Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 114
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
BMJ ; 366: l4410, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if genetically increased serum calcium levels are associated with improved bone mineral density and a reduction in osteoporotic fractures. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation study. SETTING: Cohorts used included: the UK Biobank cohort, providing genotypic and estimated bone mineral density data; 25 cohorts from UK, USA, Europe, and China, providing genotypic and fracture data; and 17 cohorts from Europe, providing genotypic and serum calcium data (summary level statistics). PARTICIPANTS: A genome-wide association meta-analysis of serum calcium levels in up to 61 079 individuals was used to identify genetic determinants of serum calcium levels. The UK Biobank study was used to assess the association of genetic predisposition to increased serum calcium with estimated bone mineral density derived from heel ultrasound in 426 824 individuals who had, on average, calcium levels in the normal range. A fracture genome-wide association meta-analysis comprising 24 cohorts and the UK Biobank including a total of 76 549 cases and 470 164 controls, who, on average, also had calcium levels in the normal range was then performed. RESULTS: A standard deviation increase in genetically derived serum calcium (0.13 mmol/L or 0.51 mg/dL) was not associated with increased estimated bone mineral density (0.003 g/cm2, 95% confidence interval -0.059 to 0.066; P=0.92) or a reduced risk of fractures (odds ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.89 to 1.15; P=0.85) in inverse-variance weighted mendelian randomisation analyses. Sensitivity analyses did not provide evidence of pleiotropic effects. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic predisposition to increased serum calcium levels in individuals with normal calcium levels is not associated with an increase in estimated bone mineral density and does not provide clinically relevant protection against fracture. Whether such predisposition mimics the effect of short term calcium supplementation is not known. Given that the same genetically derived increase in serum calcium is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease, widespread calcium supplementation in the general population could provide more risk than benefit.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Cálcio/sangue , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fraturas por Osteoporose/sangue , Fraturas por Osteoporose/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Diacilglicerol Quinase/genética , Feminino , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/genética , Medição de Risco , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase/genética , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/genética
3.
Neurology ; 92(16): e1803-e1810, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential for a causal effect of age at puberty on multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility using a mendelian randomization (MR) approach. METHODS: We used 372 genetic variants strongly associated with age at menarche in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving 329,245 women. The genetic architecture of pubertal timing across both sexes is highly correlated (genetic correlation [r g] = 0.75, p = 1.2 × 10-79), allowing these variants to provide reliable insight into pubertal timing in males as well. The effect of pubertal timing on risk of MS was measured with summary statistics from a GWAS of 14,802 cases with MS and 26,703 controls from the International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium. Multivariable MR controlling for effects of body mass index (BMI) using genetic data from additional consortia investigated whether pubertal effects on MS were dependent on weight status. RESULTS: A 1-year increase in genetically predicted age at puberty decreased odds of MS by 8% (odds ratio [OR] 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86-0.99, p = 0.03). However, multivariable MR analysis showed that after accounting for effects on adult BMI, the association of age at puberty with MS susceptibility attenuated (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.88-1.04, p = 0.36). Similar results were obtained when childhood BMI was incorporated. Sensitivity analyses provided no evidence of major bias from genetic pleiotropy. CONCLUSIONS: We found support for an association between higher age at puberty and decreased risk of MS with a magnitude comparable to that reported in observational studies. This effect appears to be largely mediated by the strong association between age at puberty and obesity. A large causal effect of pubertal timing independent of BMI is unlikely.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Puberdade/genética , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
4.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 258-266, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598549

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a common aging-related disease diagnosed primarily using bone mineral density (BMD). We assessed genetic determinants of BMD as estimated by heel quantitative ultrasound in 426,824 individuals, identifying 518 genome-wide significant loci (301 novel), explaining 20% of its variance. We identified 13 bone fracture loci, all associated with estimated BMD (eBMD), in ~1.2 million individuals. We then identified target genes enriched for genes known to influence bone density and strength (maximum odds ratio (OR) = 58, P = 1 × 10-75) from cell-specific features, including chromatin conformation and accessible chromatin sites. We next performed rapid-throughput skeletal phenotyping of 126 knockout mice with disruptions in predicted target genes and found an increased abnormal skeletal phenotype frequency compared to 526 unselected lines (P < 0.0001). In-depth analysis of one gene, DAAM2, showed a disproportionate decrease in bone strength relative to mineralization. This genetic atlas provides evidence linking associated SNPs to causal genes, offers new insight into osteoporosis pathophysiology, and highlights opportunities for drug development.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Osteoporose/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
6.
BMJ ; 362: k3225, 2018 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the genetic determinants of fracture risk and assess the role of 15 clinical risk factors on osteoporotic fracture risk. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of genome wide association studies (GWAS) and a two-sample mendelian randomisation approach. SETTING: 25 cohorts from Europe, United States, east Asia, and Australia with genome wide genotyping and fracture data. PARTICIPANTS: A discovery set of 37 857 fracture cases and 227 116 controls; with replication in up to 147 200 fracture cases and 150 085 controls. Fracture cases were defined as individuals (>18 years old) who had fractures at any skeletal site confirmed by medical, radiological, or questionnaire reports. Instrumental variable analyses were performed to estimate effects of 15 selected clinical risk factors for fracture in a two-sample mendelian randomisation framework, using the largest previously published GWAS meta-analysis of each risk factor. RESULTS: Of 15 fracture associated loci identified, all were also associated with bone mineral density and mapped to genes clustering in pathways known to be critical to bone biology (eg, SOST, WNT16, and ESR1) or novel pathways (FAM210A, GRB10, and ETS2). Mendelian randomisation analyses showed a clear effect of bone mineral density on fracture risk. One standard deviation decrease in genetically determined bone mineral density of the femoral neck was associated with a 55% increase in fracture risk (odds ratio 1.55 (95% confidence interval 1.48 to 1.63; P=1.5×10-68). Hand grip strength was inversely associated with fracture risk, but this result was not significant after multiple testing correction. The remaining clinical risk factors (including vitamin D levels) showed no evidence for an effect on fracture. CONCLUSIONS: This large scale GWAS meta-analysis for fracture identified 15 genetic determinants of fracture, all of which also influenced bone mineral density. Among the clinical risk factors for fracture assessed, only bone mineral density showed a major causal effect on fracture. Genetic predisposition to lower levels of vitamin D and estimated calcium intake from dairy sources were not associated with fracture risk.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Osteoporose/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
Bone ; 114: 62-71, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29883787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Generalised high bone mass (HBM), associated with features of a mild skeletal dysplasia, has a prevalence of 0.18% in a UK DXA-scanned adult population. We hypothesized that the genetic component of extreme HBM includes contributions from common variants of small effect and rarer variants of large effect, both enriched in an extreme phenotype cohort. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of adults with either extreme high or low BMD. Adults included individuals with unexplained extreme HBM (n = 240) from the UK with BMD Z-scores ≥+3.2, high BMD females from the Anglo-Australasian Osteoporosis Genetics Consortium (AOGC) (n = 1055) with Z-scores +1.5 to +4.0 and low BMD females also part of AOGC (n = 900), with Z-scores -1.5 to -4.0. Following imputation, we tested association between 6,379,332 SNPs and total hip and lumbar spine BMD Z-scores. For potential target genes, we assessed expression in human osteoblasts and murine osteocytes. RESULTS: We observed significant enrichment for associations with established BMD-associated loci, particularly those known to regulate endochondral ossification and Wnt signalling, suggesting that part of the genetic contribution to unexplained HBM is polygenic. Further, we identified associations exceeding genome-wide significance between BMD and four loci: two established BMD-associated loci (5q14.3 containing MEF2C and 1p36.12 containing WNT4) and two novel loci: 5p13.3 containing NPR3 (rs9292469; minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.33%) associated with lumbar spine BMD and 11p15.2 containing SPON1 (rs2697825; MAF = 0.17%) associated with total hip BMD. Mouse models with mutations in either Npr3 or Spon1 have been reported, both have altered skeletal phenotypes, providing in vivo validation that these genes are physiologically important in bone. NRP3 regulates endochondral ossification and skeletal growth, whilst SPON1 modulates TGF-ß regulated BMP-driven osteoblast differentiation. Rs9292469 (downstream of NPR3) also showed some evidence for association with forearm BMD in the independent GEFOS sample (n = 32,965). We found Spon1 was highly expressed in murine osteocytes from the tibiae, femora, humeri and calvaria, whereas Npr3 expression was more variable. CONCLUSION: We report the most extreme-truncate GWAS of BMD performed to date. Our findings, suggest potentially new anabolic bone regulatory pathways that warrant further study.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(16): E3759-E3768, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618611

RESUMO

Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are common comorbid diseases, yet their shared mechanisms are largely unknown. We found that genetic variation near FAM210A was associated, through large genome-wide association studies, with fracture, bone mineral density (BMD), and appendicular and whole body lean mass, in humans. In mice, Fam210a was expressed in muscle mitochondria and cytoplasm, as well as in heart and brain, but not in bone. Grip strength and limb lean mass were reduced in tamoxifen-inducible Fam210a homozygous global knockout mice (TFam210a-/- ), and in tamoxifen-inducible Fam210 skeletal muscle cell-specific knockout mice (TFam210aMus-/- ). Decreased BMD, bone biomechanical strength, and bone formation, and elevated osteoclast activity with microarchitectural deterioration of trabecular and cortical bones, were observed in TFam210a-/- mice. BMD of male TFam210aMus-/- mice was also reduced, and osteoclast numbers and surface in TFam210aMus-/- mice increased. Microarray analysis of muscle cells from TFam210aMus-/- mice identified candidate musculoskeletal modulators. FAM210A, a novel gene, therefore has a crucial role in regulating bone structure and function, and may impact osteoporosis through a biological pathway involving muscle as well as through other mechanisms.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Densidade Óssea/genética , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Sarcopenia/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Letais , Genes Reporter , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sarcopenia/genética , Suporte de Carga
9.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(4): 643-650, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232479

RESUMO

The metabolic state of the body can be a major determinant of bone health. We used a Mendelian randomization approach to identify metabolites causally associated with bone mass to better understand the biological mechanisms of osteoporosis. We tested bone phenotypes (femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine bone mineral density [BMD]) for association with 280 fasting blood metabolites in 6055 women from TwinsUK cohort with genomewide genotyping scans. Causal associations between metabolites and bone phenotypes were further assessed in a bidirectional Mendelian randomization study using genetic markers/scores as instrumental variables. Significant associations were replicated in 624 participants from the Hong Kong Osteoporosis Study (HKOS). Fifteen metabolites showed direct associations with bone phenotypes after adjusting for covariates and multiple testing. Using genetic instruments, four of these metabolites were found to be causally associated with hip or spine BMD. These included androsterone sulfate, epiandrosterone sulfate, 5alpha-androstan-3beta17beta-diol disulfate (encoded by CYP3A5), and 4-androsten-3beta17beta-diol disulfate (encoded by SULT2A1). In the HKOS population, all four metabolites showed significant associations with hip and spine BMD in the expected directions. No causal reverse association between BMD and any of the metabolites were found. In the first metabolome-genomewide Mendelian randomization study of human bone mineral density, we identified four novel biomarkers causally associated with BMD. Our findings reveal novel biological pathways involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Osteoporose/genética , Sulfotransferases/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Sulfotransferases/metabolismo
10.
Nat Genet ; 49(10): 1468-1475, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28869591

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a common disease diagnosed primarily by measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 142,487 individuals from the UK Biobank to identify loci associated with BMD as estimated by quantitative ultrasound of the heel. We identified 307 conditionally independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that attained genome-wide significance at 203 loci, explaining approximately 12% of the phenotypic variance. These included 153 previously unreported loci, and several rare variants with large effect sizes. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we undertook (1) bioinformatic, functional genomic annotation and human osteoblast expression studies; (2) gene-function prediction; (3) skeletal phenotyping of 120 knockout mice with deletions of genes adjacent to lead independent SNPs; and (4) analysis of gene expression in mouse osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts. The results implicate GPC6 as a novel determinant of BMD, and also identify abnormal skeletal phenotypes in knockout mice associated with a further 100 prioritized genes.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Calcâneo/patologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Osteoporose/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fêmur/química , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glipicanas/deficiência , Glipicanas/genética , Glipicanas/fisiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteocondrodisplasias/congênito , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/patologia , Fenótipo
11.
J Bone Miner Res ; 32(8): 1644-1650, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28394087

RESUMO

Genetic and environmental determinants of skeletal phenotypes such as bone mineral density (BMD) may converge through the epigenome, providing a tool to better understand osteoporosis pathophysiology. Because the epigenetics of BMD have been largely unexplored in humans, we performed an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of BMD. We undertook a large-scale BMD EWAS using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 array to measure site-specific DNA methylation in up to 5515 European-descent individuals (NDiscovery = 4614, NValidation = 901). We associated methylation at multiple cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD. We performed sex-combined and stratified analyses, controlling for age, weight, smoking status, estimated white blood cell proportions, and random effects for relatedness and batch effects. A 5% false-discovery rate was used to identify CpGs associated with BMD. We identified one CpG site, cg23196985, significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in 3232 females (p = 7.9 × 10-11 ) and 4614 females and males (p = 3.0 × 10-8 ). cg23196985 was not associated with femoral neck BMD in an additional sample of 474 females (p = 0.64) and 901 males and females (p = 0.60). Lack of strong consistent association signal indicates that among the tested probes, no large-effect epigenetic changes in whole blood associated with BMD, suggesting future epigenomic studies of musculoskeletal traits measure DNA methylation in a different tissue with extended genome coverage. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Densidade Óssea , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Gêmeos , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Mult Scler ; 23(11): 1461-1468, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27903934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mendelian randomization (MR) studies have demonstrated strong support for an association between genetically increased body mass index and risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). The adipokine adiponectin may be a potential mechanism linking body mass to risk of MS. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether genetically increased adiponectin levels influence risk of MS. METHODS: Using genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for adiponectin, we undertook an MR study to estimate the effect of adiponectin on MS. This method prevents bias due to reverse causation and minimizes bias due to confounding. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the assumptions of MR. RESULTS: MR analyses did not support a role for genetically elevated adiponectin in risk of MS (odds ratio (OR) = 0.93 per unit increase in natural-log-transformed adiponectin, equivalent to a two-standard deviation increase in adiponectin on the absolute scale; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.66-1.33; p = 0.61). Further MR analysis suggested that genetic variation at the adiponectin gene, which influences adiponectin level, does not impact MS risk. Sensitivity analyses, including MR-Egger regression, suggested no bias due to pleiotropy. CONCLUSION: Lifelong genetically increased adiponectin levels in humans have no clear effect on risk of MS. Other biological factors driving the association between body mass and MS should be investigated.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
13.
J Bone Miner Res ; 32(5): 1072-1081, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27982478

RESUMO

Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is associated in observational studies with both higher bone mineral density (BMD) and higher fracture risk for given BMD. These relationships may however be confounded by factors such as body mass index (BMI). Here we used Mendelian randomization (MR) to obtain non-confounded estimates of the effect of T2D and glycemic traits on BMD. We identified genetic variants strongly associated with T2D risk (34,840 T2D cases and 114,981 controls) and fasting glucose (133,010 nondiabetic individuals), but not associated with BMI, and determined the effects of these variants on BMD (up to 83,894 individuals). Using these variants as instrumental variables, we found that a genetically-increased risk of T2D increased femoral neck BMD (+0.034 SD in BMD per unit increase in log-odds of T2D [95% CI, 0.001 to 0.067; p = 0.044]). Genetically-increased fasting glucose also increased femoral neck BMD (+0.13 SD in BMD per mmol/L increase in fasting glucose [95% CI, 0.01 to 0.25; p = 0.034]). Similar nonsignificant trends were observed for the effects of T2D and fasting glucose on lumbar spine BMD. Our results indicate that both genetically-increased T2D risk and genetically-increased fasting glucose have weak positive effects on BMD. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Colo do Fêmur/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glicemia/genética , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Masculino , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 8: 16015, 2017 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29313844

RESUMO

Hand grip strength is a widely used proxy of muscular fitness, a marker of frailty, and predictor of a range of morbidities and all-cause mortality. To investigate the genetic determinants of variation in grip strength, we perform a large-scale genetic discovery analysis in a combined sample of 195,180 individuals and identify 16 loci associated with grip strength (P<5 × 10-8) in combined analyses. A number of these loci contain genes implicated in structure and function of skeletal muscle fibres (ACTG1), neuronal maintenance and signal transduction (PEX14, TGFA, SYT1), or monogenic syndromes with involvement of psychomotor impairment (PEX14, LRPPRC and KANSL1). Mendelian randomization analyses are consistent with a causal effect of higher genetically predicted grip strength on lower fracture risk. In conclusion, our findings provide new biological insight into the mechanistic underpinnings of grip strength and the causal role of muscular strength in age-related morbidities and mortality.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Força da Mão , Mãos/fisiologia , Actinas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador alfa/genética , Reino Unido
15.
Cell ; 167(5): 1398-1414.e24, 2016 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27863251

RESUMO

Characterizing the multifaceted contribution of genetic and epigenetic factors to disease phenotypes is a major challenge in human genetics and medicine. We carried out high-resolution genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic profiling in three major human immune cell types (CD14+ monocytes, CD16+ neutrophils, and naive CD4+ T cells) from up to 197 individuals. We assess, quantitatively, the relative contribution of cis-genetic and epigenetic factors to transcription and evaluate their impact as potential sources of confounding in epigenome-wide association studies. Further, we characterize highly coordinated genetic effects on gene expression, methylation, and histone variation through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and allele-specific (AS) analyses. Finally, we demonstrate colocalization of molecular trait QTLs at 345 unique immune disease loci. This expansive, high-resolution atlas of multi-omics changes yields insights into cell-type-specific correlation between diverse genomic inputs, more generalizable correlations between these inputs, and defines molecular events that may underpin complex disease risk.


Assuntos
Epigenômica , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/genética , Monócitos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Processamento Alternativo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Código das Histonas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neurology ; 87(24): 2567-2574, 2016 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27856775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test whether genetically decreased vitamin D levels are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) using mendelian randomization (MR), a method that minimizes bias due to confounding or reverse causation. METHODS: We selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels (p < 5 × 10-8) from the Study of Underlying Genetic Determinants of Vitamin D and Highly Related Traits (SUNLIGHT) Consortium (N = 33,996) to act as instrumental variables for the MR study. We measured the effect of each of these SNPs on 25OHD levels in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos; N = 2,347) and obtained the corresponding effect estimates for each SNP on AD risk from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (N = 17,008 AD cases and 37,154 controls). To produce MR estimates, we weighted the effect of each SNP on AD by its effect on 25OHD and meta-analyzed these estimates using a fixed-effects model to provide a summary effect estimate. RESULTS: The SUNLIGHT Consortium identified 4 SNPs to be genome-wide significant for 25OHD, which described 2.44% of the variance in 25OHD in CaMos. All 4 SNPs map to genes within the vitamin D metabolic pathway. MR analyses demonstrated that a 1-SD decrease in natural log-transformed 25OHD increased AD risk by 25% (odds ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.51, p = 0.021). After sensitivity analysis in which we removed SNPs possibly influenced by pleiotropy and population stratification, the results were largely unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence supporting 25OHD as a causal risk factor for AD. These findings provide further rationale to understand the effect of vitamin D supplementation on cognition and AD risk in randomized controlled trials.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Vitamina D/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Canadá , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Osteoporose/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
17.
Nat Genet ; 48(11): 1303-1312, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27668658

RESUMO

Large-scale whole-genome sequence data sets offer novel opportunities to identify genetic variation underlying human traits. Here we apply genotype imputation based on whole-genome sequence data from the UK10K and 1000 Genomes Project into 35,981 study participants of European ancestry, followed by association analysis with 20 quantitative cardiometabolic and hematological traits. We describe 17 new associations, including 6 rare (minor allele frequency (MAF) < 1%) or low-frequency (1% < MAF < 5%) variants with platelet count (PLT), red blood cell indices (MCH and MCV) and HDL cholesterol. Applying fine-mapping analysis to 233 known and new loci associated with the 20 traits, we resolve the associations of 59 loci to credible sets of 20 or fewer variants and describe trait enrichments within regions of predicted regulatory function. These findings improve understanding of the allelic architecture of risk factors for cardiometabolic and hematological diseases and provide additional functional insights with the identification of potentially novel biological targets.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cardiopatias/genética , Doenças Hematológicas/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 86(2): 179-85, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26963187

RESUMO

This paper is designed to provide a broad-view perspective on at least some of the implications of the Affordable Care Act for children's behavioral health. Historical trends in behavioral health have tended to isolate both consumers of services (including children, youth and families) and practitioners from the larger world of healthcare, with decidedly mixed results. This paper uses the concept of path dependence to highlight the multiple challenges facing child behavioral health as it moves forward. The paper builds its recommendations on the 4 pillars of sustainable change: politics, practice, economics, and science. In a changing health care environment, behavioral health has to transform. The paper concludes with some observations on the kinds of transformative change required to move in new directions. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/tendências , Mão de Obra em Saúde/normas , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Adolescente , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/economia , Humanos , Política , Estados Unidos
20.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7060, 2015 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26017687

RESUMO

In observational studies, type-2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), yet interventional trials have shown no clear effect of glucose-lowering on CHD. Confounding may have therefore influenced these observational estimates. Here we use Mendelian randomization to obtain unconfounded estimates of the influence of T2D and fasting glucose (FG) on CHD risk. Using multiple genetic variants associated with T2D and FG, we find that risk of T2D increases CHD risk (odds ratio (OR)=1.11 (1.05-1.17), per unit increase in odds of T2D, P=8.8 × 10(-5); using data from 34,840/114,981 T2D cases/controls and 63,746/130,681 CHD cases/controls). FG in non-diabetic individuals tends to increase CHD risk (OR=1.15 (1.00-1.32), per mmol·per l, P=0.05; 133,010 non-diabetic individuals and 63,746/130,681 CHD cases/controls). These findings provide evidence supporting a causal relationship between T2D and CHD and suggest that long-term trials may be required to discern the effects of T2D therapies on CHD risk.


Assuntos
Glicemia/genética , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causalidade , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/genética , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA