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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681942

RESUMO

Endoglin (Eng, CD105) is a type I membrane glycoprotein that functions in endothelial cells as an auxiliary receptor for transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family members and as an integrin ligand, modulating the vascular pathophysiology. Besides the membrane-bound endoglin, there is a soluble form of endoglin (sEng) that can be generated by the action of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 or -12 on the juxtamembrane region of its ectodomain. High levels of sEng have been reported in patients with preeclampsia, hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis and cancer. In addition, sEng is a marker of cardiovascular damage in patients with hypertension and diabetes, plays a pathogenic role in preeclampsia, and inhibits angiogenesis and tumor proliferation, migration, and invasion in cancer. However, the mechanisms of action of sEng have not yet been elucidated, and new tools and experimental approaches are necessary to advance in this field. To this end, we aimed to obtain a fluorescent form of sEng as a new tool for biological imaging. Thus, we cloned the extracellular domain of endoglin in the pEGFP-N1 plasmid to generate a fusion protein with green fluorescent protein (GFP), giving rise to pEGFP-N1/Eng.EC. The recombinant fusion protein was characterized by transient and stable transfections in CHO-K1 cells using fluorescence microscopy, SDS-PAGE, immunodetection, and ELISA techniques. Upon transfection with pEGFP-N1/Eng.EC, fluorescence was readily detected in cells, indicating that the GFP contained in the recombinant protein was properly folded into the cytosol. Furthermore, as evidenced by Western blot analysis, the secreted fusion protein yielded the expected molecular mass and displayed a specific fluorescent signal. The fusion protein was also able to bind to BMP9 and BMP10 in vitro. Therefore, the construct described here could be used as a tool for functional in vitro studies of the extracellular domain of endoglin.

2.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588193

RESUMO

Inflammation and dysregulated immunity are important in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Compelling preclinical data supports the therapeutic blockade of interleukin-6 signalling.We conducted an open-label phase-II study of intravenous tocilizumab (8 mg·kg-1) over 6 months in group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension. Co-primary endpoints were safety, defined by incidence and severity of adverse events, and change in pulmonary vascular resistance. Separately, a Mendelian randomisation study was undertaken on 11,744 individuals with European ancestry including 2085 patients with idiopathic/heritable disease for the IL6R variant (rs7529229), known to associate with circulating IL6R levels.Twenty-nine patients (M/F 10/19; mean age 54.9[SD11.4]) were recruited. Nineteen had heritable/idiopathic and ten connective tissue disease associated pulmonary arterial hypertension. Six were withdrawn prior to drug administration. Twenty-three patients received at least one dose of tocilizumab. Tocilizumab was discontinued in 4 patients due to serious adverse events. There were no deaths. Despite evidence of target engagement in plasma interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels, both intention-to-treat and modified intention-to-treat analyses demonstrated no change in pulmonary vascular resistance. Inflammatory markers did not predict treatment response. Mendelian randomisation did not support an effect of the lead IL6R variant on risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension (OR 0.99, p=0.88).Adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of tocilizumab. Tocilizumab did not show any consistent treatment effect.

3.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The molecular genetic basis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is heterogeneous, with at least 26 genes displaying putative evidence for disease causality. Heterozygous variants in the ATP13A3 gene were recently identified as a new cause of adult-onset PAH. However, the contribution of ATP13A3 risk alleles to child-onset PAH remains largely unexplored. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report three families with a novel, autosomal recessive form of childhood-onset PAH due to biallelic ATP13A3 variants. Disease onset ranged from birth to 2.5 years and was characterised by high mortality. Using genome sequencing of parent-offspring trios, we identified a homozygous missense variant in one case, which was subsequently confirmed to cosegregate with disease in an affected sibling. Independently, compound heterozygous variants in ATP13A3 were identified in two affected siblings and in an unrelated third family. The variants included three loss of function variants (two frameshift, one nonsense) and two highly conserved missense substitutions located in the catalytic phosphorylation domain. The children were largely refractory to treatment and four died in early childhood. All parents were heterozygous for the variants and asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: Our findings support biallelic predicted deleterious ATP13A3 variants in autosomal recessive, childhood-onset PAH, indicating likely semidominant dose-dependent inheritance for this gene.

4.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1002, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429509

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), is a fatal disease characterized by a pseudo-malignant phenotype. We investigated the expression and the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl in experimental (i.e., monocrotaline and Su5416/hypoxia treated rats) and clinical PAH. In vitro Axl inhibition by R428 and Axl knock-down inhibited growth factor-driven proliferation and migration of non-PAH and PAH PASMCs. Conversely, Axl overexpression conferred a growth advantage. Axl declined in PAECs of PAH patients. Axl blockage inhibited BMP9 signaling and increased PAEC apoptosis, while BMP9 induced Axl phosphorylation. Gas6 induced SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation and ID1/ID2 increase were blunted by BMP signaling obstruction. Axl association with BMPR2 was facilitated by Gas6/BMP9 stimulation and diminished by R428. In vivo R428 aggravated right ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction, abrogated BMPR2 signaling, elevated pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis and loss. Together, Axl is a key regulator of endothelial BMPR2 signaling and potential determinant of PAH.

6.
EBioMedicine ; 69: 103444, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare but life shortening disease, the diagnosis of which is often delayed, and requires an invasive right heart catheterisation. Identifying diagnostic biomarkers may improve screening to identify patients at risk of PAH earlier and provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. MicroRNAs are small, non-coding molecules of RNA, previously shown to be dysregulated in PAH, and contribute to the disease process in animal models. METHODS: Plasma from 64 treatment naïve patients with PAH and 43 disease and healthy controls were profiled for microRNA expression by Agilent Microarray. Following quality control and normalisation, the cohort was split into training and validation sets. Four separate machine learning feature selection methods were applied to the training set, along with a univariate analysis. FINDINGS: 20 microRNAs were identified as putative biomarkers by consensus feature selection from all four methods. Two microRNAs (miR-636 and miR-187-5p) were selected by all methods and used to predict PAH diagnosis with high accuracy. Integrating microRNA expression profiles with their associated target mRNA revealed 61 differentially expressed genes verified in two independent, publicly available PAH lung tissue data sets. Two of seven potentially novel gene targets were validated as differentially expressed in vitro in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. INTERPRETATION: This consensus of multiple machine learning approaches identified two miRNAs that were able to distinguish PAH from both disease and healthy controls. These circulating miRNA, and their target genes may provide insight into PAH pathogenesis and reveal novel regulators of disease and putative drug targets. FUNDING: This work was supported by a National Institute for Health Research Rare Disease Translational Research Collaboration (R29065/CN500) and British Heart Foundation Project Grant (PG/11/116/29288).


Assuntos
MicroRNA Circulante/sangue , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Células Cultivadas , MicroRNA Circulante/genética , MicroRNA Circulante/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/citologia
7.
Chest ; 160(4): 1442-1458, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preclinical evidence implicates neutrophil elastase (NE) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) pathogenesis, and the NE inhibitor elafin is under early therapeutic investigation. RESEARCH QUESTION: Are circulating NE and elafin levels abnormal in PAH and are they associated with clinical severity? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In an observational Stanford University PAH cohort (n = 249), plasma NE and elafin levels were measured in comparison with those of healthy control participants (n = 106). NE and elafin measurements were then related to PAH clinical features and relevant ancillary biomarkers. Cox regression models were fitted with cubic spline functions to associate NE and elafin levels with survival. To validate prognostic relationships, we analyzed two United Kingdom cohorts (n = 75 and n = 357). Mixed-effects models evaluated NE and elafin changes during disease progression. Finally, we studied effects of NE-elafin balance on pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) from patients with PAH. RESULTS: Relative to control participants, patients with PAH were found to have increased NE levels (205.1 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 123.6-387.3 ng/mL] vs 97.6 ng/mL [IQR, 74.4-126.6 ng/mL]; P < .0001) and decreased elafin levels (32.0 ng/mL [IQR, 15.3-59.1 ng/mL] vs 45.5 ng/mL [IQR, 28.1-92.8 ng/mL]; P < .0001) independent of PAH subtype, illness duration, and therapies. Higher NE levels were associated with worse symptom severity, shorter 6-min walk distance, higher N-terminal pro-type brain natriuretic peptide levels, greater right ventricular dysfunction, worse hemodynamics, increased circulating neutrophil levels, elevated cytokine levels, and lower blood BMPR2 expression. In Stanford patients, NE levels of > 168.5 ng/mL portended increased mortality risk after adjustment for known clinical predictors (hazard ratio [HR], 2.52; CI, 1.36-4.65, P = .003) or prognostic cytokines (HR, 2.63; CI, 1.42-4.87; P = .001), and the NE level added incremental value to established PAH risk scores. Similar prognostic thresholds were identified in validation cohorts. Longitudinal NE changes tracked with clinical trends and outcomes. PAH PAECs exhibited increased apoptosis and attenuated angiogenesis when exposed to NE at the level observed in patients' blood. Elafin rescued PAEC homeostasis, yet the required dose exceeded levels found in patients. INTERPRETATION: Blood levels of NE are increased while elafin levels are deficient across PAH subtypes. Higher NE levels are associated with worse clinical disease severity and outcomes, and this target-specific biomarker could facilitate therapeutic development of elafin.

9.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 80, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal vasculopathy characterized by pathogenic remodeling of pulmonary arterioles leading to increased pulmonary pressures, right ventricular hypertrophy, and heart failure. PAH can be associated with other diseases (APAH: connective tissue diseases, congenital heart disease, and others) but often the etiology is idiopathic (IPAH). Mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) are the cause of most heritable cases but the vast majority of other cases are genetically undefined. METHODS: To identify new risk genes, we utilized an international consortium of 4241 PAH cases with exome or genome sequencing data from the National Biological Sample and Data Repository for PAH, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, and the UK NIHR BioResource - Rare Diseases Study. The strength of this combined cohort is a doubling of the number of IPAH cases compared to either national cohort alone. We identified protein-coding variants and performed rare variant association analyses in unrelated participants of European ancestry, including 1647 IPAH cases and 18,819 controls. We also analyzed de novo variants in 124 pediatric trios enriched for IPAH and APAH-CHD. RESULTS: Seven genes with rare deleterious variants were associated with IPAH with false discovery rate smaller than 0.1: three known genes (BMPR2, GDF2, and TBX4), two recently identified candidate genes (SOX17, KDR), and two new candidate genes (fibulin 2, FBLN2; platelet-derived growth factor D, PDGFD). The new genes were identified based solely on rare deleterious missense variants, a variant type that could not be adequately assessed in either cohort alone. The candidate genes exhibit expression patterns in lung and heart similar to that of known PAH risk genes, and most variants occur in conserved protein domains. For pediatric PAH, predicted deleterious de novo variants exhibited a significant burden compared to the background mutation rate (2.45×, p = 2.5e-5). At least eight novel pediatric candidate genes carrying de novo variants have plausible roles in lung/heart development. CONCLUSIONS: Rare variant analysis of a large international consortium identified two new candidate genes-FBLN2 and PDGFD. The new genes have known functions in vasculogenesis and remodeling. Trio analysis predicted that ~ 15% of pediatric IPAH may be explained by de novo variants.

10.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1685, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disrupted endothelial BMP9/10 signaling may contribute to the pathophysiology of both hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), yet loss of circulating BMP9 has not been confirmed in individuals with ultra-rare homozygous GDF2 (BMP9 gene) nonsense mutations. We studied two pediatric patients homozygous for GDF2 (BMP9 gene) nonsense mutations: one with PAH (c.[76C>T];[76C>T] or p.[Gln26Ter];[Gln26Ter] and a new individual with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs; c.[835G>T];[835G>T] or p.[Glu279Ter];[Glu279Ter]); both with facial telangiectases. METHODS: Plasma samples were assayed for BMP9 and BMP10 by ELISA. In parallel, serum BMP activity was assayed using an endothelial BRE-luciferase reporter cell line (HMEC1-BRE). Proteins were expressed for assessment of secretion and processing. RESULTS: Plasma levels of both BMP9 and BMP10 were undetectable in the two homozygous index cases and this corresponded to low serum-derived endothelial BMP activity in the patients. Measured BMP9 and BMP10 levels were reduced in the asymptomatic heterozygous p.[Glu279Ter] parents, but serum activity was normal. Although expression studies suggested alternate translation can be initiated at Met57 in the p.[Gln26Ter] mutant, this does not result in secretion of functional BMP9. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these data show that homozygous GDF2 mutations, leading to a loss of circulating BMP9 and BMP10, can cause either pediatric PAH and/or "HHT-like" telangiectases and PAVMs. Although patients reported to date have manifestations that overlap with those of HHT, none meet the Curaçao criteria for HHT and seem distinct from HHT in terms of the location and appearance of telangiectases, and a tendency for tiny, diffuse PAVMs.

11.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(6): 981-988, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735594

RESUMO

Rationale: Iron deficiency, in the absence of anemia, is common in patients with idiopathic and heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is associated with a worse clinical outcome. Oral iron absorption may be impeded by elevated circulating hepcidin concentrations. The safety and benefit of parenteral iron replacement in this patient population is unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of parenteral iron replacement in PAH. Methods: In two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 12-week crossover studies, 39 patients in Europe received a single infusion of ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject) (1,000 mg or 15 mg/kg if weight <66.7 kg) or saline as placebo, and 17 patients in China received iron dextran (Cosmofer) (20 mg iron/kg body weight) or saline placebo. All patients had idiopathic or heritable PAH and iron deficiency at entry as defined by a serum ferritin <37 µg/L or iron <10.3 µmol/L or transferrin saturations <16.4%. Results: Both iron treatments were well tolerated and improved iron status. Analyzed separately and combined, there was no effect on any measure of exercise capacity (using cardiopulmonary exercise testing or 6-minute walk test) or cardiopulmonary hemodynamics, as assessed by right heart catheterization, cardiac magnetic resonance, or plasma NT-proBNP (N-terminal-pro hormone brain natriuretic peptide) at 12 weeks. Conclusions: Iron repletion by administration of a slow-release iron preparation as a single infusion to patients with PAH with iron deficiency without overt anemia was well tolerated but provided no significant clinical benefit at 12 weeks. Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01447628).


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar , Anemia Ferropriva/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar , Humanos , Ferro , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578743

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is not fully understood, but evidence is accumulating that immune dysfunction plays a significant role. We previously reported that 31-week-old Tnfaip3DNGR1-KO mice develop pulmonary hypertension (PH) symptoms. These mice harbor a targeted deletion of the TNFα-induced protein-3 (Tnfaip3) gene, encoding the NF-κB regulatory protein A20, specifically in type I conventional dendritic cells (cDC1s). Here, we studied the involvement of dendritic cells (DCs) in PH in more detail. We found various immune cells, including DCs, in the hearts of Tnfaip3DNGR1-KO mice, particularly in the right ventricle (RV). Secondly, in young Tnfaip3DNGR1-KO mice, innate immune activation through airway exposure to toll-like receptor ligands essentially did not result in elevated RV pressures, although we did observe significant RV hypertrophy. Thirdly, PH symptoms in Tnfaip3DNGR1-KO mice were not enhanced by concomitant mutation of bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (Bmpr2), which is the most affected gene in PAH patients. Finally, in human IPAH lung tissue we found co-localization of DCs and CD8+ T cells, representing the main cell type activated by cDC1s. Taken together, these findings support a unique role of cDC1s in PAH pathogenesis, independent of general immune activation or a mutation in the Bmpr2 gene.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/imunologia , Animais , Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo II/genética , Células Dendríticas/patologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/genética , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/patologia , Deleção de Genes , Ventrículos do Coração/imunologia , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Camundongos , Mutação , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Proteína 3 Induzida por Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
14.
N Biotechnol ; 63: 1-9, 2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588094

RESUMO

The promise of using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for cellular therapies has been hampered by the lack of easily isolatable and well characterized source cells whose genomes have undergone minimal changes during their processing. Blood-derived late-outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are used for disease modeling and have potential therapeutic uses including cell transplantation and the translation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derivatives. However, the current isolation of EPCs has been inconsistent and requires at least 40-80 mL of blood, limiting their wider use. In addition, previous EPC reprogramming methods precluded the translation of EPC-derived iPSCs to the clinic. Here a series of clinically-compatible advances in the isolation and reprogramming of EPCs is presented, including a reduction of blood sampling volumes to 10 mL and use of highly efficient RNA-based reprogramming methods together with autologous human serum, resulting in clinically relevant iPSCs carrying minimal copy number variations (CNVs) compared to their parent line.


Assuntos
Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/citologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Reprogramação Celular , Humanos
15.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(11): 2309-2325, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399862

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is estimated to affect between 10 and 50 people per million worldwide. The lack of cure and devastating nature of the disease means that treatment is crucial to arrest rapid clinical worsening. Current therapies are limited by their focus on inhibiting residual vasoconstriction rather than targeting key regulators of the cellular pathology. Potential disease-modifying therapies may come from research directed towards causal pathways involved in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of disease. It is widely acknowledged that targeting reduced expression of the critical bone morphogenetic protein type-2 receptor and its associated signalling pathways is a compelling therapeutic avenue to explore. In this review, we highlight the advances that have been made in understanding this pathway and the therapeutics that are being tested in clinical trials and the clinic to treat PAH.

16.
Peptides ; 136: 170440, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The peptide apelin is expressed in human healthy livers and is implicated in the development of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. Mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR-II) result in reduced plasma levels of apelin in patients with heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension. Ligands for BMPR-II include bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), highly expressed in liver, and BMP10, expressed in heart and to a lesser extent liver. However, it is not known whether reductions in BMP9 and/or BMP10, with associated reduction in BMPR-II signalling, correlate with altered levels of apelin in patients with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. METHODS: Plasma from patients with liver fibrosis (n = 14), cirrhosis (n = 56), and healthy controls (n = 25) was solid-phase extracted using a method optimised for recovery of apelin, which was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Plasma apelin was significantly reduced in liver fibrosis (8.3 ± 1.2 pg/ml) and cirrhosis (6.5 ± 0.6 pg/ml) patients compared with controls (15.4 ± 2.0 pg/ml). There was no obvious relationship between apelin and BMP 9 or BMP10 previously measured in these patients. Within the cirrhotic group, there was no significant correlation between apelin levels and disease severity scores, age, sex, or treatment with ß-blockers. CONCLUSIONS: Apelin was significantly reduced in plasma of patients with both early (fibrosis) and late-stage (cirrhosis) liver disease. Fibrosis is more easily reversible and may represent a potential target for new therapeutic interventions. However, it remains unclear whether apelin signalling is detrimental in liver disease or is beneficial and therefore, whether an apelin antagonist or agonist have clinical use.

17.
Eur Respir J ; 57(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060150

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension is a condition with limited effective treatment options. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a notable exception, with pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) often proving curative. This study investigated the plasma metabolome of CTEPH patients, estimated reversibility to an effective treatment and explored the source of metabolic perturbations.We performed untargeted analysis of plasma metabolites in CTEPH patients compared to healthy controls and disease comparators. Changes in metabolic profile were evaluated in response to PEA. A subset of patients were sampled at three anatomical locations and plasma metabolite gradients calculated.We defined and validated altered plasma metabolite profiles in patients with CTEPH. 12 metabolites were confirmed by receiver operating characteristic analysis to distinguish CTEPH and both healthy (area under the curve (AUC) 0.64-0.94, all p<2×10-5) and disease controls (AUC 0.58-0.77, all p<0.05). Many of the metabolic changes were notably similar to those observed in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Only five metabolites (5-methylthioadenosine, N1-methyladenosine, N1-methylinosine, 7-methylguanine, N-formylmethionine) distinguished CTEPH from chronic thromboembolic disease or IPAH. Significant corrections (15-100% of perturbation) in response to PEA were observed in some, but not all metabolites. Anatomical sampling identified 188 plasma metabolites, with significant gradients in tryptophan, sphingomyelin, methionine and Krebs cycle metabolites. In addition, metabolites associated with CTEPH and gradients showed significant associations with clinical measures of disease severity.We identified a specific metabolic profile that distinguishes CTEPH from controls and disease comparators, despite the observation that most metabolic changes were common to both CTEPH and IPAH patients. Plasma metabolite gradients implicate cardiopulmonary tissue metabolism of metabolites associated with pulmonary hypertension and metabolites that respond to PEA surgery could be a suitable noninvasive marker for evaluating future targeted therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Embolia Pulmonar , Doença Crônica , Endarterectomia , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar , Humanos , Metabolômica , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações
18.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(11): 1419-1430, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320799

RESUMO

Rationale: Pulmonary endothelial permeability contributes to the high-permeability pulmonary edema that characterizes acute respiratory distress syndrome. Circulating BMP9 (bone morphogenetic protein 9) is emerging as an important regulator of pulmonary vascular homeostasis. Objectives:To determine whether endogenous BMP9 plays a role in preserving pulmonary endothelial integrity and whether loss of endogenous BMP9 occurs during LPS challenge. Methods: A BMP9-neutralizing antibody was administrated to healthy adult mice, and lung vasculature was examined. Potential mechanisms were delineated by transcript analysis in human lung endothelial cells. The impact of BMP9 administration was evaluated in a murine acute lung injury model induced by inhaled LPS. Levels of BMP9 were measured in plasma from patients with sepsis and from endotoxemic mice. Measurements and Main Results: Subacute neutralization of endogenous BMP9 in mice (N = 12) resulted in increased lung vascular permeability (P = 0.022), interstitial edema (P = 0.0047), and neutrophil extravasation (P = 0.029) compared with IgG control treatment (N = 6). In pulmonary endothelial cells, BMP9 regulated transcriptome pathways implicated in vascular permeability and cell-membrane integrity. Augmentation of BMP9 signaling in mice (N = 8) prevented inhaled LPS-induced lung injury (P = 0.0027) and edema (P < 0.0001). In endotoxemic mice (N = 12), endogenous circulating BMP9 concentrations were markedly reduced, the causes of which include a transient reduction in hepatic BMP9 mRNA expression and increased elastase activity in plasma. In human patients with sepsis (N = 10), circulating concentratons of BMP9 were also markedly reduced (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Endogenous circulating BMP9 is a pulmonary endothelial-protective factor, downregulated during inflammation. Exogenous BMP9 offers a potential therapy to prevent increased pulmonary endothelial permeability in lung injury.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/sangue , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Endotélio/patologia , Endotoxemia/sangue , Fator 2 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Sepse/sangue , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotoxemia/etiologia , Endotoxemia/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Edema Pulmonar/sangue , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Edema Pulmonar/patologia , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/patologia
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(12)2020 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256119

RESUMO

Although the invention of right heart catheterisation in the 1950s enabled accurate clinical diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), it was not until 2000 when the landmark discovery of the causative role of bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) mutations shed new light on the pathogenesis of PAH. Since then several genes have been discovered, which now account for around 25% of cases with the clinical diagnosis of idiopathic PAH. Despite the ongoing efforts, in the majority of patients the cause of the disease remains elusive, a phenomenon often referred to as "missing heritability". In this review, we discuss research approaches to uncover the genetic architecture of PAH starting with forward phenotyping, which in a research setting should focus on stable intermediate phenotypes, forward and reverse genetics, and finally reverse phenotyping. We then discuss potential sources of "missing heritability" and how functional genomics and multi-omics methods are employed to tackle this problem.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/genética , Animais , Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo II/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo
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