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1.
Neurology ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether compared with placebo, treatment with escitalopram (ESC) would lower CSF (CSF) amyloid beta 42 (Aß42) levels. RATIONALE: Serotonin signaling suppresses Aß42 in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and young healthy humans. In a prospective study in older adults, we examined dose and treatment duration effects of ESC. METHODS: Using lumbar punctures (LPs) to sample CSF levels before and after a course of ESC treatment, cognitively normal older adults (n = 114) were assigned to either: placebo; 20 mg ESC × 2 weeks; 20 mg ESC × 8 weeks or 30 mg ESC × 8 weeks with CSF sampled pre- and post-treatment and within-subject percent change in Aß42 was used as the primary outcome in subsequent analyses. RESULTS: An overall 9.4% percentage point greater reduction in CSF Aß42 was found in ESC treated compared with placebo treated groups (p < 0.001; 95% CI [4.9%-14.2%]; d = 0.81). Positive baseline amyloid-beta status (CSF Aß42 levels <250 pg/mL) was associated with smaller Aß42 reduction (p = 0.006; 95% CI [-16.7% to 0.5%]; d = -0.52) compared with negative baseline amyloid status (CSF Aß42 levels >250 pg/mL). CONCLUSIONS: Short-term longitudinal doses of ESC decreased CSF Aß42 in cognitively normal older adults, the target group for AD prevention. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that for cognitively normal older adults, ESC decreases CSF Aß42. CLINICAL TRIAL IDENTIFIER: NCT02161458.

2.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare variants in PLCG2 (p.P522R), ABI3 (p.S209F), and TREM2 (p.R47H, p.R62H) have been associated with late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk in Caucasians. After the initial report, several studies have found positive results in cohorts of different ethnic background and with different phenotype. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to evaluate the association of rare coding variants in PLCG2, ABI3, and TREM2 with LOAD risk and their effect at different time points of the disease. METHODS: We used a European American cohort to assess the association of the variants prior onset (using CSF Aß42, tau, and pTau levels, and amyloid imaging as endophenotypes) and after onset (measured as rate of memory decline). RESULTS: We confirm the association with LOAD risk of TREM2 p.R47H, p.R62H and ABI3 p.S209F variants, and the protective effect of PLCG2 p.P522R. In addition, ABI3 and TREM2 gene-sets showed significant association with LOAD risk. TREM2 p.R47H and PLCG2 p.P522R variants were also statistically associated with increase of amyloid imaging and AD progression, respectively. We did not observe any association of ABI3 p.S209F with any of the other AD endophenotypes. CONCLUSION: The results of this study highlight the importance of including biomarkers and alternative phenotypes to better understand the role of novel candidate genes with the disease.

3.
Neurology ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873693

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the ordering of changes in Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarkers among cognitively normal individuals. METHODS: Cross-sectional data, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analytes, molecular imaging of cerebral fibrillar ß-amyloid with positron emission tomography (PET) using the [11C] benzothiazole tracer, Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based brain structures, and clinical/cognitive outcomes harmonized from 8 studies, collectively involving 3,284 cognitively normal individuals of 18-101 years, were analyzed. The age at which each marker exhibited an accelerated change (called the change-point) was estimated, and compared across the markers. RESULTS: Accelerated changes in CSF Aß1-42 (Aß42) occurred at 48.28 years of age and Aß42/Aß40 ratio at 46.02 years, followed by PiB mean cortical standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) with a change-point at 54.47 years. CSF total tau (Tau) and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (Ptau) had a change-point at about 60 years, similar to those for MRI hippocampal volume and cortical thickness. The change-point for a cognitive composite occurred at 62.41 years. The change-points for CSF Aß42 and Aß42/Aß40 ratio, albeit not significantly different from that for PiB SUVR, occurred significantly earlier than that for CSF Tau, Ptau, MRI markers and the cognitive composite. Adjusted analyses confirmed that accelerated changes in CSF Tau, Ptau, MRI markers, and the cognitive composite occurred at ages not significantly different from each other. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesized early changes of amyloid in preclinical AD, and suggest that changes in neuronal injury and neurodegeneration markers occur close in time to cognitive decline.

4.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920988

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Relationships between brain atrophy patterns of typical aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), white matter disease, cognition, and AD neuropathology were investigated via machine learning in a large harmonized magnetic resonance imaging database (11 studies; 10,216 subjects). METHODS: Three brain signatures were calculated: Brain-age, AD-like neurodegeneration, and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs). Brain Charts measured and displayed the relationships of these signatures to cognition and molecular biomarkers of AD. RESULTS: WMHs were associated with advanced brain aging, AD-like atrophy, poorer cognition, and AD neuropathology in mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/AD and cognitively normal (CN) subjects. High WMH volume was associated with brain aging and cognitive decline occurring in an ≈10-year period in CN subjects. WMHs were associated with doubling the likelihood of amyloid beta (Aß) positivity after age 65. Brain aging, AD-like atrophy, and WMHs were better predictors of cognition than chronological age in MCI/AD. DISCUSSION: A Brain Chart quantifying brain-aging trajectories was established, enabling the systematic evaluation of individuals' brain-aging patterns relative to this large consortium.

5.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907924

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Avelumab, an antiprogrammed death ligand-1 antibody, is approved as a monotherapy for treatment of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma and advanced urothelial carcinoma, and in combination with axitinib for advanced renal cell carcinoma. We report the efficacy and safety of first-line avelumab in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: In a phase I expansion cohort of the JAVELIN Solid Tumor trial, patients with treatment-naive, metastatic, or recurrent NSCLC received 10 mg/kg avelumab intravenously every 2 weeks. Endpoints included best overall response, duration of response (DOR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. RESULTS: Overall, 156 patients were enrolled and treated. Median duration of follow-up was 18.6 months (range, 15 to 23 months). The objective response rate was 19.9% (95% CI, 13.9 to 27.0), including complete response in 3 (1.9%) and partial response in 28 (17.9%). Median DOR was 12.0 months (95% CI, 6.9 to not estimable). Median PFS was 4.0 months (95% CI, 2.7 to 5.4) and the 6-month PFS rate was 38.5% (95% CI, 30.7 to 46.3). Median OS was 14.1 months (95% CI, 11.3 to 16.9) and the 12-month OS rate was 56.6% (95% CI, 48.2 to 64.1). Treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) occurred in 107 patients (68.6%), including grade ≥3 TRAEs in 19 (12.2%). Immune-related adverse events and infusion-related reactions occurred in 31 (19.9%) and 40 patients (25.6%), respectively. No treatment-related deaths occurred. CONCLUSION: Avelumab showed antitumor activity with a tolerable safety profile as a first-line treatment in patients with advanced NSCLC. These data support further investigation of avelumab in the phase III JAVELIN Lung 100 study. TRIAL REGISTRATION DETAILS: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01772004; registered January 21, 2013.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842621

RESUMO

We found interactions between dopamine and oxidative damage in the striatum involved in advanced neurodegeneration, which probably change the microglial phenotype. We observed possible microglia dystrophy in the striatum of neurodegenerative brains. To investigate the interactions between oxidative damage and microglial phenotype, we quantified myeloperoxidase (MPO), poly (ADP-Ribose) (PAR), and triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cell 2 (TREM2) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To test the correlations of microglia dystrophy and tauopathy, we quantified translocator protein (TSPO) and tau fibrils using autoradiography. We chose the caudate and putamen of Lewy body diseases (LBDs) (Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's disease dementia, and Dementia with Lewy body), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and control brains and genotyped for TSPO, TREM2, and bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) genes using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) assays. TREM2 gene variants were absent across all samples. However, associations between TSPO and BIN1 gene polymorphisms and TSPO, MPO, TREM2, and PAR level variations were found. PAR levels reduced significantly in the caudate of LBDs. TSPO density and tau fibrils decreased remarkably in the striatum of LBDs but increased in AD. Oxidative damage, induced by misfolded tau proteins and dopamine metabolism, causes microglia dystrophy or senescence during the late stage of LBDs. Consequently, microglia dysfunction conversely reduces tau propagation. The G allele of the BIN1 gene is a potential risk factor for tauopathy.

7.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 77(2): 745-752, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behavioral markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not included within the widely used amyloid-tau-neurodegeneration framework. OBJECTIVE: To determine when falls occur among cognitively normal (CN) individuals with and without preclinical AD. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recorded falls among CN participants (n = 83) over a 1-year period. Tailored calendar journals recorded falls. Biomarkers including amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging were acquired within 2 years of fall evaluations. CN participants were dichotomized by amyloid PET (using standard cutoffs). Differences in amyloid accumulation, global resting state functional connectivity (rs-fc) intra-network signature, and hippocampal volume were compared between individuals who did and did not fall using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Among preclinical AD participants (amyloid-positive), the partial correlation between amyloid accumulation and global rs-fc intra-network signature was compared for those who did and did not fall. RESULTS: Participants who fell had smaller hippocampal volumes (p = 0.04). Among preclinical AD participants, those who fell had a negative correlation between amyloid uptake and global rs-fc intra-network signature (R = -0.75, p = 0.012). A trend level positive correlation was observed between amyloid uptake and global rs-fc intra-network signature (R = 0.70, p = 0.081) for preclinical AD participants who did not fall. CONCLUSION: Falls in CN older adults correlate with neurodegeneration biomarkers. Participants without falls had lower amyloid deposition and preserved global rs-fc intra-network signature. Falls most strongly correlated with presence of amyloid and loss of brain connectivity and occurred in later stages of preclinical AD.

8.
Neurology ; 95(11): e1554-e1564, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759192

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether years of education and the ε4 risk allele at APOE influence ß-amyloid (Aß) pathology similarly in asymptomatic individuals with a family history of sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) and presymptomatic autosomal dominant AD mutation carriers. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 106 asymptomatic individuals with a parental history of sporadic AD (PREVENT-AD cohort; age 67.28 ± 4.72 years) and 117 presymptomatic autosomal dominant AD mutation carriers (DIAN cohort; age 35.04 ± 9.43 years). All participants underwent structural MRI and Aß-PET imaging. In each cohort we investigated the influence of years of education, APOE ε4 status, and their interaction on Aß-PET. RESULTS: Asymptomatic individuals with a parental history of sporadic AD showed increased Aß burden associated with APOE ε4 carriage and lower level of education, but no interaction between these. Presymptomatic mutation carriers of autosomal dominant AD showed no relation between APOE ε4 and Aß burden, but increasing level of education was associated with reduced Aß burden. The association between educational attainment and Aß burden was similar in the 2 cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: While the APOE ε4 allele confers increased tendency toward Aß accumulation in sporadic AD only, protective environmental factors, like increased education, may promote brain resistance against Aß pathology in both sporadic and autosomal dominant AD.

9.
N Engl J Med ; 383(9): 825-835, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RET mutations occur in 70% of medullary thyroid cancers, and RET fusions occur rarely in other thyroid cancers. In patients with RET-altered thyroid cancers, the efficacy and safety of selective RET inhibition are unknown. METHODS: We enrolled patients with RET-mutant medullary thyroid cancer with or without previous vandetanib or cabozantinib treatment, as well as those with previously treated RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer, in a phase 1-2 trial of selpercatinib. The primary end point was an objective response (a complete or partial response), as determined by an independent review committee. Secondary end points included the duration of response, progression-free survival, and safety. RESULTS: In the first 55 consecutively enrolled patients with RET-mutant medullary thyroid cancer who had previously received vandetanib, cabozantinib, or both, the percentage who had a response was 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 55 to 81), and 1-year progression-free survival was 82% (95% CI, 69 to 90). In 88 patients with RET-mutant medullary thyroid cancer who had not previously received vandetanib or cabozantinib, the percentage who had a response was 73% (95% CI, 62 to 82), and 1-year progression-free survival was 92% (95% CI, 82 to 97). In 19 patients with previously treated RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer, the percentage who had a response was 79% (95% CI, 54 to 94), and 1-year progression-free survival was 64% (95% CI, 37 to 82). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were hypertension (in 21% of the patients), increased alanine aminotransferase level (in 11%), increased aspartate aminotransferase level (in 9%), hyponatremia (in 8%), and diarrhea (in 6%). Of all 531 patients treated, 12 (2%) discontinued selpercatinib owing to drug-related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In this phase 1-2 trial, selpercatinib showed durable efficacy with mainly low-grade toxic effects in patients with medullary thyroid cancer with and without previous vandetanib or cabozantinib treatment. (Funded by Loxo Oncology and others; LIBRETTO-001 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03157128.).


Assuntos
Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/análise , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Transaminases/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Neurobiol Dis ; 142: 104960, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522711

RESUMO

Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a protein that is selectively expressed in neurons. Increased levels of NfL measured in either cerebrospinal fluid or blood is thought to be a biomarker of neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases. However, there have been limited investigations relating NfL to the concurrent measures of white matter (WM) decline that it should reflect. White matter damage is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that serum levels of NfL would associate with WM lesion volume and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics cross-sectionally in 117 autosomal dominant mutation carriers (MC) compared to 84 non-carrier (NC) familial controls as well as in a subset (N = 41) of MC with longitudinal NfL and MRI data. In MC, elevated cross-sectional NfL was positively associated with WM hyperintensity lesion volume, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity and negatively with fractional anisotropy. Greater change in NfL levels in MC was associated with larger changes in fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and radial diffusivity, all indicative of reduced WM integrity. There were no relationships with NfL in NC. Our results demonstrate that blood-based NfL levels reflect WM integrity and supports the view that blood levels of NfL are predictive of WM damage in the brain. This is a critical result in improving the interpretability of NfL as a marker of brain integrity, and for validating this emerging biomarker for future use in clinical and research settings across multiple neurodegenerative diseases.

12.
Cereb Cortex ; 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515824

RESUMO

Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies report that moment-to-moment variability in the BOLD signal is related to differences in age and cognition and, thus, may be sensitive to age-dependent decline. However, head motion and/or cardiovascular health (CVH) may contaminate these relationships. We evaluated relationships between resting-state BOLD variability, age, and cognition, after characterizing and controlling for motion-related and cardiovascular influences, including pulse, blood pressure, BMI, and white matter hyperintensities (WMH), in a large (N = 422) resting-state fMRI sample of cognitively normal individuals (age 43-89). We found that resting-state BOLD variability was negatively related to age and positively related to cognition after maximally controlling for head motion. Age relationships also survived correction for CVH, but were greatly reduced when correcting for WMH alone. Our results suggest that network-based machine learning analyses of resting-state BOLD variability might yield reliable, sensitive measures to characterize age-related decline across a broad range of networks. Age-related differences in resting-state BOLD variability may be largely sensitive to processes related to WMH burden.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520734

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Female sex is a major risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD), and sex hormones have been implicated as a possible protective factor. Neuroimaging studies that evaluated the effects of sex hormones on brain integrity have primarily emphasized neurodegenerative measures rather than amyloid and tau burden. OBJECTIVE: We compared cortical amyloid and regional tau positron emission tomography (PET) deposition between cognitively normal males and females. We also compared preclinical AD pathology between females who have and have not used hormone therapy (HT). Finally, we compared the effects of amyloid and tau pathology on cognition, testing for both sex and HT effects. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed amyloid, tau, and cognition in a cognitively normal cross-sectional cohort of older individuals (n=148) followed at the Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center. Amyloid and tau PET, medication history, and neuropsychological testing were obtained for each participant. RESULTS: Within cognitively normal individuals, there was no difference in amyloid burden by sex. Whether or not we controlled for amyloid burden, female participants had significantly higher tau PET levels than males in multiple regions, including the rostral middle frontal and superior and middle temporal regions. HT accounted for a small reduction in tau PET; however, males still had substantially lower tau PET compared with females. Amyloid PET and tau PET burden were negatively associated with cognitive performance, although increasing amyloid PET did not have a deleterious effect on cognitive performance for women with a history of HT. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Regional sex-related differences in tau PET burden may contribute to the disparities in AD prevalence between males and females. The observed decreases tau PET burden in HT users has important implications for clinical practice and trials and deserves future consideration in longitudinal studies.

14.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 34(3): 212-219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520736

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Associations of physical exercise with Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarkers and cognitive functioning have been observed cross-sectionally. However, the effects of exercise on longitudinal change in AD biomarkers have not been thoroughly investigated. The current study examined whether individuals with higher baseline exercise exhibited less longitudinal change in AD biomarkers and cognitive functioning, and whether APOE and/or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotypes moderated the effects of exercise on longitudinal changes. METHODS: Clinically normal individuals completed a questionnaire on physical exercise over the prior 10-year period at baseline. Ninety-five individuals had serial cerebrospinal fluid samples collected to examine Aß42, ptau181 and total tau; 181 individuals underwent multiple assessments of amyloid positron emission tomography imaging with Pittsburgh Compound-B; 327 individuals underwent multiple cognitive assessments, including measures of episodic memory, executive functions, verbal fluency, and processing speed. RESULTS: Greater exercise was associated with less steep decline in processing speed. Baseline exercise did not robustly impact longitudinal change for any other outcomes. Neither APOE nor BDNF genotype robustly moderated the effect of exercise on trajectories of AD biomarkers or cognitive decline. INTERPRETATION: Results suggest that self-reported physical exercise may be limited as a moderator of changes in AD biomarkers.

15.
Endocr Pract ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407665

RESUMO

Objectives: In 2015, updated American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines recommended observation for suspicious sub-centimeter thyroid nodules, based on their indolent course. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of biopsy in suspicious thyroid nodules since the introduction of these guidelines, including factors contributing to clinical decision-making in a tertiary care center. Methods: Retrospective study of patients in Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN with new, sub-centimeter suspicious thyroid nodules (by report or by sonographic features) between March 2015 and November 2017, not previously biopsied. Results: We identified 141 nodules in 129 patients: mean age 58.1 ± 14.1, 74% female, 87% Caucasian. The frequency of biopsy in suspicious thyroid nodules was 39%. Ultrasound features that were the strongest predictors for biopsy on multi-variate analysis included: nodule volume (OR 37.3 [7.5-188.7]), radiology recommendation for biopsy (OR 2.6 [1.8-3.9]) and radiology report of the nodule as "suspicious" (OR 2.1 [1.4-3.2]). Patient's age and degree of comorbidities did not change likelihood for biopsy, nor did it vary by clinician type or how the nodule was initially found (incidentally or not incidentally). Among 86 nodules that were not biopsied, 41% had no specific follow-up recommendations. Conclusions: One third of suspicious thyroid nodules underwent biopsy since release of updated ATA guidelines. Factors driving thyroid biopsy seem to be associated with nodule characteristics but not with patient factors including age and comorbidities. Further studies and development of decision aides may be helpful in providing individualized approaches for suspicious thyroid nodules.

16.
Nature ; 581(7806): 71-76, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376954

RESUMO

Vascular contributions to dementia and Alzheimer's disease are increasingly recognized1-6. Recent studies have suggested that breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an early biomarker of human cognitive dysfunction7, including the early clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease5,8-10. The E4 variant of apolipoprotein E (APOE4), the main susceptibility gene for Alzheimer's disease11-14, leads to accelerated breakdown of the BBB and degeneration of brain capillary pericytes15-19, which maintain BBB integrity20-22. It is unclear, however, whether the cerebrovascular effects of APOE4 contribute to cognitive impairment. Here we show that individuals bearing APOE4 (with the ε3/ε4 or ε4/ε4 alleles) are distinguished from those without APOE4 (ε3/ε3) by breakdown of the BBB in the hippocampus and medial temporal lobe. This finding is apparent in cognitively unimpaired APOE4 carriers and more severe in those with cognitive impairment, but is not related to amyloid-ß or tau pathology measured in cerebrospinal fluid or by positron emission tomography23. High baseline levels of the BBB pericyte injury biomarker soluble PDGFRß7,8 in the cerebrospinal fluid predicted future cognitive decline in APOE4 carriers but not in non-carriers, even after controlling for amyloid-ß and tau status, and were correlated with increased activity of the BBB-degrading cyclophilin A-matrix metalloproteinase-9 pathway19 in cerebrospinal fluid. Our findings suggest that breakdown of the BBB contributes to APOE4-associated cognitive decline independently of Alzheimer's disease pathology, and might be a therapeutic target in APOE4 carriers.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Alelos , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Capilares/patologia , Ciclofilina A/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Ciclofilina A/metabolismo , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Hipocampo/irrigação sanguínea , Humanos , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Giro Para-Hipocampal/irrigação sanguínea , Pericitos/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Receptor beta de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Lobo Temporal/irrigação sanguínea , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421817

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Clinical applications of genomic assessment of thyroid cancers are rapidly evolving. OBJECTIVES, DESIGN, AND SETTING: We studied tumor samples from patients with imminently threatening and rare thyroid cancers to identify genomic alterations that might correlate with outcomes and/or be productively therapeutically targetable. PATIENT CONTEXT: Progressive and metastatic, and/or rare, thyroid cancers were studied, 2012 to 2016, at Mayo Clinic sites. INTERVENTION: The intervention was Foundation One tumor interrogation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main outcome measures included genomic alterations, patient characteristics, and overall survival. RESULTS: Samples from 55 patients were evaluated: 20 anaplastic thyroid cancers (ATCs) (36%), 25 radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs)/poorly differentiated thyroid cancers (PDTCs) (45%; 14 papillary thyroid cancer [PTCs], 6 PDTCs, 5 Hürthle cell cancers), 8 medullary thyroid cancers (MTCs) (15%), and 2 others (a spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation, and a primary thyroid sarcoma). Overall, 72% of DTCs, 79% of ATCs, and 75% of MTCs were deemed to have potentially productively targetable alterations. The most commonly encountered mutation was of TERT promoter (56% of DTCs, 68% of ATCs)-but this is not presently targetable. Targetable BRAFV600E mutations were found in 40% of DTCs/PDTCs (83% of PTCs) and 32% of ATCs; of MTCs, 75% had targetable RET mutations, and 25% HRAS mutations. Of patient tumors with nonmutated BRAFV600E, 53% of DTC/PDTCs and 69% of ATCs had other potentially productively targetable mutations. Genomic alterations in our series of poor prognosis metastatic DTC/PDTCs also closely resembled those seen in ATC. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas genomic interrogation of favorable prognosis thyroid cancer seems ill advised, potentially productively targetable mutations were demonstrated in the majority of tumors from patients with metastatic thyroid cancers requiring systemic therapy, suggesting a rationale for the selective application of this technology.

18.
Neuroimage Clin ; 26: 102248, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334404

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Volumetric biomarkers for Alzheimer disease (AD) are attractive due to their wide availability and ease of administration, but have traditionally shown lower diagnostic accuracy than measures of neuropathological contributors to AD. Our purpose was to optimize the diagnostic specificity of structural MRIs for AD using quantitative, data-driven techniques. METHODS: This retrospective study assembled several non-overlapping cohorts (total n = 1287) with publicly available data and clinical patients from Barnes-Jewish Hospital (data gathered 1990-2018). The Normal Aging Cohort (n = 383) contained amyloid biomarker negative, cognitively normal (CN) participants, and provided a basis for determining age-related atrophy in other cohorts. The Training (n = 216) and Test (n = 109) Cohorts contained participants with symptomatic AD and CN controls. Classification models were developed in the Training Cohort and compared in the Test Cohort using the receiver operating characteristics areas under curve (AUCs). Additional model comparisons were done in the Clinical Cohort (n = 579), which contained patients who were diagnosed with dementia due to various etiologies in a tertiary care outpatient memory clinic. RESULTS: While the Normal Aging Cohort showed regional age-related atrophy, classification models were not improved by including age as a predictor or by using volumetrics adjusted for age-related atrophy. The optimal model used multiple regions (hippocampal volume, inferior lateral ventricle volume, amygdala volume, entorhinal thickness, and inferior parietal thickness) and was able to separate AD and CN controls in the Test Cohort with an AUC of 0.961. In the Clinical Cohort, this model separated AD from non-AD diagnoses with an AUC 0.820, an incrementally greater separation of the cohort than by hippocampal volume alone (AUC of 0.801, p = 0.06). Greatest separation was seen for AD vs. frontotemporal dementia and for AD vs. non-neurodegenerative diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: Volumetric biomarkers distinguished individuals with symptomatic AD from CN controls and other dementia types but were not improved by controlling for normal aging.

19.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(6): 821-830, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301266

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and loss of brain capillary pericytes contributes to cognitive impairment. Pericytes express platelet-derived growth factor receptor-ß (PDGFRß) that regulates brain angiogenesis and blood vessel stability. Elevated soluble PDGFRß (sPDGFRß) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) indicate pericyte injury and BBB breakdown, which is an early biomarker of human cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: A combination of reagents and conditions were tested, optimized, and validated on the Meso Scale Discovery electrochemiluminescence platform to develop a new sPDGFRß immunoassay that was used to measure sPDGFRß in human CSF from 147 individuals. RESULTS: We developed standard operating procedures for a highly sensitive and reproducible sPDGFRß immunoassay with a dynamic range from 100 to 26,000 pg/mL, and confirmed elevated CSF sPDGFRß levels in individuals with cognitive dysfunction. DISCUSSION: This assay could be applied at different laboratories to study brain pericytes and microvascular damage in relation to cognition in disorders associated with neurovascular and cognitive dysfunction.

20.
Nat Med ; 26(3): 398-407, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161412

RESUMO

Development of tau-based therapies for Alzheimer's disease requires an understanding of the timing of disease-related changes in tau. We quantified the phosphorylation state at multiple sites of the tau protein in cerebrospinal fluid markers across four decades of disease progression in dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease. We identified a pattern of tau staging where site-specific phosphorylation changes occur at different periods of disease progression and follow distinct trajectories over time. These tau phosphorylation state changes are uniquely associated with structural, metabolic, neurodegenerative and clinical markers of disease, and some (p-tau217 and p-tau181) begin with the initial increases in aggregate amyloid-ß as early as two decades before the development of aggregated tau pathology. Others (p-tau205 and t-tau) increase with atrophy and hypometabolism closer to symptom onset. These findings provide insights into the pathways linking tau, amyloid-ß and neurodegeneration, and may facilitate clinical trials of tau-based treatments.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Amiloide/metabolismo , Padrões de Herança/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia , Encéfalo/patologia , Cognição , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/química , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Fosforilação , Placa Amiloide/patologia , Solubilidade , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano
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