2 /sec/kg2 or VThf > 2.5 mL/kg was rarely needed to avoid hypercapnia. CONCLUSIONS: Weight-correction of DCO2 values improved its comparability between patients. Weight-corrected DCO2 correlated better with PCO2 than uncorrected DCO2 but the correlation was weak.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Ventilação de Alta Frequência , Gasometria , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD004953, 2017 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28707404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At birth, infants' lungs are fluid-filled. For newborns to have a successful transition, this fluid must be replaced by air to enable effective breathing. Some infants are judged to have inadequate breathing at birth and are resuscitated with positive pressure ventilation (PPV). Giving prolonged (sustained) inflations at the start of PPV may help clear lung fluid and establish gas volume within the lungs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of an initial sustained (> 1 second duration) lung inflation versus standard inflations (≤ 1 second) in newly born infants receiving resuscitation with intermittent PPV. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 1), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 17 February 2017), Embase (1980 to 17 February 2017), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to 17 February 2017). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles to identify randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing initial sustained lung inflation (SLI) versus standard inflations given to infants receiving resuscitation with PPV at birth. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We assessed the methodological quality of included trials using Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) criteria (assessing randomisation, blinding, loss to follow-up, and handling of outcome data). We evaluated treatment effects using a fixed-effect model with risk ratio (RR) for categorical data and mean, standard deviation (SD), and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We assessed the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. MAIN RESULTS: Eight trials enrolling 941 infants met our inclusion criteria. Investigators in seven trials (932 infants) administered sustained inflation with no chest compressions. Use of sustained inflation had no impact on the primary outcomes of this review - mortality in the delivery room (typical RR 2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 63.40; participants = 479; studies = 5; I² not applicable) and mortality during hospitalisation (typical RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.51; participants = 932; studies = 7; I² = 19%); the quality of the evidence was low for death in the delivery room (limitations in study design and imprecision of estimates) and was moderate for death before discharge (limitations in study design of most included trials). Amongst secondary outcomes, duration of mechanical ventilation was shorter in the SLI group (mean difference (MD) -5.37 days, 95% CI -6.31 to -4.43; participants = 524; studies = 5; I² = 95%; low-quality evidence). Heterogeneity, statistical significance, and magnitude of effects of this outcome are largely influenced by a single study: When this study was removed from the analysis, the effect was largely reduced (MD -1.71 days, 95% CI -3.04 to -0.39, I² = 0%). Results revealed no differences in any of the other secondary outcomes (e.g. rate of endotracheal intubation outside the delivery room by 72 hours of age (typical RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.09; participants = 811; studies = 5; I² = 0%); need for surfactant administration during hospital admission (typical RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.10; participants = 932; studies = 7; I² = 0%); rate of chronic lung disease (typical RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.22; participants = 683; studies = 5; I² = 47%); pneumothorax (typical RR 1.44, 95% CI 0.76 to 2.72; studies = 6, 851 infants; I² = 26%); or rate of patent ductus arteriosus requiring pharmacological treatment (typical RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.30; studies = 6, 745 infants; I² = 36%). The quality of evidence for these secondary outcomes was moderate (limitations in study design of most included trials - GRADE) except for pneumothorax (low quality: limitations in study design and imprecision of estimates - GRADE). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Sustained inflation was not better than intermittent ventilation for reducing mortality in the delivery room and during hospitalisation. The number of events across trials was limited, so differences cannot be excluded. When considering secondary outcomes, such as need for intubation, need for or duration of respiratory support, or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, we found no evidence of relevant benefit for sustained inflation over intermittent ventilation. The duration of mechanical ventilation was shortened in the SLI group. This result should be interpreted cautiously, as it can be influenced by study characteristics other than the intervention. Future RCTs should aim to enrol infants who are at higher risk of morbidity and mortality, should stratify participants by gestational age, and should provide more detailed monitoring of the procedure, including measurements of lung volume and presence of apnoea before or during the SLI.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Intubação Intratraqueal/mortalidade , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/mortalidade , Surfactantes Pulmonares/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Neonatology ; 111(4): 360-366, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28118641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A sustained inflation (SI) at birth in preterm babies may be ineffective unless the infants breathe. Gain in lung volume is associated with breathing during delivery room non-invasive management. OBJECTIVE: To describe the breathing patterns of preterm infants during an SI and correlate to a calculated gain in lung volume. METHODS: Retrospective observational study. Data collected from a respiratory function monitor during SI (25 cmH2O for 15 s then PEEP at 5 cmH2O) through a face mask in preterm infants (gestational age [GA] ≤31 weeks). Spontaneous breaths, inspiratory time (TI), inspiratory/expiratory tidal volume (Vti/Vte), and gain in lung volume were determined. RESULTS: 30 SIs in 20 infants (mean GA 27 weeks; birth weight 825 g) were analysed and stratified in 2 groups according to spontaneous breathing: SIs without spontaneous breaths (apnoea: n = 11) and SIs with spontaneous breaths (breathing: n = 19). Mean GA was lower in the apnoea group versus the breathing group (25 vs. 27+5 weeks; p = 0.01). Mean birth weight was lower in the apnoea group versus the breathing group (683 vs. 860 g; p = ns). In the breathing group, the mean number of spontaneous breaths was 4 with a mean TI of 0.52 min, the mean Vti/kg was 5.9 mL/kg, and the mean Vte was 2.7 mL/kg. The calculated mean gain in lung volume was 7.5 mL/kg in the apnoea group and 17.8 mL/kg in the breathing group (p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: Actively breathing infants during an SI at birth showed a gain in lung volume higher than apnoeic infants. Spontaneous breathing during SI seems to be related to GA.


Assuntos
Apneia/fisiopatologia , Insuflação , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Respiração , Ressuscitação/métodos , Peso ao Nascer , Salas de Parto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Itália , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
16.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 102(3): F208-F213, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27573519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) is beneficial when ventilating preterm newborns. The aim was to study whether inexperienced providers were able to generate PEEP during simulated neonatal ventilation, using two novel prototype PEEP valves, on a self-inflating bag without an external gas source. DESIGN: Forty-six nursing students in Tanzania were trained in ventilation with a new Laerdal Upright resuscitator and mask on a NeoNatalie manikin with a newborn resuscitation monitor. Ventilation was studied with and without PEEP valve 1 (anticipated level 4-5 cm H2O) and with and without PEEP valve 2 (anticipated level 9-10 cm H2O) in random order for normal and low 'lung' compliance. The PEEP valves were concave silicone valves with a small slit that would open to let expiratory air out. RESULTS: Mean PEEP with PEEP1 was 4.4 cm H2O (SD 2.2) and with PEEP2 was 4.9 cm H2O (SD 3.1). PEEP ≥4 cm H2O was generated with 70% of inflations with PEEP1 and 65% with PEEP2. Mean airway pressure was 16.3 cm H2O with both PEEP valves compared with 14.2 without PEEP (p<0.001). Mean mask leak was similar with and without PEEP (48% with PEEP1, 58% with PEEP2, 55% without PEEP). Mask leak and PEEP were inversely correlated. Findings with normal and low 'lung' compliance were similar. CONCLUSIONS: PEEP between 4 cm H2O and 5 cm H2O was achieved when ventilating a neonatal manikin using a self-inflating bag and novel PEEP valves. Valves that can generate PEEP without external gas sources may aid resuscitation in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Cuidado do Lactente/instrumentação , Enfermagem Neonatal/educação , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/instrumentação , Competência Clínica , Educação em Enfermagem/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Recém-Nascido , Complacência Pulmonar , Manequins , Máscaras , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/normas , Distribuição Aleatória , Tanzânia
17.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 121(3): 750-759, 2016 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27402562

RESUMO

Antenatal glucocorticoids, exogenous surfactant, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ventilation are commonly provided to preterm infants to enhance respiratory function after birth. It is unclear how these treatments interact to improve the transition to air-breathing at birth. We investigated the relative contribution of antenatal betamethasone, prophylactic surfactant, and PEEP (3 cmH2O) on functional residual capacity (FRC) and dynamic lung compliance (CDL) in preterm (28 day GA) rabbit kittens at birth. Kittens were delivered by cesarean section and mechanically ventilated. FRC was calculated from X-ray images, and CDL was measured using plethysmography. Without betamethasone, PEEP increased FRC recruitment and CDL Surfactant did not further increase FRC, but significantly increased CDL Betamethasone abolished the benefit of PEEP on FRC, but surfactant counteracted this effect of betamethasone. These findings indicate that low PEEP levels are insufficient to establish FRC at birth following betamethasone treatment. However, surfactant reversed the effect of betamethasone and when combined, these two treatments enhanced FRC recruitment irrespective of PEEP level.

18.
BMJ ; 353: i3106, 2016 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27256283
19.
N Engl J Med ; 374(8): 749-60, 2016 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26863265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safest ranges of oxygen saturation in preterm infants have been the subject of debate. METHODS: In two trials, conducted in Australia and the United Kingdom, infants born before 28 weeks' gestation were randomly assigned to either a lower (85 to 89%) or a higher (91 to 95%) oxygen-saturation range. During enrollment, the oximeters were revised to correct a calibration-algorithm artifact. The primary outcome was death or disability at a corrected gestational age of 2 years; this outcome was evaluated among infants whose oxygen saturation was measured with any study oximeter in the Australian trial and those whose oxygen saturation was measured with a revised oximeter in the U.K. trial. RESULTS: After 1135 infants in Australia and 973 infants in the United Kingdom had been enrolled in the trial, an interim analysis showed increased mortality at a corrected gestational age of 36 weeks, and enrollment was stopped. Death or disability in the Australian trial (with all oximeters included) occurred in 247 of 549 infants (45.0%) in the lower-target group versus 217 of 545 infants (39.8%) in the higher-target group (adjusted relative risk, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.27; P=0.10); death or disability in the U.K. trial (with only revised oximeters included) occurred in 185 of 366 infants (50.5%) in the lower-target group versus 164 of 357 infants (45.9%) in the higher-target group (adjusted relative risk, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.24; P=0.15). In post hoc combined, unadjusted analyses that included all oximeters, death or disability occurred in 492 of 1022 infants (48.1%) in the lower-target group versus 437 of 1013 infants (43.1%) in the higher-target group (relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.23; P=0.02), and death occurred in 222 of 1045 infants (21.2%) in the lower-target group versus 185 of 1045 infants (17.7%) in the higher-target group (relative risk, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.43; P=0.04). In the group in which revised oximeters were used, death or disability occurred in 287 of 580 infants (49.5%) in the lower-target group versus 248 of 563 infants (44.0%) in the higher-target group (relative risk, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.27; P=0.07), and death occurred in 144 of 587 infants (24.5%) versus 99 of 586 infants (16.9%) (relative risk, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.82; P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Use of an oxygen-saturation target range of 85 to 89% versus 91 to 95% resulted in nonsignificantly higher rates of death or disability at 2 years in each trial but in significantly increased risks of this combined outcome and of death alone in post hoc combined analyses. (Funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and others; BOOST-II Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN00842661, and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12605000055606.).


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Infantil , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/sangue , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Oxigênio/sangue , Austrália , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Oximetria , Oxigenoterapia/efeitos adversos , Risco , Reino Unido
20.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 220: 40-5, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26410458

RESUMO

We hypothesized that radiographically-assessed hyperinflation in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is related to the degree of oxygenation impairment. Our objective was to explore the relation of chest radiographic thoracic area (CRTA) with right-to-left shunt, right shift of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve and ventilation/perfusion ratio (VA/Q) in infants with BPD. Twenty-two infants born at median (IQR) gestation of 26 (24-28) weeks with BPD were prospectively studied at 39 (30-69) days. Inspired oxygen (FiO2) was varied to obtain transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) values between 85 and 96%. Shunt, shift and VA/Q were derived by plotting and analysing pairs of SpO2 and FiO2. CRTA was measured by free hand-tracing the perimeter of the thoracic area in anterio-posterior chest radiographs. Median (IQR) shunt was 8 (1-14)%, shift was 13 (11-19)kPa and VA/Q 0.42 (0.30-0.48). Median (IQR) CRTA/kg was 2495 (1962-2838)mm(2) and was significantly related to shift (r=0.674, p<0.001), VA/Q (r=-0.633, p<0.001), weight at study (r=-0.457, p=0.003) and day of life (r=-0.406, p=0.009), but not to shunt. CRTA in BPD is significantly related to oxygenation impairment as quantified by shift and VA/Q. CRTA can be used as a simple radiographic test to quantify BPD severity.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Displasia Broncopulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Radiografia Torácica , Displasia Broncopulmonar/complicações , Displasia Broncopulmonar/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/complicações , Hipóxia/diagnóstico , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Lactente , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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