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2.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(633): eabj0264, 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196023

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with an estimated heritability between 40 and 50%. DNA methylation patterns can serve as proxies of (past) exposures and disease progression, as well as providing a potential mechanism that mediates genetic or environmental risk. Here, we present a blood-based epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis in 9706 samples passing stringent quality control (6763 patients, 2943 controls). We identified a total of 45 differentially methylated positions (DMPs) annotated to 42 genes, which are enriched for pathways and traits related to metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, and immunity. We then tested 39 DNA methylation-based proxies of putative ALS risk factors and found that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, white blood cell proportions, and alcohol intake were independently associated with ALS. Integration of these results with our latest genome-wide association study showed that cholesterol biosynthesis was potentially causally related to ALS. Last, DNA methylation at several DMPs and blood cell proportion estimates derived from DNA methylation data were associated with survival rate in patients, suggesting that they might represent indicators of underlying disease processes potentially amenable to therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Colesterol , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética
3.
NPJ Genom Med ; 7(1): 8, 2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35091648

RESUMO

There is a strong genetic contribution to Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk, with heritability estimates of up to 60%. Both Mendelian and small effect variants have been identified, but in common with other conditions, such variants only explain a little of the heritability. Genomic structural variation might account for some of this otherwise unexplained heritability. We therefore investigated association between structural variation in a set of 25 ALS genes, and ALS risk and phenotype. As expected, the repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene was identified as associated with ALS. Two other ALS-associated structural variants were identified: inversion in the VCP gene and insertion in the ERBB4 gene. All three variants were associated both with increased risk of ALS and specific phenotypic patterns of disease expression. More than 70% of people with respiratory onset ALS harboured ERBB4 insertion compared with 25% of the general population, suggesting respiratory onset ALS may be a distinct genetic subtype.

4.
Circ Res ; 130(2): 166-180, 2022 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886679

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Dextro-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) is a severe congenital heart defect which affects approximately 1 in 4,000 live births. While there are several reports of D-TGA patients with rare variants in individual genes, the majority of D-TGA cases remain genetically elusive. Familial recurrence patterns and the observation that most cases with D-TGA are sporadic suggest a polygenic inheritance for the disorder, yet this remains unexplored. OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the role of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in risk for D-TGA. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a genome-wide association study in an international set of 1,237 patients with D-TGA and identified a genome-wide significant susceptibility locus on chromosome 3p14.3, which was subsequently replicated in an independent case-control set (rs56219800, meta-analysis P=8.6x10-10, OR=0.69 per C allele). SNP-based heritability analysis showed that 25% of variance in susceptibility to D-TGA may be explained by common variants. A genome-wide polygenic risk score derived from the discovery set was significantly associated to D-TGA in the replication set (P=4x10-5). The genome-wide significant locus (3p14.3) co-localizes with a putative regulatory element that interacts with the promoter of WNT5A, which encodes the Wnt Family Member 5A protein known for its role in cardiac development in mice. We show that this element drives reporter gene activity in the developing heart of mice and zebrafish and is bound by the developmental transcription factor TBX20. We further demonstrate that TBX20 attenuates Wnt5a expression levels in the developing mouse heart. CONCLUSIONS: This work provides support for a polygenic architecture in D-TGA and identifies a susceptibility locus on chromosome 3p14.3 near WNT5A. Genomic and functional data support a causal role of WNT5A at the locus.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Camundongos , Herança Multifatorial , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/metabolismo , Proteína Wnt-5a/genética , Proteína Wnt-5a/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
5.
Nat Genet ; 53(12): 1636-1648, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873335

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with a lifetime risk of one in 350 people and an unmet need for disease-modifying therapies. We conducted a cross-ancestry genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 29,612 patients with ALS and 122,656 controls, which identified 15 risk loci. When combined with 8,953 individuals with whole-genome sequencing (6,538 patients, 2,415 controls) and a large cortex-derived expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) dataset (MetaBrain), analyses revealed locus-specific genetic architectures in which we prioritized genes either through rare variants, short tandem repeats or regulatory effects. ALS-associated risk loci were shared with multiple traits within the neurodegenerative spectrum but with distinct enrichment patterns across brain regions and cell types. Of the environmental and lifestyle risk factors obtained from the literature, Mendelian randomization analyses indicated a causal role for high cholesterol levels. The combination of all ALS-associated signals reveals a role for perturbations in vesicle-mediated transport and autophagy and provides evidence for cell-autonomous disease initiation in glutamatergic neurons.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mutação , Neurônios/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Glutamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Repetições de Microssatélites , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Risco
6.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(10): 1236-1248, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459874

RESUMO

Importance: Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare form of ALS characterized by age of symptom onset less than 25 years and a variable presentation. Objective: To identify the genetic variants associated with juvenile ALS. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multicenter family-based genetic study, trio whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the disease-associated gene in a case series of unrelated patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and severe growth retardation. The patients and their family members were enrolled at academic hospitals and a government research facility between March 1, 2016, and March 13, 2020, and were observed until October 1, 2020. Whole-exome sequencing was also performed in a series of patients with juvenile ALS. A total of 66 patients with juvenile ALS and 6258 adult patients with ALS participated in the study. Patients were selected for the study based on their diagnosis, and all eligible participants were enrolled in the study. None of the participants had a family history of neurological disorders, suggesting de novo variants as the underlying genetic mechanism. Main Outcomes and Measures: De novo variants present only in the index case and not in unaffected family members. Results: Trio whole-exome sequencing was performed in 3 patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and their parents. An additional 63 patients with juvenile ALS and 6258 adult patients with ALS were subsequently screened for variants in the SPTLC1 gene. De novo variants in SPTLC1 (p.Ala20Ser in 2 patients and p.Ser331Tyr in 1 patient) were identified in 3 unrelated patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and failure to thrive. A fourth variant (p.Leu39del) was identified in a patient with juvenile ALS where parental DNA was unavailable. Variants in this gene have been previously shown to be associated with autosomal-dominant hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy, type 1A, by disrupting an essential enzyme complex in the sphingolipid synthesis pathway. Conclusions and Relevance: These data broaden the phenotype associated with SPTLC1 and suggest that patients presenting with juvenile ALS should be screened for variants in this gene.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Serina C-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
8.
Ann Neurol ; 89(4): 686-697, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The role of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is unclear, with several conflicting reports. A decisive result on this topic is needed, given that treatment options are available now for SMN deficiency. METHODS: In this largest multicenter case control study to evaluate the effect of SMN1 and SMN2 copy numbers in ALS, we used whole genome sequencing data from Project MinE data freeze 2. SMN copy numbers of 6,375 patients with ALS and 2,412 controls were called from whole genome sequencing data, and the reliability of the calls was tested with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification data. RESULTS: The copy number distribution of SMN1 and SMN2 between cases and controls did not show any statistical differences (binomial multivariate logistic regression SMN1 p = 0.54 and SMN2 p = 0.49). In addition, the copy number of SMN did not associate with patient survival (Royston-Parmar; SMN1 p = 0.78 and SMN2 p = 0.23) or age at onset (Royston-Parmar; SMN1 p = 0.75 and SMN2 p = 0.63). INTERPRETATION: In our well-powered study, there was no association of SMN1 or SMN2 copy numbers with the risk of ALS or ALS disease severity. This suggests that changing SMN protein levels in the physiological range may not modify ALS disease course. This is an important finding in the light of emerging therapies targeted at SMN deficiencies. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:686-697.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Proteína 2 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Cell Rep ; 33(9): 108456, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264630

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease. CAV1 and CAV2 organize membrane lipid rafts (MLRs) important for cell signaling and neuronal survival, and overexpression of CAV1 ameliorates ALS phenotypes in vivo. Genome-wide association studies localize a large proportion of ALS risk variants within the non-coding genome, but further characterization has been limited by lack of appropriate tools. By designing and applying a pipeline to identify pathogenic genetic variation within enhancer elements responsible for regulating gene expression, we identify disease-associated variation within CAV1/CAV2 enhancers, which replicate in an independent cohort. Discovered enhancer mutations reduce CAV1/CAV2 expression and disrupt MLRs in patient-derived cells, and CRISPR-Cas9 perturbation proximate to a patient mutation is sufficient to reduce CAV1/CAV2 expression in neurons. Additional enrichment of ALS-associated mutations within CAV1 exons positions CAV1 as an ALS risk gene. We propose CAV1/CAV2 overexpression as a personalized medicine target for ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Caveolina 1/genética , Animais , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Genoma , Humanos
10.
Brain Commun ; 2(2): fcaa064, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954321

RESUMO

Increasingly, repeat expansions are being identified as part of the complex genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To date, several repeat expansions have been genetically associated with the disease: intronic repeat expansions in C9orf72, polyglutamine expansions in ATXN2 and polyalanine expansions in NIPA1. Together with previously published data, the identification of an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient with a family history of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, caused by polyglutamine expansions in ATXN1, suggested a similar disease association for the repeat expansion in ATXN1. We, therefore, performed a large-scale international study in 11 700 individuals, in which we showed a significant association between intermediate ATXN1 repeat expansions and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (P = 3.33 × 10-7). Subsequent functional experiments have shown that ATXN1 reduces the nucleocytoplasmic ratio of TDP-43 and enhances amyotrophic lateral sclerosis phenotypes in Drosophila, further emphasizing the role of polyglutamine repeat expansions in the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

11.
Circulation ; 142(4): 324-338, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare genetic disorder and a major preventable cause of sudden cardiac death in the young. A causal rare genetic variant with large effect size is identified in up to 80% of probands (genotype positive) and cascade family screening shows incomplete penetrance of genetic variants. Furthermore, a proportion of cases meeting diagnostic criteria for LQTS remain genetically elusive despite genetic testing of established genes (genotype negative). These observations raise the possibility that common genetic variants with small effect size contribute to the clinical picture of LQTS. This study aimed to characterize and quantify the contribution of common genetic variation to LQTS disease susceptibility. METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies followed by transethnic meta-analysis in 1656 unrelated patients with LQTS of European or Japanese ancestry and 9890 controls to identify susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms. We estimated the common variant heritability of LQTS and tested the genetic correlation between LQTS susceptibility and other cardiac traits. Furthermore, we tested the aggregate effect of the 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with the QT-interval in the general population using a polygenic risk score. RESULTS: Genome-wide association analysis identified 3 loci associated with LQTS at genome-wide statistical significance (P<5×10-8) near NOS1AP, KCNQ1, and KLF12, and 1 missense variant in KCNE1(p.Asp85Asn) at the suggestive threshold (P<10-6). Heritability analyses showed that ≈15% of variance in overall LQTS susceptibility was attributable to common genetic variation (h2SNP 0.148; standard error 0.019). LQTS susceptibility showed a strong genome-wide genetic correlation with the QT-interval in the general population (rg=0.40; P=3.2×10-3). The polygenic risk score comprising common variants previously associated with the QT-interval in the general population was greater in LQTS cases compared with controls (P<10-13), and it is notable that, among patients with LQTS, this polygenic risk score was greater in patients who were genotype negative compared with those who were genotype positive (P<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: This work establishes an important role for common genetic variation in susceptibility to LQTS. We demonstrate overlap between genetic control of the QT-interval in the general population and genetic factors contributing to LQTS susceptibility. Using polygenic risk score analyses aggregating common genetic variants that modulate the QT-interval in the general population, we provide evidence for a polygenic architecture in genotype negative LQTS.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Síndrome do QT Longo/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletrocardiografia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Síndrome do QT Longo/mortalidade , Síndrome do QT Longo/terapia , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301340

RESUMO

Introduction: Susceptibility to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with smoking in some studies, but it is not clear which aspect of smoking behavior is related. Using detailed records of lifetime smoking we investigated the relationship between smoking and ALS in a UK population. Methods: In this retrospective case-control study, smoking status was collected using environmental questionnaires from people diagnosed with ALS between 2008 and 2013 and from age, sex and geographically matched controls. Categorical measures of smoking behavior were: smoking at the time of survey and smoking initiation; continuous measures were intensity (cigarettes per day), duration (years from starting to stopping or time of survey), cigarette pack years, and comprehensive smoking index (CSI), a measure of lifetime smoking. We used logistic regression to assess the risk of ALS with different combinations of smoking variables adjusted for age at survey, gender, level of education, smoking status and alcohol initiation, selecting the best model using the Akaike Information Criterion. Results: There were 388 records with full smoking history. The best-fitting model used CSI and smoking status at the time of survey. We found a weak association between current smoking and risk of ALS, OR 3.63 (95% CI 1.02-13.9) p value 0.05. Increase in CSI score did not increase risk of ALS: OR 0.81 (95% CI 0.58-1.11) p value 0.2.Conclusion: There is weak evidence of a positive effect of current smoking on the risk of ALS which does not show dose-dependence with higher levels of lifetime smoking and maybe a false positive result.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/tendências , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
NAR Genom Bioinform ; 2(4): lqaa105, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554115

RESUMO

Illumina DNA methylation arrays are a widely used tool for performing genome-wide DNA methylation analyses. However, measurements obtained from these arrays may be affected by technical artefacts that result in spurious associations if left unchecked. Cross-reactivity represents one of the major challenges, meaning that probes may map to multiple regions in the genome. Although several studies have reported on this issue, few studies have empirically examined the impact of cross-reactivity in an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS). In this paper, we report on cross-reactivity issues that we discovered in a large EWAS on the presence of the C9orf72 repeat expansion in ALS patients. Specifically, we found that that the majority of the significant probes inadvertently cross-hybridized to the C9orf72 locus. Importantly, these probes were not flagged as cross-reactive in previous studies, leading to novel insights into the extent to which cross-reactivity can impact EWAS. Our findings are particularly relevant for epigenetic studies into diseases associated with repeat expansions and other types of structural variation. More generally however, considering that most spurious associations were not excluded based on pre-defined sets of cross-reactive probes, we believe that the presented data-driven flag and consider approach is relevant for any type of EWAS.

15.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(523)2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852800

RESUMO

Motor neuron-specific microRNA-218 (miR-218) has recently received attention because of its roles in mouse development. However, miR-218 relevance to human motor neuron disease was not yet explored. Here, we demonstrate by neuropathology that miR-218 is abundant in healthy human motor neurons. However, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) motor neurons, miR-218 is down-regulated and its mRNA targets are reciprocally up-regulated (derepressed). We further identify the potassium channel Kv10.1 as a new miR-218 direct target that controls neuronal activity. In addition, we screened thousands of ALS genomes and identified six rare variants in the human miR-218-2 sequence. miR-218 gene variants fail to regulate neuron activity, suggesting the importance of this small endogenous RNA for neuronal robustness. The underlying mechanisms involve inhibition of miR-218 biogenesis and reduced processing by DICER. Therefore, miR-218 activity in motor neurons may be susceptible to failure in human ALS, suggesting that miR-218 may be a potential therapeutic target in motor neuron disease.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neuropatologia/métodos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Animais , Canais de Potássio Éter-A-Go-Go/genética , Canais de Potássio Éter-A-Go-Go/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo
16.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(12): 1966-1974, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768050

RESUMO

To discover novel genes underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we aggregated exomes from 3,864 cases and 7,839 ancestry-matched controls. We observed a significant excess of rare protein-truncating variants among ALS cases, and these variants were concentrated in constrained genes. Through gene level analyses, we replicated known ALS genes including SOD1, NEK1 and FUS. We also observed multiple distinct protein-truncating variants in a highly constrained gene, DNAJC7. The signal in DNAJC7 exceeded genome-wide significance, and immunoblotting assays showed depletion of DNAJC7 protein in fibroblasts in a patient with ALS carrying the p.Arg156Ter variant. DNAJC7 encodes a member of the heat-shock protein family, HSP40, which, along with HSP70 proteins, facilitates protein homeostasis, including folding of newly synthesized polypeptides and clearance of degraded proteins. When these processes are not regulated, misfolding and accumulation of aberrant proteins can occur and lead to protein aggregation, which is a pathological hallmark of neurodegeneration. Our results highlight DNAJC7 as a novel gene for ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 7(1): 115, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315673

RESUMO

The expansion of a hexanucleotide repeat GGGGCC in C9orf72 is the most common known cause of ALS accounting for ~ 40% familial cases and ~ 7% sporadic cases in the European population. In most people, the repeat length is 2, but in people with ALS, hundreds to thousands of repeats may be observed. A small proportion of people have an intermediate expansion, of the order of 20 to 30 repeats in size, and it remains unknown whether intermediate expansions confer risk of ALS in the same way that massive expansions do. We investigated the association of this intermediate repeat with ALS by performing a meta-analysis of four previously published studies and a new British/Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative dataset of 1295 cases and 613 controls. The final dataset comprised 5071 cases and 3747 controls. Our meta-analysis showed association between ALS and intermediate C9orf72 repeats of 24 to 30 repeats in size (random-effects model OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.23-14.35, p-value = 0.02). Furthermore, we showed a different frequency of the repeat between the northern and southern European populations (Fisher's exact test p-value = 5 × 10- 3). Our findings provide evidence for the association between intermediate repeats and ALS (p-value = 2 × 10- 4) with direct relevance for research and clinical practice by showing that an expansion of 24 or more repeats should be considered pathogenic.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Expansão das Repetições de DNA/genética , /genética , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931641

RESUMO

Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons resulting in progressive paralysis and death, typically within 3-5 years. Although the heritability of ALS is about 60%, only about 11% is explained by common gene variants, suggesting that other forms of genetic variation are important. Telomeres maintain DNA integrity during cellular replication and shorten naturally with age. Gender and age are risk factors for ALS and also associated with telomere length. We therefore investigated telomere length in ALS. Methods: We estimated telomere length by applying a bioinformatics analysis to whole genome sequence data of leukocyte-derived DNA from people with ALS and age and gender-matched matched controls in a UK population. We tested the association of telomere length with ALS and ALS survival. Results: There were 1241 people with ALS and 335 controls. The median age for ALS was 62.5 years and for controls, 60.1 years, with a male-female ratio of 62:38. Accounting for age and sex, there was a 9% increase of telomere length in ALS compared to matched controls. Those with longer telomeres had a 16% increase in median survival. Of nine SNPs associated with telomere length, two were also associated with ALS: rs8105767 near the ZNF208 gene (p = 1.29 × 10-4) and rs6772228 (p = 0.001), which is in an intron for the PXK gene. Conclusions: Longer telomeres in leukocyte-derived DNA are associated with ALS, and with increased survival in those with ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Telômero/ultraestrutura , Idade de Início , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional , DNA/química , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Leucócitos/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sobrevida , Telômero/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Cell Rep ; 26(9): 2298-2306.e5, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811981

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder without effective neuroprotective therapy. Known genetic variants impair pathways, including RNA processing, axonal transport, and protein homeostasis. We report ALS-causing mutations within the gene encoding the glycosyltransferase GLT8D1. Exome sequencing in an autosomal-dominant ALS pedigree identified p.R92C mutations in GLT8D1, which co-segregate with disease. Sequencing of local and international cohorts demonstrated significant ALS association in the same exon, including additional rare deleterious mutations in conserved amino acids. Mutations are associated with the substrate binding site, and both R92C and G78W changes impair GLT8D1 enzyme activity. Mutated GLT8D1 exhibits in vitro cytotoxicity and induces motor deficits in zebrafish consistent with ALS. Relative toxicity of mutations in model systems mirrors clinical severity. In conclusion, we have linked ALS pathophysiology to inherited mutations that diminish the activity of a glycosyltransferase enzyme.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Mutação , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Éxons , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Complexo de Golgi/enzimologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurônios/enzimologia , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
20.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 90(3): 268-271, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons with a median survival of 2 years. Familial ALS has a younger age of onset than apparently sporadic ALS. We sought to determine whether this younger age of onset is a result of ascertainment bias or has a genetic basis. METHODS: Samples from people with ALS were sequenced for 13 ALS genes. To determine the effect of genetic variation, age of onset was compared in people with sporadic ALS carrying a pathogenic gene variant and those who do not; to determine the effect of family history, we compared those with genetic sporadic ALS and familial ALS. RESULTS: There were 941 people with a diagnosis of ALS, 100 with familial ALS. Of 841 with apparently sporadic ALS, 95 carried a pathogenic gene variant. The mean age of onset in familial ALS was 5.3 years younger than for apparently sporadic ALS (p=6.0×10-5, 95% CI 2.8 to 7.8 years). The mean age of onset of genetic sporadic ALS was 2.9 years younger than non-genetic sporadic ALS (p=0.011, 95% CI 0.7 to 5.2 years). There was no difference between the mean age of onset in genetic sporadic ALS and familial ALS (p=0.097). CONCLUSIONS: People with familial ALS have an age of onset about 5 years younger than those with apparently sporadic ALS, and we have shown that this is a result of Mendelian gene variants lowering the age of onset, rather than ascertainment bias.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Viés , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
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