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1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361759

RESUMO

Croton ferrugineus Kunth is an endemic species of Ecuador used in traditional medicine both for wound healing and as an antiseptic. In this study, fresh Croton ferrugineus leaves were collected and subjected to hydrodistillation for extraction of the essential oil. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer using a non-polar and a polar chromatographic column. The antibacterial activity was assayed against three Gram-positive bacteria, one Gram-negative bacterium and one dermatophyte fungus. The radical scavenging properties of the essential oil was evaluated by means of DPPH and ABTS assays. The chemical analysis allowed us to identify thirty-five compounds representing more than 99.95% of the total composition. Aliphatic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon trans-caryophyllene was the main constituent with 20.47 ± 1.25%. Other main compounds were myrcene (11.47 ± 1.56%), ß-phellandrene (10.55 ± 0.02%), germacrene D (7.60 ± 0.60%), and α-humulene (5.49 ± 0.38%). The essential oil from Croton ferrugineus presented moderate activity against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) with an MIC of 1000 µg/mL, a scavenging capacity SC50 of 901 ± 20 µg/mL with the ABTS method, and very strong antiglucosidase activity with an IC50 of 146 ± 20 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Croton/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Alcenos/química , Alcenos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos/química , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/química , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/química , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Glucosidases/química
2.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361766

RESUMO

Hedyosmum racemosum (Ruiz & Pav.) G. is a native species of Ecuador used in traditional medicine for treatment of rheumatism, bronchitis, cold, cough, asthma, bone pain, and stomach pain. In this study, fresh H. racemosum leaves of male and female specimens were collected and subjected to hydrodistillation for the extraction of the essential oil. The chemical composition of male and female essential oil was determined by gas chromatography-gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector and coupled to a mass spectrometer using a non-polar and a polar chromatographic column. The antibacterial activity was assayed against five Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, and two dermatophytes fungi. The scavenging radical properties of the essential oil were evaluated by DPPH and ABTS assays. The chemical analysis allowed us to identify forty-three compounds that represent more than 98% of the total composition. In the non-polar and polar column, α-phellandrene was the principal constituent in male (28.24 and 25.90%) and female (26.47 and 23.90%) essential oil. Other main compounds were methyl chavicol, germacrene D, methyl eugenol, and α-pinene. Female essential oil presented a strong activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 9997) with an minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 500 µg/mL and a scavenging capacity SC50 of 800 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Magnoliopsida/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Derivados de Alilbenzenos/química , Derivados de Alilbenzenos/isolamento & purificação , Anisóis/química , Anisóis/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Arthrodermataceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/isolamento & purificação , Equador , Eugenol/análogos & derivados , Eugenol/química , Eugenol/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/química , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Sexuais , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores
3.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(8): e2100260, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139055

RESUMO

The phytochemistry of Cynophalla mollis (Kunth) J. Presl and Colicodendron scabridum (Kunth), both belonging to the family Capparaceae, were investigated in this study for the first time. Lupeol, betulin, lutein, stachydrine and quercetin-3,4'-di-O-rhamnoside were isolated from C. mollis, whereas C. scabridum afforded lupeol, lutein, stachydrine, ß-sitosterol, stigmasterol, betonicine and narcissoside. All these compounds were purified by preparative liquid chromatography, in both open column and instrumental (MPLC) separation systems. Preparative TLC was also applied. They were all identified by 1 H- and 13 C-NMR experiments. The complete structure of the very rare flavonoid quercetin-3,4'-di-O-rhamnoside was fully elucidated through DEPT-135, COSY, HMQC and HMBC experiments, together with UV/VIS and FT-IR spectrophotometry. Complete NMR data for quercetin-3,4'-di-O-rhamnoside in deuterated methanol were presented here for the first time. All the extracts did not exert antioxidant activity at the maximum tested dose of 1 mg/mL. Three out of the nine isolated compounds exerted a good spectrum of antioxidant capacity, being narcissoside the most active against ABTS radicals, with SC50 =12.43 µM. It was followed by lutein and quercetin-3,4'-di-O-rhamnoside, with 40.92 µM and 46.10 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Capparaceae/química , Flavonoides/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Quercetina/química , Capparaceae/metabolismo , Equador , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Conformação Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Quercetina/isolamento & purificação
4.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063513

RESUMO

Chemical compositions of plants are affected by the initial nutrient contents in the soil and climatic conditions; thus, we analyzed for the first time the effects of soil and leaf nutrients on the compositions of the essential oils (EOs) of Siparuna muricata in four different localities in Ecuador. EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Enantiomeric distribution by GC/MS was determined, modifying the enantiomeric separation of ß-pinene, limonene, δ-elemene, ß-bourbonene, cis-cadina-1 (6), 4-diene and atractylone. A total of 44 compounds were identified. The most representative for L1 were guaiol, atractylone and 4-diene; for L2, cis-cadina-1(6),4-diene and myrcene; for L3, atractylone, myrcene and germacrene B; and finally, L4 germacrene B, myrcene and cis-cadina-1(6),4-diene. Correlations between soil- leaf chemical elements such as Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, N and Si in the different localities were significant with chemical composition of the essential oil of Siparuna muricata; however, correlations between soil and leaf K, P, and Na were not significant. Cluster and NMDS analysis showed high dissimilarity values of secondary metabolites between four localities related with changes in soil- leaf nutrients. Thus, the SIMPER routine revealed that not all secondary metabolites contribute equally to establishing the differences in the four localities, and the largest contributions are due to differences in guaiol, cis-cadina-1(6),4-diene, atractylone and germacrene. Our investigation showed for the first time the influences of altitude and soil- leaf chemical elements in the chemical composition of the EOs of S. muricata.


Assuntos
Laurales/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Solo/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/análise , Equador , Ionização de Chama , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limoneno/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Metabolismo Secundário , Sesquiterpenos/análise
5.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(2)2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033003

RESUMO

The phytochemical research on the species Siparuna echinata, collected in the Province of Loja (Ecuador), led to the isolation of a rare sesquiterpenoid, called Sipaucin A. The structure was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Furthermore, the essential oil of the fruits was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Twenty-seven compounds were identified in a polydimethylsiloxane column (DB-5ms) and nineteen in a polyethylene glycol column (HP-INNOWax). Major compounds were α-pinene (24.3%, 20.3%), ß-pinene (21.7%, 22.7%), ß-myrcene (11.3%, 14.8%), limonene (10.0%, 11.3%), cis-ocimene (8.5%, 8.1%), and trans-ocimene (8.9%, 8.4%). In addition to the chemical analysis, the essential oil was submitted to enantioselective analysis of two major chiral monotherpenes, determining an enantiomeric excess of 100.0% for (+)-α-pinene and 6.7% for (+)-ß-pinene.

6.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736362

RESUMO

The number of colon cancer patients is increasing, and new alternatives for treatment are important. We focused on the sesquiterpene lactone onoseriolide from Hedyosmum racemosum, which is widely used in traditional medicine. This compound was evaluated to determine its cytotoxic effect and the mechanism of cell death that is induced in the human colon cancer cell line RKO. A dose-dependent decrease in cell viability was observed. p53 expression increased followed by an increase in p21 expression, which is involved in cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Caspase-3 activation and PARP-1 cleavage, which are apoptotic markers, were also monitored. Autophagy markers were also studied, and Beclin 1 was downregulated, while LC-3II increased in a dose-dependent manner. There were no changes in SQSTM1/p62 regulation. Onoseriolide exerts cytotoxic and cytostatic effects, activating the autophagy pathway as a protective mechanism and apoptosis as the cell death pathway.

7.
Plants (Basel) ; 8(1)2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577466

RESUMO

In this research, the leaves of Lepechinia heteromorpha (Briq.) Epling, Lepechinia radula (Benth.) Epling and Lepechinia paniculata (Kunth) Epling have been collected in order to perform a phytochemical study. The first species was distilled to obtain a novel essential oil (EO), while the others were submitted to ethyl acetate extraction and secondary metabolite isolation. The chemical composition of the EO from L. heteromorpha has been investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography with Retention Indices (GC(RI)), identifying 25 constituents. A major compound, (-)-ledol (21.2%), and a minor compound, (-)-caryophyllene oxide (1.0%), were isolated from the EO and their structures confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Other major constituents of the EO were viridiflorene (27.3%), (E,E)-α-farnesene (1.4%), spirolepechinene and (E)-ß-caryophyllene (7.1% each), allo-aromadendrene (6.1%), camphor (1.7%), limonene (1.3%) and ß-phellandrene (4.6%). The enantiomeric composition of the EO monoterpene fraction was also studied, determining the enantiomeric excess and distribution of α-pinene, limonene, ß-phellandrene and camphor. The ethyl acetate extract of L. radula and L. paniculata were fractionated by column chromatography. Spathulenol, angustanoic acid E and 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy flavone were isolated from L. radula extract; ledol, guaiol and (-)-carnosol were found in L. paniculata.

8.
Molecules ; 23(1)2018 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29324657

RESUMO

The phytochemical investigation of both volatile and fixed metabolites of Clinopodium taxifolium (Kunth) Govaerts (Lamiaceae) was performed for the first time. It allowed the isolation and characterization of the essential oil and six known compounds: carvacrol (1), squalane (2), uvaol (3), erythrodiol (4), ursolic acid (5), and salvigenin (6). Their structures were identified and characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS), and corroborated by literature. The essential oil of the leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation in two different periods and analyzed by GC-MS and GC coupled to Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). A total of 54 compounds were detected, of which 42 were identified (including trace constituents). The major constituents were carvacrol methyl ether (18.9-23.2%), carvacrol (13.8-16.3%) and, carvacryl acetate (11.4-4.8%). The antibacterial activities were determined as Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Micrococcus luteus. The hexane and methanol extracts exhibited activity only against Klebsiella pneumoniae (250 and 500 µg/mL respectively), while the ethyl acetate extract was inactive. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated by the in vitro inhibition of α-glucosidase. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract showed strong inhibitory activity with IC50 = 24.88 µg/mL, however methanolic and hexanic extracts showed weak activity. As a pure compound, only ursolic acid showed a strong inhibitory activity, with IC50 = 72.71 µM.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Lamiaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , alfa-Glucosidases/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Lamiaceae/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Metabolismo Secundário
9.
Chem Biodivers ; 15(2)2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29087042

RESUMO

This article reports the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of male and female H. scabrum fresh leaves. The essential oils, HSMO and HSFO, respectively, were analyzed by GC/MS and GC-FID. A total of 93 components were detected, accounting for 94.8% and 95.3% of HSMO and HSFO, respectively. The prevalent constituents of HSMO were pinocarvone (13.1%), d-germacren-4-ol (12.6%), 1,8-cineole (10.8%), α-pinene (6.4%), and ß-pinene (4.8%), whereas the major components of HSFO were 1,8-cineole (20.5%), linalool (16.5%), α-pinene (15.0%), ß-pinene (6.4%), and sabinene (6.3%). The different enantiomeric distribution of ß-pinene, sabinene, limonene, linalool in the two oils, was determined. The non-volatile esters of p-coumaric and ferulic acids with borneol (1 and 4), cis-chrysanthenol (2 and 5), and cis-pinocarveol (3 and 6) were identified in the leaves after basic hydrolysis and analysis of the NMR spectra of the free acids, and GC/MS spectra of the monoterpene alcohols, respectively. Compounds 2, 3, 5, and 6 have been found in nature for the first time. These findings demonstrated that, from a chemical point of view, male and female individuals of H. scabrum collected in Ecuador seem quite differentiated between each other and from samples of the same species growing in Bolivia and in Peru.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Equador , Conformação Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/química
10.
Molecules ; 21(11)2016 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27827864

RESUMO

The phytochemical investigation of Muehlenbeckia tamnifolia, collected in Loja-Ecuador, led to the isolation of nine known compounds identified as: lupeol acetate (1); cis-p-coumaric acid (2); lupeol (3); ß-sitosterol (4) trans-p-coumaric acid (5); linoleic acid (6) (+)-catechin (7); afzelin (8) and quercitrin (9). The structures of the isolated compounds were determined based on analysis of NMR and MS data, as well as comparison with the literature. The hypoglycemic activity of crude extracts and isolated compounds was assessed by the ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. The hexane extract showed weak inhibitory activity on α-amylase, with an IC50 value of 625 µg·mL-1, while the other extracts and isolated compounds were inactive at the maximum dose tested. The results on α-glucosidase showed more favorable effects; the hexanic and methanolic extracts exhibited a strong inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 48.22 µg·mL-1 and 19.22 µg·mL-1, respectively. Four of the nine isolated compounds exhibited strong inhibitory activity with IC50 values below 8 µM, much higher than acarbose (377 uM). Linoleic acid was the most potent compound (IC50 = 0.42 µM) followed by afzelin, (+)-catechin and quercitrin.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polygonaceae/química , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Glucosidases , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
11.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 23(2): 370-373, Mar.-Apr. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-669511

RESUMO

The MeOH extract of Piper ecuadorense Sodiro, Piperaceae, was chosen for metabolite isolation and elucidation due to the strong antifungal activity exhibited, measured by means of the broth microdilution method. Two known flavonoids: pinostrobin (1) and pinocembrin (2) were isolated from 4.16 g. of dichloromethane extract by column chromatography, using a gradient of hexane/EtOAc. A total of 20 mg of 1 were obtained from the fraction eluted with hexane-EtOAc 95:5 v/v, and 100 mg of 2 were obtained from the fraction eluted with hexane-EtOAc 85:15 v/v. The MIC values of the MeOH extract was 31.25 µg/mL for Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC® 28185 and 62.5 µg/mL for Trichophyton rubrum ATCC® 28188. The MIC value of pinocembrin was 125 µg/mL for Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC® 28185 and Trichophyton rubrum ATCC® 28188. Pinostrobin in antifungal test was not active against fungi tested.

12.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 21(5): 850-855, Sept.-Oct. 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-600965

RESUMO

The essential oil of the species Clinopodium nubigenum (Kunth) Kuntze, Lamiaceae, was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID, taking into account the more recent literature. Among the seventy compounds identified, the majority are oxygenated monoterpenoids. The essential oil, tested for antimicrobial activity, resulted effective in vitro against Candida albicans. From the aqueous MeOH extract of the aerial parts of the plant two nonvolatile compounds, named schizonepetoside A and schizonepedoside C, have been isolated. They are rare glycosyl terpenoids, which were previously isolated from only one plant, but never found before in the genus Clinopodium.

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