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1.
PLoS Med ; 17(2): e1003038, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HVTN 100 evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of an HIV subtype C pox-protein vaccine regimen, investigating a 12-month booster to extend vaccine-induced immune responses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A phase 1-2 randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial enrolled 252 participants (210 vaccine/42 placebo; median age 23 years; 43% female) between 9 February 2015 and 26 May 2015. Vaccine recipients received ALVAC-HIV (vCP2438) alone at months 0 and 1 and with bivalent subtype C gp120/MF59 at months 3, 6, and 12. Antibody (IgG, IgG3 binding, and neutralizing) and CD4+ T-cell (expressing interferon-gamma, interleukin-2, and CD40 ligand) responses were evaluated at month 6.5 for all participants and at months 12, 12.5, and 18 for a randomly selected subset. The primary analysis compared IgG binding antibody (bAb) responses and CD4+ T-cell responses to 3 vaccine-matched antigens at peak (month 6.5 versus 12.5) and durability (month 12 versus 18) timepoints; IgG responses to CaseA2_gp70_V1V2.B, a primary correlate of risk in RV144, were also compared at these same timepoints. Secondary and exploratory analyses compared IgG3 bAb responses, IgG bAb breadth scores, neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses, antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis, CD4+ polyfunctionality responses, and CD4+ memory sub-population responses at the same timepoints. Vaccines were generally safe and well tolerated. During the study, there were 2 deaths (both in the vaccine group and both unrelated to study products). Ten participants became HIV-infected during the trial, 7% (3/42) of placebo recipients and 3% (7/210) of vaccine recipients. All 8 serious adverse events were unrelated to study products. Less waning of immune responses was seen after the fifth vaccination than after the fourth, with higher antibody and cellular response rates at month 18 than at month 12: IgG bAb response rates to 1086.C V1V2, 21.0% versus 9.7% (difference = 11.3%, 95% CI = 0.6%-22.0%, P = 0.039), and ZM96.C V1V2, 21.0% versus 6.5% (difference = 14.5%, 95% CI = 4.1%-24.9%, P = 0.004). IgG bAb response rates to all 4 primary V1V2 antigens were higher 2 weeks after the fifth vaccination than 2 weeks after the fourth vaccination: 87.7% versus 75.4% (difference = 12.3%, 95% CI = 1.7%-22.9%, P = 0.022) for 1086.C V1V2, 86.0% versus 63.2% (difference = 22.8%, 95% CI = 9.1%-36.5%, P = 0.001) for TV1c8.2.C V1V2, 67.7% versus 44.6% (difference = 23.1%, 95% CI = 10.4%-35.7%, P < 0.001) for ZM96.C V1V2, and 81.5% versus 60.0% (difference = 21.5%, 95% CI = 7.6%-35.5%, P = 0.002) for CaseA2_gp70_V1V2.B. IgG bAb response rates to the 3 primary vaccine-matched gp120 antigens were all above 90% at both peak timepoints, with no significant differences seen, except a higher response rate to ZM96.C gp120 at month 18 versus month 12: 64.5% versus 1.6% (difference = 62.9%, 95% CI = 49.3%-76.5%, P < 0.001). CD4+ T-cell response rates were higher at month 18 than month 12 for all 3 primary vaccine-matched antigens: 47.3% versus 29.1% (difference = 18.2%, 95% CI = 2.9%-33.4%, P = 0.021) for 1086.C, 61.8% versus 38.2% (difference = 23.6%, 95% CI = 9.5%-37.8%, P = 0.001) for TV1.C, and 63.6% versus 41.8% (difference = 21.8%, 95% CI = 5.1%-38.5%, P = 0.007) for ZM96.C, with no significant differences seen at the peak timepoints. Limitations were that higher doses of gp120 were not evaluated, this study was not designed to investigate HIV prevention efficacy, and the clinical significance of the observed immunological effects is uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a 12-month booster of subtype C pox-protein vaccines restored immune responses, and slowed response decay compared to the 6-month vaccination. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02404311. South African National Clinical Trials Registry (SANCTR number: DOH--27-0215-4796).

2.
mSphere ; 5(1)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996422

RESUMO

Analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 infections could elucidate whether prior vaccination primes relevant immune responses. Here, we measured HIV-specific antibody responses in 14 South African volunteers who acquired HIV infection after participating in phase 1/2 trials of envelope-containing immunogens. Serum samples were collected annually following HIV-1 infection from participants in trials HVTN 073 (subtype C, DNA/MVA, phase 1 trial, n = 1), HVTN 086 (subtype C, DNA/MVA/gp140 protein, phase 1 trial, n = 2), and HVTN 204 (multisubtype, DNA/adenovirus serotype 5 [Ad5], phase 2 trial, n = 7) and 4 placebo recipients. Binding and neutralizing antibody responses to Env proteins and peptides were determined pre- and post-HIV infection using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the TZM-bl cell neutralization assay, respectively. HIV-infected South African individuals served as unvaccinated controls. Binding antibodies to gp41, V3, V2, the membrane-proximal external region (MPER), and the CD4 binding site were detected from the first year of HIV-1 subtype C infection, and the levels were similar in vaccinated and placebo recipients. Neutralizing antibody responses against tier 1A viruses were detected in all participants, with the highest titers being to a subtype C virus, MW965.26. No responses were observed just prior to infection, indicating that vaccine-primed HIV-specific antibodies had waned. Sporadic neutralization activity against tier 2 isolates was observed after 2 to 3 years of HIV infection, but these responses were similar in the vaccinated and placebo groups as well as the unvaccinated controls. Our data suggest that prior vaccination with these immunogens did not alter the antibody responses to HIV-1 infection, nor did it accelerate the development of HIV neutralization breadth.IMPORTANCE There is a wealth of information on HIV-specific vaccine-induced immune responses among HIV-uninfected participants; however, data on immune responses among participants who acquire HIV after vaccination are limited. Here we show that HIV-specific binding antibody responses in individuals with breakthrough HIV infections were not affected by prior vaccination with HIV envelope-containing immunogens. We also found that these vectored vaccines did not prime tier 2 virus-neutralizing antibody responses, which are thought to be required for prevention against HIV acquisition, or accelerate the development of neutralization breadth. Although this study is limited, such studies can provide insights into whether vaccine-elicited antibody responses are boosted by HIV infection to acquire broader neutralizing activity, which may help to identify antigens relevant to the design of more effective vaccines.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Formação de Anticorpos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Proteína gp41 do Envelope de HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Pox-Protein Public-Private Partnership (P5) is performing a suite of trials to evaluate the bivalent subtype C envelope (Env) protein (TV1.C and 1086.C gp120) vaccine in the context of different adjuvants and priming agents for HIV-1 prevention. METHODS: In the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) 111 trial, we compared safety and immunogenicity of DNA prime followed by DNA/protein boost with DNA/protein co-administration injected intramuscularly via either needle/syringe or a needle-free injection device (Biojector). One hundred thirty-two healthy, HIV-1-uninfected adults were enrolled from Zambia, South Africa and Tanzania and were randomized to one of six arms: DNA prime, protein boost by needle/syringe; DNA and protein co-administration by needle/syringe; placebo by needle/syringe; DNA prime, protein boost with DNA given by Biojector; DNA and protein co-administration with DNA given by Biojector; and placebo by Biojector. RESULTS: All vaccinations were safe and well tolerated. DNA and protein co-administration was associated with increased HIV-1 V1/V2 antibody response rate, a known correlate of decreased HIV-1 infection risk. DNA administration by Biojector elicited significantly higher CD4+ T-cell response rates to HIV Env than by needle/syringe in the prime/boost regimen (85.7% vs. 55.6%, p=0.02), but not in the co-administration regimen (43.3% vs. 48.3%, p=0.61). CONCLUSIONS: Both the prime/boost and co-administration regimens are safe and may be promising for advancement into efficacy trials depending on whether cellular versus humoral responses are desired.Trial Registration: South African National Clinical Trials Registry (Application ID 3947; DoH number DOH-27-0715-4917) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02997969).

5.
J Virol ; 94(2)2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619559

RESUMO

Passive administration of HIV-directed broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) can prevent infection in animal models, and human efficacy trials are under way. Single-chain variable fragments (scFv), comprised of only the variable regions of antibody heavy and light chains, are smaller molecules that may offer advantages over full-length IgG. We designed and expressed scFv of HIV bNAbs prioritized for clinical testing that target the V2-apex (CAP256-VRC26.25), V3-glycan supersite (PGT121), CD4 binding site (3BNC117), and MPER (10E8v4). The use of either a 15- or 18-amino-acid glycine-serine linker between the heavy- and light-chain fragments provided adequate levels of scFv expression. When tested against a 45-multisubtype virus panel, all four scFv retained good neutralizing activity, although there was variable loss of function compared to the parental IgG antibodies. For CAP256-VRC26.25, there was a significant 138-fold loss of potency that was in part related to differential interaction with charged amino acids at positions 169 and 170 in the V2 epitope. Potency was reduced for the 3BNC117 (13-fold) and PGT121 (4-fold) scFv among viruses lacking the N276 and N332 glycans, respectively, and in viruses with a longer V1 loop for PGT121. This suggested that scFv interacted with their epitopes in subtly different ways, with variation at key residues affecting scFv neutralization more than the matched IgGs. Remarkably, the scFv of 10E8v4 maintained breadth of 100% with only a minor reduction in potency. Overall, scFv of clinically relevant bNAbs had significant neutralizing activity, indicating that they are suitable for passive immunization to prevent HIV-1 infection.IMPORTANCE Monoclonal antibodies have been isolated against conserved epitopes on the HIV trimer and are being investigated for passive immunization. Some of the challenges associated with full-sized antibody proteins may be overcome by using single-chain variable fragments (scFv). These smaller forms of antibodies can be produced more efficiently, may show fewer off-target effects with increased tissue penetration, and are more adaptable to vectored-mediated expression than IgG. Here, we demonstrate that scFv of four HIV-directed bNAbs (CAP256-VRC26.25, PGT121, 3BNC117, and 10E8v4) had significant neutralizing activity against diverse global strains of HIV. Loss of potency and/or breadth was shown to be due to increased dependence of the scFv on key residues within the epitope. These smaller antibody molecules with functional activity in the therapeutic range may be suitable for further development as passive immunity for HIV prevention.

6.
Cell ; 179(7): 1636-1646.e15, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787378

RESUMO

B cell receptor (BCR) sequencing is a powerful tool for interrogating immune responses to infection and vaccination, but it provides limited information about the antigen specificity of the sequenced BCRs. Here, we present LIBRA-seq (linking B cell receptor to antigen specificity through sequencing), a technology for high-throughput mapping of paired heavy- and light-chain BCR sequences to their cognate antigen specificities. B cells are mixed with a panel of DNA-barcoded antigens so that both the antigen barcode(s) and BCR sequence are recovered via single-cell next-generation sequencing. Using LIBRA-seq, we mapped the antigen specificity of thousands of B cells from two HIV-infected subjects. The predicted specificities were confirmed for a number of HIV- and influenza-specific antibodies, including known and novel broadly neutralizing antibodies. LIBRA-seq will be an integral tool for antibody discovery and vaccine development efforts against a wide range of antigen targets.

7.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(12): e1008064, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841557

RESUMO

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) protect against HIV infection in non-human primates and their efficacy may be enhanced through interaction with Fc receptors on immune cells. Antibody isotype is a modulator of this binding with the IgG3 subclass mediating potent Fc effector function and is associated with HIV vaccine efficacy and HIV control. BNAb functions are typically assessed independently of the constant region with which they are naturally expressed. To examine the role of natural isotype in the context of a bNAb lineage we studied CAP256, an HIV-infected individual that mounted a potent V2-specific bNAb response. CAP256 expressed persistently high levels of plasma IgG3 which we found mediated both broad neutralizing activity and potent Fc function. Sequencing of germline DNA and the constant regions of V2-directed bNAbs from this donor revealed the expression of a novel IGHG3 allele as well as IGHG3*17, an allele that produces IgG3 antibodies with increased plasma half-life. Both allelic variants were used to generate CAP256-VRC26.25 and CAP256-VRC26.29 IgG3 bNAbs and these were compared to IgG1 versions. IgG3 variants were shown to have significantly higher phagocytosis and trogocytosis compared to IgG1 versions, which corresponded to increased affinity for FcγRIIa. Neutralization potency was also significantly higher for IgG3 bNAbs, particularly against viruses lacking the N160 glycan. By exchanging hinge regions between subclass variants, we showed that hinge length modulated both neutralization potency and Fc function. This study showed that co-operation between the variable and natural IgG3 constant regions enhanced the polyfunctionality of antibodies, indicating the value of leveraging genetic variation which could be exploited for passive immunity.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Receptores Fc/imunologia
8.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 1378, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737007

RESUMO

The development of effective vaccines is urgently needed to curb the spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). A major focal point of current HIV vaccine research is the production of soluble envelope (Env) glycoproteins which reproduce the structure of the native gp160 trimer. These antigens are produced in mammalian cells, which requires a sophisticated infrastructure for manufacture that is mostly absent in developing countries. The production of recombinant proteins in plants is an attractive alternative for the potentially cheap and scalable production of vaccine antigens, especially for developing countries. In this study, we developed a transient expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana for the production of soluble HIV Env gp140 antigens based on two rationally selected virus isolates (CAP256 SU and Du151). The scalability of the platform was demonstrated and both affinity and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) were explored for recovery of the recombinant antigens. Rabbits immunized with lectin affinity-purified antigens developed high titres of binding antibodies, including against the V1V2 loop region, and neutralizing antibodies against Tier 1 viruses. The removal of aggregated Env species by gel filtration resulted in the elicitation of superior binding and neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, a heterologous prime-boost regimen employing a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (rMVA) vaccine, followed by boosts with the SEC-purified protein, significantly improved the immunogenicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the immunogenicity of a near-full length plant-derived Env vaccine immunogen.

9.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(510)2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534016

RESUMO

One of the most successful HIV vaccines to date, the RV144 vaccine tested in Thailand, demonstrated correlates of protection including cross-clade V1V2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) breadth, Env-specific CD4+ T cell polyfunctionality, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vaccinees with low IgA binding. The HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) 097 trial evaluated this vaccine regimen in South Africa, where clade C HIV-1 predominates. We compared cellular and humoral responses at peak and durability immunogenicity time points in HVTN 097 and RV144 vaccinee samples, and evaluated vaccine-matched and cross-clade immune responses. At peak immunogenicity, HVTN 097 vaccinees exhibited significantly higher cellular and humoral immune responses than RV144 vaccinees. CD4+ T cell responses were more frequent in HVTN 097 irrespective of age and sex, and CD4+ T cell Env-specific functionality scores were higher in HVTN 097. Env-specific CD40L+ CD4+ T cells were more common in HVTN 097, with individuals having this pattern of expression demonstrating higher median antibody responses to HIV-1 Env. IgG and IgG3 binding antibody rates and response magnitude to gp120 vaccine- and V1V2 vaccine-matched antigens were higher or comparable in HVTN 097 than in RV144 ADCC, and ADCP functional antibody responses were elicited in HVTN 097. Env-specific IgG and CD4+ Env responses declined significantly over time in both trials. Overall, cross-clade immune responses associated with protection were better than expected in South Africa, suggesting wider applicability of this regimen.

10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(Suppl 1): 787, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa (SA) has expanded efforts to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) to less than 2% at six weeks after birth and to less than 5% at 18 months postpartum by 2016. Despite improved antiretroviral regimens and coverage between 2001 and 2016, there is little data on infant HIV drug resistance. This paper tracks the prevalence of HIV drug resistance patterns amongst HIV infected infants from three nationally representative studies that assessed the effectiveness of national programs to prevent MTCT (PMTCT). The first study was conducted in 2010 (under the dual therapy PMTCT policy), the second from 2011 to 12 (PMTCT Option A policy) and the third from 2012 to 13 (PMTCT Option A policy). From 2010 to 2013, infant non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) exposure increased from single dose to daily throughout breastfeeding; maternal nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and NNRTI exposure increased with initiation of NNRTI-and NRTI- containing triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) earlier in gestation and at higher CD4 cell counts. METHODS: Three nationally representative surveys were conducted in 2010, 2011-12 and 2012-13. During the surveys, mothers with known, unknown, or no exposure to antiretrovirals for PMTCT and their infants were included, and MTCT was measured. For this paper, infant dried blood spots (iDBS) from HIV PCR positive infants aged 4-8 weeks, with consent for additional iDBS testing, were analysed for HIV drug resistance at the National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD), SA, using an in-house assay validated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Total viral nucleic acid was extracted from 2 spots and amplified by nested PCR to generate a ~ 1 kb amplicon that was sequenced using Sanger sequencing technologies. Sequence assembly and editing was performed using RECall v3. RESULTS: Overall, HIV-1 drug resistance was detected in 51% (95% Confidence interval (CI) [45-58%]) of HIV PCR positive infants, 37% (95% CI [28-47%]) in 2010, 64% (95% CI [53-74%]) in 2011 and 63% (95% CI [47-77%]) in 2012 (p < 0.0001), particularly to the NNRTI drug class. Pooled analyses across all three surveys demonstrated that infants whose mothers received ART showed the highest prevalence of resistance (74%); 26% (21/82) of HIV PCR positive infants with no or undocumented antiretroviral drug (ARV) exposure harboured NNRTI resistance. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate increasing NNRTI resistance amongst newly-diagnosed infants in a high HIV prevalence setting where maternal ART coverage increased across the years, starting earlier in gestation and at higher CD4 cell counts. This is worrying as lifelong maternal ART coverage for HIV positive pregnant and lactating women is increasing. Also of concern is that resistant virus was detected in HIV positive infants whose mothers were not exposed to ARVs, raising questions about circulating resistant virus. Numbers in this group were too small to assess trends over the three years.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Aleitamento Materno , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , Mães , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Prevalência , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Autorrelato , África do Sul/epidemiologia
11.
Lancet HIV ; 6(10): e641-e642, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473166
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(9): e1008005, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479499

RESUMO

Previously we have described the V2-directed CAP256-VRC26 lineage that includes broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that neutralize globally diverse strains of HIV. We also identified highly mutated "off-track" lineage members that share high sequence identity to broad members but lack breadth. Here, we defined the mutations that limit the breadth of these antibodies and the probability of their emergence. Mutants and chimeras between two pairs of closely related antibodies were generated: CAP256.04 and CAP256.25 (30% and 63% breadth, respectively) and CAP256.20 and CAP256.27 (2% and 59% breadth). Antibodies were tested against 14 heterologous HIV-1 viruses and select mutants to assess breadth and epitope specificity. A single R100rA mutation in the third heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDRH3) introduced breadth into CAP256.04, but all three CAP256.25 heavy chain CDRs were required for potency. In contrast, in the CAP256.20/27 chimeras, replacing only the CDRH3 of CAP256.20 with that of CAP256.27 completely recapitulated breadth and potency, likely through the introduction of three charge-reducing mutations. In this individual, the mutations that limited the breadth of the off-track antibodies were predicted to occur with a higher probability than those in the naturally paired bNAbs, suggesting a low barrier to the evolution of the off-track phenotype. Mapping studies to determine the viral immunotypes (or epitope variants) that selected off-track antibodies indicated that unlike broader lineage members, CAP256.20 preferentially neutralized viruses containing 169Q. This suggests that this globally rare immunotype, which was common in donor CAP256, drove the off-track phenotype. These data show that affinity maturation to counter globally rare viral immunotypes can drive antibodies within a broad lineage along multiple pathways towards strain-specificity. Defining developmental pathways towards and away from breadth may facilitate the selection of immunogens that elicit bNAbs and minimize off-track antibodies.


Assuntos
/imunologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , HIV/imunologia , HIV/patogenicidade , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Testes de Neutralização , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia
13.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e030283, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272988

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite extensive prevention campaigns and scale-up of antiretroviral therapy, HIV incidence among young women in southern Africa remains high. While the development of an efficacious vaccine remains a challenge, the discovery of broadly neutralising monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has created the opportunity to explore passive immunisation as a long-acting injectable HIV prevention strategy. The purpose of this trial is to provide safety, pharmacokinetic (PK) and functional activity data of VRC07-523LS and PGT121 when administered subcutaneously (SC) to young South African women. Going forward, the aim is to select the ideal dose and/or monoclonal antibody for co-formulation and testing with CAP256-VRC26.25LS, a potent monoclonal antibody against subtype C virus, in an efficacy trial. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: CAPRISA 012A is a randomised, double blinded, placebo-controlled phase I trial to assess the safety and PK profile of two mAbs, VRC07-523LS and PGT121 administered SC to 35 young HIV negative women at low risk for HIV infection. Women will be randomised into seven groups of five participants each. In each group, women will be randomised (4:1) to the active intervention, VRC07-523LS and/or PGT121, or placebo. Participants will be followed up for 24 weeks after the administration of the last dose of study product with a total study duration of 72 weeks. Safety in the study will be assessed by the number and percentage of reactogenicity and adverse events experienced by participants and the relatedness to study product. The PK study design was based on preliminary PK data for VRC07-523LS and PGT121. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted by the South African Health Products Regulatory Authority and by the University of KwaZulu-Natal Biomedical Research Ethics Committee. Results will be presented at international conferences and published in academic peer-reviewed journals. Trial results will be uploaded on the clinical trial registry. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PACTR201808919297244; Pre-results.

14.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1497, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333650

RESUMO

Children may be the optimal target for HIV vaccine development as they generate substantially more frequent and more potent broadly HIV neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) than adults. Development of a biomarker that correlates with neutralization breadth in this group could function as a powerful tool to facilitate the development of an HIV vaccine. Previously, we observed that this preferential ability in HIV-infected children over adults to generate bnAbs is associated with an enrichment of circulating follicular helper T-cells (TFH) with an effector phenotype, and the presence of IL-21 secreting HIV-specific TFH within lymphoid tissue germinal centers (GC). In adults, bnAbs development has been linked with high plasma levels of CXCL13, a chemoattractant for CXCR5-expressing TFH cells to the lymph node GC. We sought to test this relationship in HIV-infected children, but found no association between neutralization breadth and plasma levels of CXCL13, or with the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, or the TFH associated factor Activin A. However, we did find an unexpected association between plasma IL-5 levels and bnAb development in these children. Importantly, although CXCL13 correlated with total circulating TFH cells, it was not associated with effector TFH. Additionally, raised CXCL13 expression was associated with a lower CD4 percentage, higher viral load and a loss of immune function, implying it is associated with progressive disease rather than HIV-specific GC activity in these subjects. Taken together, our data suggests that IL-5 should be evaluated further as a candidate plasma biomarker for HIV neutralization breadth and for monitoring vaccine responses in the pediatric age group.

15.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 14: 100-112, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334303

RESUMO

HIV-1 infection continues to be a global health challenge and a vaccine is urgently needed. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are considered essential as they inhibit multiple HIV-1 strains, but they are difficult to elicit by conventional immunization. In contrast, non-neutralizing antibodies that correlated with reduced risk of infection in the RV144 HIV vaccine trial are relatively easy to induce, but responses are not durable. To overcome these obstacles, adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors were used to provide long-term expression of antibodies targeting the V2 region of the HIV-1 envelope protein, including the potent CAP256-VRC26.25 bNAb, as well as non-neutralizing CAP228 antibodies that resemble those elicited by vaccination. AAVs mediated effective antibody expression in cell culture and immunocompetent mice. Mean concentrations of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) in mouse sera increased rapidly following a single AAV injection, reaching 8-60 µg/mL for CAP256 antibodies and 44-220 µg/mL for CAP228 antibodies over 24 weeks, but antibody concentrations varied for individual mice. Secreted antibodies collected from serum retained the expected binding and neutralizing activity. The vectors generated here are, therefore, suitable for the delivery of V2-targeting HIV antibodies, and they could be used in a vectored immunoprophylaxis (VIP) approach to sustain the level of antibody expression required to prevent HIV infection.

16.
EClinicalMedicine ; 9: 26-34, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143879

RESUMO

Background: South Africa has the largest public antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in the world. We assessed temporal trends in pretreatment HIV-1 drug resistance (PDR) in ART-naïve adults from South Africa. Methods: We included datasets from studies conducted between 2000 and 2016, with HIV-1 pol sequences from more than ten ART-naïve adults. We analysed sequences for the presence of 101 drug resistance mutations. We pooled sequences by sampling year and performed a sequence-level analysis using a generalized linear mixed model, including the dataset as a random effect. Findings: We identified 38 datasets, and retrieved 6880 HIV-1 pol sequences for analysis. The pooled annual prevalence of PDR remained below 5% until 2009, then increased to a peak of 11·9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 9·2-15·0) in 2015. The pooled annual prevalence of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) PDR remained below 5% until 2011, then increased to 10.0% (95% CI 8.4-11.8) by 2014. Between 2000 and 2016, there was a 1.18-fold (95% CI 1.13-1.23) annual increase in NNRTI PDR (p < 0.001), and a 1.10-fold (95% CI 1.05-1.16) annual increase in nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor PDR (p = 0.001). Interpretation: Increasing PDR in South Africa presents a threat to the efforts to end the HIV/AIDS epidemic. These findings support the recent decision to modify the standard first-line ART regimen, but also highlights the need for broader public health action to prevent the further emergence and transmission of drug-resistant HIV. Source of Funding: This research project was funded by the South African Medical Research Council (MRC) with funds from National Treasury under its Economic Competitiveness and Support Package. Disclaimer: The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of CDC.

17.
Antivir Ther ; 24(5): 333-342, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protease inhibitors form the main component of second-line antiretroviral treatment in South Africa. Despite their efficacy, mutations arising within the HIV-1 gag and protease coding regions contribute to the development of resistance against this class of drug. In this paper we investigate a South African HIV-1 subtype C Gag-protease that contains a hinge region mutation and insertion (N37T↑V). METHODS: In vitro single-cycle drug susceptibility and viral replication capacity assays were performed on W1201i, a wild-type reference isolate (MJ4) and a chimeric construct (MJ4GagN37T↑VPR). Additionally, enzyme assays were performed on the N37T↑V protease and a wild-type reference protease. RESULTS: W1201i showed a small (threefold), but significant (P<0.0001) reduction in drug susceptibility to darunavir compared with MJ4. Substitution of W1201i-Gag with MJ4-Gag resulted in an additional small (twofold), but significant (P<0.01) reduction in susceptibility to lopinavir and atazanavir. The W1201i pseudovirus had a significantly (P<0.01) reduced replication capacity (16.4%) compared with the MJ4. However, this was dramatically increased to 164% (P<0.05) when W1201i-Gag was substituted with MJ4-Gag. Furthermore, the N37T↑V protease displayed reduced catalytic processing compared with the SK154 protease. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data suggest that the N37T↑V mutation and insertion increases viral infectivity and decreases drug susceptibility. These variations are classified as secondary mutations, and indirectly impact inhibitor binding, enzyme fitness and enzyme stability. Additionally, polymorphisms arising in Gag can modify the impact of protease with regards to viral replication and susceptibility to protease inhibitors.

18.
J Virol ; 93(10)2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842323

RESUMO

HIV-1 has been shown to evolve independently in different anatomical compartments, but studies in the female genital tract have been inconclusive. Here, we examined evidence of compartmentalization using HIV-1 subtype C envelope (Env) glycoprotein genes (gp160) obtained from matched cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) and plasma samples over 2 to 3 years of infection. HIV-1 gp160 amplification from CVL was achieved for only 4 of 18 acutely infected women, and this was associated with the presence of proinflammatory cytokines and/or measurable viremia in the CVL. Maximum likelihood trees and divergence analyses showed that all four individuals had monophyletic compartment-specific clusters of CVL- and/or plasma-derived gp160 sequences at all or some time points. However, two participants (CAP177 and CAP217) had CVL gp160 diversity patterns that differed from those in plasma and showed restricted viral flow from the CVL. Statistical tests of compartmentalization revealed evidence of persistent compartment-specific gp160 evolution in CAP177, while in CAP217 this was intermittent. Lastly, we identified several Env sites that distinguished viruses in these two compartments; for CAP177, amino acid differences arose largely through positive selection, while insertions/deletions were more common in CAP217. In both cases these differences contributed to substantial charge changes spread across the Env. Our data indicate that, in some women, HIV-1 populations within the genital tract can have Env genetic features that differ from those of viruses in plasma, which could impact the sensitivity of viruses in the genital tract to vaginal microbicides and vaccine-elicited antibodies.IMPORTANCE Most HIV-1 infections in sub-Saharan Africa are acquired heterosexually through the genital mucosa. Understanding the properties of viruses replicating in the female genital tract, and whether these properties differ from those of more commonly studied viruses replicating in the blood, is therefore important. Using longitudinal CVL and plasma-derived sequences from four HIV-1 subtype C-infected women, we found fewer viral migrations from the genital tract to plasma than in the opposite direction, suggesting a mucosal sieve effect from the genital tract to the blood compartment. Evidence for both persistent and intermittent compartmentalization between the genital tract and plasma viruses during chronic infection was detected in two of four individuals, perhaps explaining previously conflicting findings. In cases where compartmentalization occurred, comparison of CVL- and plasma-derived HIV sequences indicated that distinct features of viral populations in the CVL may affect the efficacy of microbicides and vaccines designed to provide mucosal immunity.

19.
J Virol ; 93(8)2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760570

RESUMO

A vaccine regimen that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is a major goal in HIV-1 vaccine research. In this study, we assessed the immunogenicity of the CAP256 superinfecting viral envelope (CAP256 SU) protein delivered by modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and DNA vaccines in different prime-boost combinations followed by a soluble protein (P) boost. The envelope protein (Env) contained a flexible glycine linker and I559P mutation. Trimer-specific bNAbs PGT145, PG16, and CAP256 VRC26_08 efficiently bound to the membrane-bound CAP256 envelope expressed on the surface of cells transfected or infected with the DNA and MVA vaccines. The vaccines were tested in two different vaccination regimens in rabbits. Both regimens elicited autologous tier 2 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and high-titer binding antibodies to the matching CAP256 Env and CAP256 V1V2 loop scaffold. The immunogenicity of DNA and MVA vaccines expressing membrane-bound Env alone was compared to that of Env stabilized in a more native-like conformation on the surface of Gag virus-like particles (VLPs). The inclusion of Gag in the DNA and MVA vaccines resulted in earlier development of tier 2 NAbs for both vaccination regimens. In addition, a higher proportion of the rabbits primed with DNA and MVA vaccines that included Gag developed tier 2 NAbs than did those primed with vaccine expressing Env alone. Previously, these DNA and MVA vaccines expressing subtype C mosaic HIV-1 Gag were shown to elicit strong T cell responses in mice. Here we show that when the CAP256 SU envelope protein is included, these vaccines elicit autologous tier 2 NAbs.IMPORTANCE A vaccine is urgently needed to combat HIV-1, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, which remains disproportionately affected by the AIDS pandemic and accounts for the majority of new infections and AIDS-related deaths. In this study, two different vaccination regimens were compared. Rabbits that received two DNA primes followed by two modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and two protein inoculations developed better immune responses than those that received two MVA and three protein inoculations. In addition, DNA and MVA vaccines that expressed mosaic Gag VLPs presenting a stabilized Env antigen elicited better responses than Env alone, which supports the inclusion of Gag VLPs in an HIV-1 vaccine.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , HIV-1 , Imunização Secundária , Vacinas de DNA , Vírus Vaccinia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana , Vacinas contra a AIDS/genética , Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Células HEK293 , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Coelhos , Vacinas de DNA/genética , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia
20.
Antivir Ther ; 24(3): 203-210, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sentinel surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR) among recently infected populations within a country was recommended by the World Health Organization from 2004 to 2015. METHODS: Serum specimens collected as part of the 2010, 2011 and 2012 National Antenatal Sentinel HIV Prevalence Surveys were used to estimate provincial and national TDR prevalence in South Africa. RESULTS: Moderate (5-15%) levels of transmitted non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drug class resistance were detected in three of five provinces surveyed in 2010 and 2011 (Eastern Cape, Free State and KwaZulu-Natal). Inclusion of all nine of South Africa's provinces in the 2012 survey enabled calculation of a national TDR point prevalence estimate: TDR to the NNRTI drug class was 5.4% (95% CI 3.7, 7.8%), with K103N and V106M being the most frequently detected mutations. TDR estimates for the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drug class were 1.1% (95% CI 0.5, 2.4%) and 0.6% (95% CI 0.1, 1.6%) for protease inhibitors (PI). CONCLUSIONS: These data provide national TDR estimates for South Africa in 2012 and indicate that levels of TDR were low to moderate for the NNRTI drug class and low for NRTIs and PIs in the population surveyed.

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