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1.
J Hum Lact ; : 8903344221108073, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research exploring associations between exposure to social determinants of health and breastfeeding is needed to identify breastfeeding barriers. Housing insecurity and household conditions (chaos and crowding) may affect breastfeeding by increasing maternal stress and discomfort and decreasing time available to breastfeed. RESEARCH AIM: We aimed to examine the relationships between housing insecurity, breastfeeding exclusivity intention during the early postnatal period, and breastfeeding exclusivity at 6 months postpartum among a sample "at risk" for suboptimal breastfeeding rates. METHODS: This study is a secondary data analysis of a longitudinal study at two time periods. Data were collected from English- and Spanish-speaking, Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads (N = 361) at near-birth and child aged 6 months, in New York City and Pittsburgh. Structural equation modeling was used to examine direct and indirect effects of housing insecurity on breastfeeding exclusivity at child aged 6 months. RESULTS: The path model showed that experiencing more markers of housing insecurity (i.e., foreclosure/eviction threat, history of homelessness, late rent) was predictive of significantly lower breastfeeding exclusivity at 6 months. This was partially mediated through less exclusive breastfeeding intention during the early postnatal period. Greater household crowding was associated with 6-month breastfeeding exclusivity when mediated by intention. Household crowding had differential effects by study site and participant race/ethnicity. CONCLUSION: Refinement of housing insecurity as a multi-dimensional construct can lead to the development of standardized data collection instruments, inform future methodological decisions in research addressing social determinants of health, and can inform the development of responsive individual- and structural-level interventions.The data used in this study were collected as part of the SMART Beginnings Randomized Controlled Trial (NCT02459327 registered at ClinicalTrials.gov).

2.
Infant Behav Dev ; 67: 101707, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35272177

RESUMO

This study examined predictors of TV use at bedtime and associations with toddlers' sleep and behavior using data from the Smart Beginnings study with 403 Medicaid-eligible, racial/ethnic minority participants from two cities in the United States. We first estimated predictors of TV use at bedtime at 18 months. We then examined whether TV at bedtime was associated with concurrent parent-report of nighttime sleep duration and quality, and later problem behavior at 24 months. Results showed that around half of the sample reported using TV at bedtime with their toddlers, and particularly first-time mothers and those receiving public assistance. We also found that use of TV at bedtime was related to concurrent sleep issues and increases in later problem behavior. Mediational path analyses revealed that TV at bedtime affected behavior via sleep quality. Despite the heterogeneity within this Medicaid-eligible sample, the results underscore the universally harmful effects of TV use at bedtime and lend support for structuring nighttime routines for toddlers to promote better sleep and behavioral outcomes.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Medicaid , Pré-Escolar , Minorias Étnicas e Raciais , Feminino , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Sono , Televisão , Estados Unidos
3.
Acad Pediatr ; 21(8S): S161-S168, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740424

RESUMO

Poverty-related disparities appear early in life in cognitive, language, and social-emotional development, and in growth, especially obesity, and have long-term consequences across the life course. It is essential to develop effective strategies to promote healthy behaviors in pregnancy and the early years of parenthood that can mitigate disparities. Primary preventive interventions within the pediatric primary care setting offer universal access, high engagement, and population-level impact at low cost. While many families in poverty or with low income would benefit from preventive services related to both development and growth, most successful interventions have tended to focus on only one of these domains. In this manuscript, we suggest that it may be possible to address both development and growth simultaneously and effectively. In particular, current theoretical models suggest alignment in mechanisms by which poverty can create barriers to parent-child early relational health (i.e., parenting practices, creating structure, and parent-child relationship quality), constituting a final common pathway for both domains. Based on these models and related empirical data, we propose a strength-based, whole child approach to target common antecedents through positive parenting and prevent disparities in both development and growth; we believe this approach has the potential to transform policy and practice. Achieving these goals will require new payment systems that make scaling of primary prevention in health care feasible, research funding to assess efficacy/effectiveness and inform implementation, and collaboration among early childhood stakeholders, including clinicians across specialties, scientists across academic disciplines, and policy makers.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Pobreza , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez
4.
Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev ; 24(4): 669-683, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505232

RESUMO

This paper describes the Smart Beginnings Integrated Model, an innovative, tiered approach for addressing school readiness disparities in low-income children from birth to age 3 in the United States through universal engagement of low-income families and primary prevention in pediatric primary care integrated with secondary/tertiary prevention in the home. We build on both public health considerations, in which engagement, cost and scalability are paramount, and a developmental psychopathology framework (Cicchetti & Toth, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 50:16-25, 2009), in which the child is considered within the context of the proximal caregiving environment. Whereas existing early preventive models have shown promise in promoting children's school readiness, the Smart Beginnings model addresses three important barriers that have limited impacts at the individual and/or population level: (1) identification and engagement of vulnerable families; (2) the challenges of scalability at low cost within existing service systems; and (3) tailoring interventions to address the heterogeneity of risk among low-income families. Smart Beginnings takes advantage of the existing platform of pediatric primary care to provide a universal primary prevention strategy for all families (Video Interaction Project) and a targeted secondary/tertiary prevention strategy (Family Check-Up) for families with additional contextual factors. We describe the theory underlying the Smart Beginnings model, some initial findings from its recent application in two cities, and implications for changing social policy to promote school readiness beginning during very early childhood.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pobreza , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estados Unidos
5.
Front Psychol ; 12: 640702, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248742

RESUMO

In the past two decades, a growing number of early childhood interventions that aim to improve school readiness have also targeted children's executive function (EF), building on the theory that promoting EF skills in preschool may play a key role in reducing the substantial gaps in school readiness and later achievement associated with family income. Despite the expansion of school readiness interventions across preschool, research evidence is mixed regarding what works to promote EF development and the impact of these interventions on children's EF skills, and subsequently, their academic and behavioral outcomes. This paper reviews four intervention approaches designed to support school readiness that may also improve children's EF skills by: (a) encouraging adaptive classroom behaviors, (b) improving social-emotional learning, (c) promoting play and direct training of EF skills, and (d) improving cognitive skills related to EF. We describe program effects from rigorous trials testing these approaches, including summarizing the takeaways from four large-scale intervention research studies conducted by the authors, involving over 5,000 children. We conclude by exploring open questions for the field and future directions for research and intervention program development and refinement.

6.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 46(7): 768-778, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270767

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test breastfeeding duration and responsive parenting as independent predictors of infant weight change from birth to 12 months, and to test the moderating effect of a tiered parenting intervention on relations between breastfeeding and responsive parenting in relation to infant weight change. METHODS: Mother-infant dyads (N = 403) were participants in the ongoing Smart Beginnings (SB) randomized controlled trial testing the impact of the tiered SB parenting model that incorporates two evidence-based interventions: Video Interaction Project (VIP) and Family Check-Up (FCU). The sample was low income and predominantly Black and Latinx. Responsive parenting variables (maternal sensitivity and intrusiveness) came from coded observations of mother-infant interactions when infants were 6 months. Continuous weight-for-age (WFA) z-score change and infant rapid weight gain (RWG) from 0 to 12 months were both assessed. RESULTS: Longer breastfeeding duration was significantly associated with less WFA z-score change. The relationship between breastfeeding duration and WFA z-score change was significant only for infants in the intervention group. Intrusive parenting behaviors were also associated with greater WFA z-score change after accounting for breastfeeding duration. CONCLUSIONS: This study is one of the first to test both breastfeeding and parenting in relation to infant weight gain in the first year. Findings may have implications for family-focused child obesity prevention programs.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Poder Familiar , Criança , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães
7.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 41(3): 180-186, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between breastfeeding intensity and underexplored features of maternal-child interaction quality over and above the influence of breastfeeding initiation. METHODS: The current study leveraged an on-going, multisite randomized controlled trial of a tiered parenting program for 462 Medicaid-eligible mothers and their infants in the United States. We examined whether breastfeeding intensity and exclusivity was associated with observed maternal sensitivity, intrusiveness, and detachment, as well as self-reported maternal verbal responsiveness, 6 months infant age. Analyses controlled for breastfeeding initiation, demographics, and early parenting experiences. RESULTS: Higher intensity breastfeeding at 6 months was significantly related to higher maternal sensitivity (ß = 0.12, p = 0.004) and lower maternal intrusiveness (ß = -0.10, p = 0.045). There was no significant association between breastfeeding intensity at 6 months and detachment (ß = -0.02, no significant [ns]) or self-reported verbal responsiveness (ß = 0.11, ns). Results were the same when intensity was measured as a dichotomous indicator for exclusive breastfeeding. Effect sizes were small-to-moderate, ranging from Cohen's d = 0.26 to 0.31. Associations did not vary by site, race/ethnicity, infant difficultness, or household poverty. CONCLUSION: The finding that breastfeeding intensity was significantly and independently associated with maternal sensitivity and intrusiveness is novel in the literature on low-income families from the United States. These findings have implications for breastfeeding promotion strategies and indicate that future research should explore synergistic or spillover effects of interventions aimed at maternal-child interaction quality into the infant feeding domain, particularly in the primary care setting.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Materno , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Mãe-Filho , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento Materno/etnologia , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Prev Sci ; 21(1): 120-130, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432380

RESUMO

Past research on predictors of participation in early childhood parenting programs suggest that families experiencing higher levels of sociodemographic adversity (e.g., younger maternal age, single parenthood, lower income or education) are less likely to participate in parenting programs. This is significant, as it may indicate that those most in need of additional support are the least likely to receive it. Data from a randomized control trial (RCT) of Smart Beginnings, an integrated, tiered model for school readiness, were used to explore predictors of attendance in Video Interaction Project (VIP) through 6 months. VIP is a primary preventive intervention delivered in tandem with pediatric well-child visits, aimed at reducing income-based disparities in early child development through promotion of responsive parent-child interactions. Using Poisson distribution models (N = 403; treatment arm, n = 201), we find that demographic, socioeconomic status (SES), and psychosocial variables are associated with program attendance but not always in the expected direction. While analyses show that first-time mothers have higher levels of program attendance as expected, we find that less-educated mothers and those with lower parenting self-efficacy have higher levels of attendance as well. The latter findings may imply that the VIP intervention is, by some indicators, effectively targeting families who are more challenging to engage and retain. Implications for pediatric-based interventions with population-level accessibility are discussed.


Assuntos
Mães/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/educação , Gravação em Vídeo , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Distribuição de Poisson
9.
Adv Child Dev Behav ; 53: 227-253, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28844245

RESUMO

A growing literature has demonstrated that early math skills are associated with later outcomes for children. This research has generated interest in improving children's early math competencies as a pathway to improved outcomes for children in elementary school. The Making Pre-K Count study was designed to test the effects of an early math intervention for preschoolers. Its design was unique in that, in addition to causally testing the effects of early math skills, it also allowed for the examination of a number of additional questions about scale-up, the influence of contextual factors and the counterfactual environment, the mechanism of long-term fade-out, and the role of measurement in early childhood intervention findings. This chapter outlines some of the design considerations and decisions put in place to create a rigorous test of the causal effects of early math skills that is also able to answer these questions in early childhood mathematics and intervention. The study serves as a potential model for how to advance science in the fields of preschool intervention and early mathematics.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Intervenção Educacional Precoce/métodos , Comportamento Exploratório , Matemática/educação , Pré-Escolar , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Modelos Educacionais , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Populações Vulneráveis
10.
Prev Sci ; 18(3): 326-336, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28138944

RESUMO

This paper examines the effects of Opportunity New York City-Family Rewards, the first holistic conditional cash transfer (CCT) program evaluated in the USA, on adolescents' mental health and problem behavior (key outcomes outside of the direct targets of the program) as well as on key potential mechanisms of these effects. The Family Rewards program, launched by the Center for Economic Opportunity in the Mayor's Office of the City of New York in 2007 and co-designed and evaluated by MDRC, offered cash assistance to low-income families to reduce economic hardship. The cash rewards were offered to families in three key areas: children's education, family preventive health care, and parents' employment. Results that rely on the random assignment design of the study find that Family Rewards resulted in statistically significant reductions in adolescent aggression and rates of substance use by program group adolescents as well as their friends, relative to adolescents in the control condition, but no statistically significant impacts on adolescent mental health. One possible mechanism for the benefits to adolescent behavior appears to be time spent with peers, as fewer adolescents in the program group spent time with friends and more adolescents in the program group spent time with family. Findings are discussed with regard to their implication for conditional cash transfer programs as well as for interventions targeting high-risk youth.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Poder Familiar , Pobreza , Comportamento Problema , Reembolso de Incentivo/economia , Recompensa , Adolescente , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Child Maltreat ; 22(2): 92-99, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28032513

RESUMO

We examine maternal life-course mediators of the impact of a nurse home visitation program on reducing child maltreatment among participants in the Elmira trial of the Nurse Family Partnership program from the first child's birth through age 15. For women having experienced low to moderate levels of domestic violence, program effects on the number of confirmed maltreatment reports were mediated by reductions in numbers of subsequent children born to mothers and their reported use of public assistance. Together, the two mediators explained nearly one half of the total effect of nurse home visiting on child maltreatment. The long-term success of this program on reducing child maltreatment can be explained, at least in part, by its positive effect on pregnancy planning and economic self-sufficiency.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Enfermagem Familiar , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Violência Doméstica , Enfermagem Familiar/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Lactente , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Assistência Pública
12.
J Appl Dev Psychol ; 43: 29-42, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26834304

RESUMO

Recent research suggests that Head Start may be differentially effective in improving low-income children's early language and literacy skills based on a number of individual- and family-level characteristics. Using data from the Head Start Impact Study (n = 3503; 50% male, 63% treatment group), the present study extends this work to consider program impact variation based on centers' location in urban versus rural communities. Results indicate that Head Start is more effective in increasing children's receptive vocabulary (as measured by the PPVT) in urban areas and their oral comprehension (as measured by the Woodcock-Johnson Oral Comprehension task) in rural areas. Additional analyses suggest that related characteristics of the center - including concentration of dual language learners and provision of transportation services - may underlie these associations. Implications for research on program evaluation and policy are discussed.

13.
J Youth Adolesc ; 44(6): 1208-25, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25941119

RESUMO

Time budgets represent key opportunities for developmental support and contribute to an understanding of achievement gaps and adjustment across populations of youth. This study assessed the connection between out-of-school time use patterns and academic performance outcomes, academic motivations and goals, and problem behaviors for 504 low-income urban African American and Latino adolescents (54% female; M = 16.6 years). Time use patterns were measured across eight activity types using cluster analysis. Four groups of adolescents were identified, based on their different profiles of time use: (1) Academic: those with most time in academic activities; (2) Social: those with most time in social activities; (3) Maintenance/work: those with most time in maintenance and work activities; and (4) TV/computer: those with most time in TV or computer activities. Time use patterns were meaningfully associated with variation in outcomes in this population. Adolescents in the Academic cluster had the highest levels of adjustment across all domains; adolescents in the Social cluster had the lowest academic performance and highest problem behaviors; and adolescents in the TV/computer cluster had the lowest levels of intrinsic motivation. Females were more likely to be in the Academic cluster, and less likely to be in the other three clusters compared to males. No differences by race or gender were found in assessing the relationship between time use and outcomes. The study's results indicate that time use patterns are meaningfully associated with within-group variation in adjustment for low-income minority adolescents, and that shared contexts may shape time use more than individual differences in race/ethnicity for this population.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Early Child Res Q ; 32: 150-159, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25937703

RESUMO

Past research has shown robust relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and children's school achievement and social-emotional outcomes, yet the mechanisms for explaining these relationships are poorly understood. The present study uses data from 1,904 Head Start participants enrolled in the Head Start Impact Study to examine the role that classroom structural and relational quality play in explaining the association between neighborhood poverty and children's developmental gains over the preschool year. Results suggest that neighborhood poverty is directly related to lower levels of classroom quality, and lower gains in early literacy and math scores. Indirect relationships were also found between neighborhood poverty and children's social-emotional outcomes (i.e., approaches to learning and behavior problems) via differences in the physical resources and negative student-teacher relationships within classrooms. These findings highlight the need for policy initiatives to consider community characteristics as potential predictors of disparities in classroom quality and children's cognitive and social-emotional development in Head Start.

15.
Demography ; 52(2): 455-83, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25735265

RESUMO

Economic life for most American households is quite dynamic. Such income instability is an understudied aspect of households' economic contexts that may have distinct consequences for children. We examine the empirical relationship between household income instability, as measured by intrayear income change, and adolescent school behavior outcomes using a nationally representative sample of households with adolescents from the Survey of Income and Program Participation 2004 panel. We find an unfavorable relationship between income instability and adolescent school behaviors after controlling for income level and a large set of child and family characteristics. Income instability is associated with a lower likelihood of adolescents being highly engaged in school across the income spectrum and predicts adolescent expulsions and suspensions, particularly among low-income, older, and racial minority adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
J Prev Interv Community ; 42(4): 282-99, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25321642

RESUMO

While studies have documented the importance of strong implementation in intervention studies (e.g., see Durlak & Dupre, 2008 ), more information is needed about how to ensure strong fidelity and quality of program implementation when delivering interventions under "real world conditions" and on a large scale. In this article, key lessons in implementing a demonstration and evaluation project known as the Foundations of Learning (FOL) demonstration are presented. Our discussion highlights several key components to the success of the project, including the building of effective coalitions before, and during, the delivery of the intervention to support the implementation process, as well as intensive, collaborative, and multilayered technical assistance provided as the intervention was delivered. Key lessons learned over the course of this project represent some that are highly consistent with prior research on this topic, as well as some that are unique, thus representing new areas for exploration in this burgeoning area of study.


Assuntos
Difusão de Inovações , Intervenção Educacional Precoce/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Cooperativo , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço/organização & administração , Relações Interinstitucionais , Masculino , Modelos Educacionais , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
17.
Dev Psychopathol ; 26(4 Pt 1): 999-1019, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24955777

RESUMO

Building on research on cumulative risk and psychopathology, this study examines how cumulative risk exposure is associated with altered diurnal cortisol rhythms in an ethnically diverse, low-income sample of youth. In addition, consistent with a diathesis-stress perspective, this study explores whether the effect of environmental risk is moderated by allelic variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Results show that youth with greater cumulative risk exposure had flatter diurnal cortisol slopes, regardless of 5-HTTLPR genotype. However, the association of cumulative risk with average cortisol output (area under the curve [AUC]) was moderated by the 5-HTTLPR genotype. Among youth homozygous for the long allele, greater cumulative risk exposure was associated with lower cortisol AUC, driven by significant reductions in cortisol levels at waking. In contrast, there was a trend-level association between greater cumulative risk and higher cortisol AUC among youth carrying the short allele, driven by a trend-level increase in bedtime cortisol levels. Findings are discussed with regard to the relevance of dysregulated diurnal cortisol rhythms for the development of psychopathology and the implications of genetically mediated differences in psychophysiological adaptations to stress.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Alostase/genética , Alostase/fisiologia , Criança , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Saliva/química
18.
J Policy Anal Manage ; 30(2): 310-333, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22162901

RESUMO

This study uses data from an experimental employment program and instrumental variables (IV) estimation to examine the effects of maternal job loss on child classroom behavior. Random assignment to the treatment at one of three program sites is an exogenous predictor of employment patterns. Cross-site variation in treatment-control differences is used to identify the effects of employment levels and transitions. Under certain assumptions, this method controls for unobserved correlates of job loss and child well-being, as well as measurement error and simultaneity. IV estimates suggest that maternal job loss sharply increases problem behavior but has neutral effects on positive social behavior. Current employment programs concentrate primarily on job entry, but these findings point to the importance of promoting job stability for workers and their children.

19.
Dev Psychopathol ; 23(4): 955-74, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22018076

RESUMO

We previously used the theory of allostasis as the foundation for a model of the current stress process. This work highlighted the core emotional systems of the brain as the central mediator of the relationship between stress and health. In this paper, we extend this theoretical approach to consider the role of developmental timing. In doing so, we note that there are strong implicit models that underlie current developmental stress research in the social and life sciences. We endeavor to illustrate these models explicitly as we review the evidence behind each one and discuss their implications. We then extend these models to reflect recent findings from research in life span human neuroscience. The result is a new set of developmental allostatic models that provide fodder for future empirical research, as well as novel perspectives on intervention.


Assuntos
Alostase , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Neurológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Alostase/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança , Humanos , Vias Neurais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
20.
Dev Psychol ; 47(5): 1263-79, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21688900

RESUMO

Social scientists do not agree on the size and nature of the causal impacts of parental income on children's achievement. We revisit this issue using a set of welfare and antipoverty experiments conducted in the 1990s. We utilize an instrumental variables strategy to leverage the variation in income and achievement that arises from random assignment to the treatment group to estimate the causal effect of income on child achievement. Our estimates suggest that a $1,000 increase in annual income increases young children's achievement by 5%-6% of a standard deviation. As such, our results suggest that family income has a policy-relevant, positive impact on the eventual school achievement of preschool children.


Assuntos
Logro , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Escolaridade , Família , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes Psicológicos , Seguridade Social
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