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1.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(Supplement_5): v39-v51, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280015

RESUMO

Lupus nephritis (LN) is a frequent and severe manifestation of SLE. Along the decades, the epidemiology of LN and its clinical presentation have been changing. However, even though retrospective cohort studies report a decreased mortality rate and an improvement in the disease prognosis, the percentage of patients progressing into end stage renal disease (ESRD) keeps steady despite the improvements in therapeutic strategies. Current in-use medications have been available for decades now, yet over the years, regimens for optimizing their efficacy and minimizing toxicity have been developed. Therapeutic research is now moving towards the direction of precision medicine and several new drugs, targeting selectively different pathogenetic pathways, are currently under evaluation with promising results. In this review, we address the main changes and persistent unmet needs in LN management throughout the past decades, with a focus on prognosis and upcoming treatments.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Serum anti-dsDNA and anti-nucleosome IgGs have been proposed as signatures for SLE and LN in limited numbers of patients. We sought to show higher sensitivity and specificity of the same antibodies with the IgG2 isotype and included IgG2 antibodies vs specific intracellular antigens in the analysis. METHODS: A total of 1052 SLE patients with (n = 479) and without (n = 573) LN, recruited at different times from the beginning of symptoms, were included in the study. Patients with primary APS (PAPS, n = 24), RA (RA, n = 24) and UCTD (UCTD, n = 96) were analysed for comparison. Anti-nucleosome (dsDNA, Histone2A, Histone3), anti-intracellular antigens (ENO1), anti-annexin A1 and anti-C1q IgG2 were determined by non-commercial techniques. RESULTS: The presence in the serum of the IgG2 panel was highly discriminatory for SLE/LN vs healthy subjects. Serum levels of anti-dsDNA and anti-C1q IgG2 were more sensitive than those of IgGs (Farr radioimmunoassay/commercial assays) in identifying SLE patients at low-medium increments. Of more importance, serum positivity for anti-ENO1 and anti-H2A IgG2 discriminated between LN and SLE (ROC T0-12 months), and high levels at T0-1 month were detected in 63% and 67%, respectively, of LN, vs 3% and 3%, respectively, of SLE patients; serum positivity for each of these was correlated with high SLEDAI values. Minor differences existed between LN/SLE and the other rheumatologic conditions. CONCLUSION: Nephritogenic IgG2 antibodies represent a specific signature of SLE/LN, with a few overlaps with other rheumatologic conditions. High levels of anti-ENO1 and anti-H2A IgG2 correlated with SLE activity indexes and were discriminatory between SLE patients limited to the renal complication and other SLE patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Zeus study was registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02403115.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Circulating anti-ENO1 and anti-H2A IgG2 have been identified as specific signatures of LN in a cross-over approach. We sought to show whether the same antibodies identify selected population of patients with LN with potentially different clinical outcomes. METHODS: Here we report the prospective analysis over 36 months of circulating IgG2 levels in patients with newly diagnosed LN (n=91) and SLE (n=31) and in other patients with SLE recruited within 2 years from diagnosis (n=99). Anti-podocyte (ENO1), anti-nucleosome (DNA, histone 2 A, histone 3) and anti-circulating proteins (C1q, AnnexinA1-ANXA1) IgG2 antibodies were determined by home-made techniques. RESULTS: LN patients were the main focus of the study. Anti-ENO1, anti-H2A and anti-ANXA1 IgG2 decreased in parallel to proteinuria and normalized within 12 months in the majority of patients while anti-dsDNA IgG2 remained high over the 36 months. Anti-ENO1 and anti-H2A had the highest association with proteinuria (Heat Map) and identified the highest number of patients with high proteinuria (68% and 71% respectively) and/or with reduced estimated glomerula filtration rate (eGFR) (58% for both antibodies) compared with 23% and 17% of anti-dsDNA (agreement analysis). Anti-ENO1 positive LN patients had higher proteinuria than negative patients at T0 and presented the maximal decrement within 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-ENO1, anti-H2A and anti-ANXA1 antibodies were associated with high proteinuria in LN patients and Anti-ENO1 also presented the maximal reduction within 12 months that paralleled the decrease of proteinuria. Anti-dsDNA were not associated with renal outcome parameters. New IgG2 antibody signatures should be utilized as tracers of personalized therapies in LN. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Zeus study was registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov (study number: NCT02403115).

4.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 116: 104516, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853636

RESUMO

Renal biopsy (RBx) is an essential tool in the diagnostic and therapeutic process of most native kidney diseases and in the renal transplanted graft. Laser capture microdissection (LCM), combined with molecular biology, might improve the diagnostic power of RBx. However, the limited amount of available renal tissue is often an obstacle for achieving a satisfactory qualitative and quantitative analysis. In our work we present a method which allows us to obtain good quality and quantity of RNA from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) renal tissue derived from RBx performed in transplanted patients. Histology, immunohistochemistry, LCM, pre-amplify system and qRT-PCR of biomarkers related to tubular damage, inflammation and fibrosis on FFPE RBx were performed. Glomeruli, tubules and interstitium of three RBx (RB-A: no alteration; RB-B and -C: the progressive rise of creatinine) were compared. The method proposed, could well be useful in future clinical practice. It is quick, easy to perform and allows the analyses of many biomarkers. In addition, it could be extended to all types of RBx without any limitation on the sample amount. Nevertheless, the need for a higher number of well-trained technicians might represent some limitation, counterbalanced by the opportunity to elaborate more accurate diagnosis and, consequently, more targeted therapies.

5.
Kidney Int ; 98(5): 1149-1159, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650020

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence indicates that asymptomatic hyperuricemia is involved in the development of hypertension and chronic kidney disease. A 2-hit model has been proposed to explain the role of urate in hypertension. The first hit entails activation of the renin-angiotensin system and inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis, which promote endothelial dysfunction, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, and sodium reabsorption, leading to a moderate but consistent increase in systemic blood pressure. The second hit involves the immune system. Uric acid released in response to hypertension-induced damage can be recognized as a danger molecule by pattern-recognition receptors, the sentinels of the innate immunity. Downstream signaling from these receptors leads to dendritic cell maturation and activation of resting T cells, but it can also trigger the inflammasome and induce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. This proinflammatory milieu concurs in expanding the extracellular fluid volume and in increasing vascular resistances, which further promote systemic hypertension. Through similar mechanisms, hyperuricemia may also cause vascular and tubulointerstitial lesions that favor the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. To counteract these actions, xanthine oxidase inhibitors and uricosuric agents have been advocated as logical candidates to decrease the serum levels of uric acid. However, despite a clear rationale for using hypouricemic drugs in patients with chronic kidney disease, there is currently a lack of robust evidence that lowering uric acid may slow the progression of renal disease.

6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(8): 1077-1083, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503858

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Short-term predictive endpoints of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are needed in lupus nephritis (LN). We tested response to therapy at 1 year. METHODS: We considered patients with LN who underwent renal biopsy followed by induction therapy between January 1970 and December 2016. LN was assessed using the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (2003) criteria and the National Institute of Health (NIH) activity and chronicity index. The renal outcome was CKD. Response was defined according to EULAR/European League Against Rheumatism/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (EULAR/ERA-EDTA) recommendations: complete: proteinuria <0.5 g/24 hours, (near) normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); partial: ≥50% proteinuria reduction to subnephrotic levels, (near) normal eGFR; and no response: all the other cases. Logistic regression analysis was employed for 12-month response and Cox regression for CKD prediction. RESULTS: We studied 381 patients (90.5% Caucasians). After 12-month therapy, 58%, 26% and 16% of patients achieved complete, partial and no response, respectively, according to EULAR/ERA-EDTA. During a median follow-up of 10.7 (IQR: 4.97-18.80) years, 53 patients developed CKD. At 15 years, CKD-free survival rate was 95.2%, 87.6% and 55.4% in patients with complete, partial and no response at 12 months, respectively (p<0.0001). CKD-free survival rates did not differ between complete and partial responders (p=0.067). Serum creatinine (HR: 1.485, 95% CI 1.276 to 1.625), eGFR (HR 0.967, 95% CI 0.957 to 0.977) and proteinuria at 12 months (HR 1.234, 95% CI 1.111 to 1.379) were associated with CKD, yet no reliable cut-offs were identified on the receiver operating characteristic curve. In multivariable analysis, no EULAR/ERA-EDTA response at 12 months (HR 5.165, 95% CI 2.770 to 7.628), low C4 (HR 1.053, 95% CI 1.019 to 1.089) and persistent arterial hypertension (HR 3.154, 95% CI 1.500 to 4.547) independently predicted CKD. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of EULAR/ERA-EDTA response at 12 months predicts CKD.


Assuntos
Nefrite Lúpica/complicações , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Nephrol ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548773

RESUMO

This review is devoted to rheumatologic diseases mainly characterized by different types of arthritis. They may involve also different organs, including the kidney, but renal disease is more frequently caused by the nephrotoxicity of drugs to relieve pain or to interfere with the pathophysiology of the underlying disease. Rheumatoid arthritis is the prototype of arthropathies. This autoimmune disease mainly attacks joints, tendons and ligaments but can also involve internal organs including the kidney. Psoriatic arthritis is a complex disease in which psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory disease, is associated with the development of peripheral arthritis or spondylitis. The disease or its treatment may lead to kidney complications. Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis which is characterized by an increase in the serum uric acid deposits in and around the joints of the extremities, the so called tophi. The disease is often associated with a metabolic syndrome with diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Kidney injury is frequent. It may be caused by kidney stones, urinary tract obstruction, tubulointerstitial and vascular lesions leading to CKD and renal failure.

8.
J Nephrol ; 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529559

RESUMO

The kidney is frequently involved by autoimmune rheumatic diseases. The renal manifestations may be variable, ranging from asymptomatic proteinuria and microscopic haematuria to nephrotic syndrome and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis or vasculitis. In a number of cases the kidney involvement is related to the treatment of the original disease and may represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is important for nephrologists and rheumatologists to remember that dysfunction of the kidney may be part of the primary systemic disorder or consequence of its pharmacotherapy. In the first part of this review we will analyse the kidney involvement in four autoimmune connective tissue diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, and systemic sclerosis. Renal disease is common in lupus and is a main cause of morbidity and mortality. About 10% of patients with Sjögren syndrome may present interstitial nephritis or, more rarely, glomerulonephritis. Myoglobinuria and acute kidney injury is a frequent complication of polymyositis. Renal disease is one of the most serious complications of systemic sclerosis and may present with a dramatic renal crisis, characterized by malignant hypertension, oligo-anuria, and microangiopathic thrombocytopenic anaemia.

9.
J Nephrol ; 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ideal long-term maintenance therapy of Lupus Nephritis (LN) is still a matter of debate. The present study was aimed at comparing the efficacy/safety profile of cyclosporine (CsA), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and azathioprine (AZA) in long-term maintenance therapy of LN. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients with biopsy-proven active LN. After induction therapy, all patients received maintenance therapy with CsA, MMF or AZA based on medical decision. Primary endpoint was complete renal remission (CRR) after 8 years (defined as proteinuria < 0.5 g/24 h, eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 mq); secondary endpoints were: CRR after 1 year, renal and extrarenal flares, progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD stage 3 or above) and side-effects. RESULTS: Out of 106 patients, 34 received CsA, 36 MMF and 36 AZA. Clinical and histological characteristics at start of induction therapy were comparable among groups. At start of maintenance therapy, CsA patients had significantly higher proteinuria (P = 0.004) or nephrotic syndrome (P = 0.024) and significantly lower CRR (23.5% vs 55.5% on MMF and 41.7% on AZA, P = 0.024). At one year, CRR was similar in the three groups (79.4% on CsA, 63.8% on MMF, 58.3% on AZA, P = 0.2). At 8 years, the primary endpoint was achieved by 79.4% of CsA vs 83.3% of MMF and 77.8% of AZA patients (P = 0.83); 24 h proteinuria, serum creatinine, eGFR were similar. CKD stage 3 or above developed in 8.8% of CsA, in 8.3% of MMF and in 8.3% of AZA patients (P = 0.92). Flares-free survival curves and incidence of side-effects were not different. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study comparing CsA, MMF and AZA on long-term LN maintenance therapy. All treatments had similar efficacy in achieving and maintaining CRR, despite more severe baseline clinical features in patients treated with CsA.

10.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(7): 943-950, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321721

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Remission in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is defined through a combination of 'clinical SLE Disease Activity Index (cSLEDAI)=0', 'physician's global assessment (PGA) <0.5' and 'prednisone (PDN) ≤5 mg/day'. We investigated the performance of these items, alone or in combination, in defining remission and in predicting SLICC/ACR Damage Index. METHODS: We tested seven potential definitions of remission in SLE patients followed-up for ≥5 years: PDN ≤5 mg/day; PGA <0.5; cSLEDAI=0; PGA <0.5 plus PDN ≤5 mg/day; cSLEDAI=0 plus PGA <0.5; cSLEDAI=0 plus PDN ≤5 mg/day; cSLEDAI=0 plus PDN ≤5 mg/day plus PGA <0.5. The effect of these definitions on damage was evaluated by Poisson regression analysis; the best performance was identified as the lowest Akaike and Bayesian information criterion (AIC and BIC). Positive and negative predictive values in identifying no damage increase were calculated. RESULTS: We included 646 patients (mean±SD disease duration 9.2±6.9 years). At multivariate analysis, ≥2 consecutive year remission according to all definitions protected against damage (OR, 95% CI: PGA <0.5 0.631, 0.444 to 0.896; cSLEDAI=0 0.531, 0.371 to 0.759; PGA <0.5 plus PDN ≤5 mg/day 0.554, 0.381 to 0.805; cSLEDAI=0 plus PGA <0.5 0.574, 0.400 to 0.826; cSLEDAI=0 plus PDN ≤5 mg/day 0.543, 0.376 to 0.785; cSLEDAI=0 plus PDN ≤5 mg/day plus PGA <0.5 0.532, 0.363 to 0.781, p<0.01 for all), except PDN ≤5 mg/day, which required four consecutive years (OR 0.534, 95% CI 0.325 to 0.877, p=0.013). Positive and negative predictive values were similar; however, cSLEDAI=0 showed the best performance (AIC 1082.90, BIC 1109.72, p<0.0001). Adding PGA <0.5 and/or PDN ≤5 mg/day to cSLEDAI=0 decreased remission duration (-1.8 and -1.5 year/patient, respectively) without increasing cSLEDAI=0 performance in predicting damage accrual. CONCLUSIONS: cSLEDAI=0 is the most attainable definition of remission, while displaying the best performance in predicting damage progression in the short-to-mid-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/classificação , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Análise de Regressão , Indução de Remissão
11.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(6): 713-723, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the 2012 EULAR/ERA-EDTA recommendations for the management of lupus nephritis (LN). METHODS: Following the EULAR standardised operating procedures, a systematic literature review was performed. Members of a multidisciplinary Task Force voted independently on their level of agreeement with the formed statements. RESULTS: The changes include recommendations for treatment targets, use of glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and management of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The target of therapy is complete response (proteinuria <0.5-0.7 g/24 hours with (near-)normal glomerular filtration rate) by 12 months, but this can be extended in patients with baseline nephrotic-range proteinuria. Hydroxychloroquine is recommended with regular ophthalmological monitoring. In active proliferative LN, initial (induction) treatment with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF 2-3 g/day or mycophenolic acid (MPA) at equivalent dose) or low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide (CY; 500 mg × 6 biweekly doses), both combined with glucocorticoids (pulses of intravenous methylprednisolone, then oral prednisone 0.3-0.5 mg/kg/day) is recommended. MMF/CNI (especially tacrolimus) combination and high-dose CY are alternatives, for patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria and adverse prognostic factors. Subsequent long-term maintenance treatment with MMF or azathioprine should follow, with no or low-dose (<7.5 mg/day) glucocorticoids. The choice of agent depends on the initial regimen and plans for pregnancy. In non-responding disease, switch of induction regimens or rituximab are recommended. In pure membranous LN with nephrotic-range proteinuria or proteinuria >1 g/24 hours despite renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade, MMF in combination with glucocorticoids is preferred. Assessment for kidney and extra-renal disease activity, and management of comorbidities is lifelong with repeat kidney biopsy in cases of incomplete response or nephritic flares. In ESKD, transplantation is the preferred kidney replacement option with immunosuppression guided by transplant protocols and/or extra-renal manifestations. Treatment of LN in children follows the same principles as adult disease. CONCLUSIONS: We have updated the EULAR recommendations for the management of LN to facilitate homogenization of patient care.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Europa (Continente) , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Nefrite Lúpica/complicações , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Nefrite Lúpica/fisiopatologia , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Proteinúria/etiologia , Proteinúria/terapia
12.
Kidney Int ; 97(4): 806-807, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200866
13.
J Nephrol ; 33(6): 1343-1359, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166655

RESUMO

Even though fertility is reduced, conception and delivery are possible in all stages of CKD. While successful planned pregnancies are increasing, an unwanted pregnancy may have long-lasting deleterious effects, hence the importance of birth control, an issue often disregarded in clinical practice. The evidence summarized in this position statement is mainly derived from the overall population, or other patient categories, in the lack of guidelines specifically addressed to CKD. Oestroprogestagents can be used in early, non-proteinuric CKD, excluding SLE and immunologic disorders, at high risk of thromboembolism and hypertension. Conversely, progestin only is generally safe and its main side effect is intramestrual spotting. Non-medicated intrauterine devices are a good alternative; their use needs to be carefully evaluated in patients at a high risk of pelvic infection, even though the degree of risk remains controversial. Barrier methods, relatively efficacious when correctly used, have few risks, and condoms are the only contraceptives that protect against sexually transmitted diseases. Surgical sterilization is rarely used also because of the risks surgery involves; it is not definitely contraindicated, and may be considered in selected cases. Emergency contraception with high-dose progestins or intrauterine devices is not contraindicated but should be avoided whenever possible, even if far preferable to abortion. Surgical abortion is invasive, but experience with medical abortion in CKD is still limited, especially in the late stages of the disease. In summary, personalized contraception is feasible, safe and should be offered to all CKD women of childbearing age who do not want to get pregnant.

14.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 31(1): 109-117, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129203

RESUMO

The management of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced glomerular disease remains unsatisfactory despite novel advances in antiviral and immunosuppressive therapy. Recent evidence highlighted the role of ribavirin, a drug provided with immunomodulatory properties, in the treatment of glomerular diseases associated with chronic HCV. We administered low-dose ribavirin (200 mg/day or 200 mg twice a week or 200 mg thrice weekly) in a prospective fashion to a group of patients with HCV-associated glomerular disease (n = 7). Ribavirin monotherapy was given in most (n = 6) patients and was accompanied by erythropoietin therapy in all. The primary endpoint was reduction of 24-h proteinuria after treatment ended; the secondary end-points were decrease in serum creatinine and amelioration of urinary abnormalities. We collected data on on-treatment adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, and laboratory abnormalities. Many patients (n = 6) had inactive HCV infection as they had shown HCV RNA clearance from serum after antiviral therapy with direct-acting antivirals. Some patients (n = 4) had membranoproliferative glomerulo- nephritis, the diagnosis being confirmed by kidney histology in three cases; others (n = 2) received diagnosis of diabetic glomerulosclerosis, confirmed in one by kidney biopsy. We observed consistent reduction of 24-h proteinuria in two individuals after ribavirin therapy; another patient reported disappearance of microscopic hematuria. We found severe AE (hemolytic anemia) in three patients which required discontinuation of ribavirin treatment in two patients, one required hospitalization. Other AEs were cutaneous rash (n = 1), dyspepsia (n = 1), and fatigue (n = 1). Low-dose ribavirin was able to give consistent reduction of 24-h proteinuria in two patients; tolerance to ribavirin was unsatisfactory. We need further studies aimed to expand our knowledge on ribavirin therapy of HCV-associated glomerular disease. The low incidence of the disease hampers the conduction of clinical trials on this aim.

15.
J Nephrol ; 33(5): 1019-1025, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Belimumab (Benlysta) is currently approved for the treatment of active Lupus despite standard therapy. Few data are available on the efficacy of this drug in lupus nephritis (LN). METHODS: 17 LN female followed in two Nephrology Italian Unit received belimumab for a median period of 36 months (range 6-42 months). The indications were: arthralgia in 3 patients, cutaneous manifestations in 2, residual proteinuria in 8, and the need to reduce steroids for severe side effects in 4. Of interest, 1 patient started therapy during Peritoneal Dialysis and continued after kidney transplantation due to non-responsive arthralgias. RESULTS: Arthralgia and skin manifestations resolved in all patients. Proteinuria normalized in three patients and stabilized in all but one of the others. Steroids were indefinitely stopped in six patients (35%) and reduced to around 40% of the basal dosage in the other patients. During belimumab therapy, three extrarenal and one renal SLE flares were diagnosed accounting for a rate of renal flares of 0.02/patient/year. No major adverse events leading to therapy withdrawal occurred. CLINICAL CASE: Arthralgia resolved, immunological parameters improved and prednisone could be reduced within few months in the patient who started belimumab during peritoneal dialysis. After kidney transplantation belimumab was stopped but due to arthralgias unresponsive to standard immunosuppressive therapy it was restarted with success. CONCLUSIONS: Belimumab allows the achievement of complete response together with the withdrawal or the reduction of corticosteroids in almost all our patients. Of interest its satisfactory use in a patient in peritoneal dialysis and after kidney transplantation.

16.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 19(3): 257-267, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073914

RESUMO

Introduction: Lipid disorders are frequent after kidney transplantation (KT) and KT recipients are considered at high- or very-high cardiovascular risk. Among many concurring factors, a major role is played by immunosuppressants.Areas covered: General measures to manage lipid disorders first include physical activity and diet counseling. Modulating the doses of immunosuppressants also improves dyslipidemia. When lipid-lowering drugs are necessary to control elevated plasma cholesterol and/or triglycerides, statins are the cornerstone for managing hypercholesterolemia. However, side-effects (e.g. myopathy, new-onset diabetes, and kidney graft dysfunction) may occur. In these cases, ezetimibe (which does not affect kidney function) alone or on top of statins for the severe cases, is suggested by the most recent Guidelines. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type9 inhibitors are promising but expensive and their use in KT is still limited.Expert opinion: In KT recipients, statins should be used cautiously. Rather than using high-dose statin in difficult patients, an association with ezetimibe is suggested. While fibrates, niacin, and resins do not play a relevant role due to their erratic efficacy and common side-effects, new lipid-lowering drugs are emerging but their safety and efficacy in KT patients still need to be assessed.

17.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 18(3): 385-389, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602362

RESUMO

West Nile virus infection is more frequently associated with neuroinvasive disease and high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Here, we describe a 47-year-old Egyptian kidney transplant recipient who was admitted to our department in 2016 for persistent fever, altered mental status, and upper limb tremors. In addition, renal impairment, signs of acute thrombotic microangiopathy, pancreatitis, and slightly altered inflammatory indices were present. The patient was treated with antibacterial and antiviral therapy, and reduced immunosuppressive therapy was prescribed. After several biochemical and instrumental examinations, only slight blood positivity for West Nile virus immunoglobulin M in the absence of immunoglobulin G was found, whereas immunoglobulins M and G on cerebrospinal fluid and West Nile virus polymerase chain reaction were negative. Serology evaluated after 23 days of hospitalization confirmed immunoglobulin M positivity and detected weak immunoglobulin G positivity; however, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention diagnostic criteria, it was not sufficient to confirm diagnosis. During hospitalization, clinical recovery was observed, but severe renal insufficiency persisted. Renal biopsy performed after clinical recovery demonstrated chronic antibody-mediated rejection with advanced chronic lesions, without viral cytopathic signs. Four months later, we received confirmation of West Nile virus infection by plaque reduction neutralization test. The current case described severe West Nile virus infection with clinical neurologic involvement, thrombotic microangiopathy, and pancreatitis, resulting in irreversible loss of kidney function. Delayed diagnosis, based on US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria, was due to absence of both characteristic radiologic features and sensitive and promptly available laboratory tests. This case stresses the need for accurate diagnostic tests and/or a partial revision of the diagnostic criteria. In fact, with an earlier diagnosis, we would have avoided diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that may have contributed to the loss of graft function in the described case.

18.
J Rheumatol ; 47(3): 377-386, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) expose modified antigens for autoantibodies in vasculitis. Little is known about levels and removal pathways of NET in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), especially in lupus nephritis (LN). We determined circulating levels and defined NET removal in large subsets of patients with incident SLE (iSLE), some of whom had new-onset nephritis. METHODS: Serum levels of NET (ELISA), DNase1/DNase1L3 (ELISA), and DNase activity (functional assay) were determined in 216 patients with iSLE [103 had incident LN (iLN)], in 50 patients with other primary glomerulonephritis, and in healthy controls. Ex vivo NET production by neutrophils purified from a random selection of patients was quantified as elastase/DNA release and by immunofluorescence techniques. RESULTS: Serum NET levels were very high in iSLE/iLN compared to all groups of controls and correlated with anti-dsDNA, C3-C4, and proteinuria; iLN had the highest levels. DNase activity was decreased in iLN compared to SLE (20% had one-half DNase activity) despite similar serum levels of DNase1/DNase1L3. In these cases, pretreatment of serum with protein A restored DNase efficiency; 1 patient was homozygous for a c.289_290delAC variant of DNASE1L3. Ex vivo NET production by neutrophils purified from LN, SLE, and normal controls was similar in all cases. CONCLUSION: Patients with iLN have increased circulating NET and reduced DNase activity, the latter being explained by the presence of inhibitory substances in circulation and/or by rare DNase1L3 mutations. Accumulation of NET derives from a multifactorial mechanism, and is associated and may contribute to disease severity in SLE, in particular to renal lesions. (Clinical trial registration: The Zeus study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, study number NCT02403115).

20.
Kidney Int ; 96(3): 547-549, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445581

RESUMO

Little information is available about the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) after preeclampsia. The review of Covella et al. demonstrated that former preeclamptic women have a significant risk of ESRD in the medium term. However, it is still unknown which preeclamptic woman are at higher risk for progressive kidney disease. After delivery, women who had preeclampsia, particularly those with persistent hypertension, symptomatic proteinuria, or microalbuminuria, should receive a regular checkup for kidney disease.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Falência Renal Crônica , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Proteinúria
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