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2.
Eur Urol ; 78(4): 494-497, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532514

RESUMO

A BRCA2 prostate cancer cluster region (PCCR) was recently proposed (c.7914 to 3') wherein pathogenic variants (PVs) are associated with higher prostate cancer (PCa) risk than PVs elsewhere in the BRCA2 gene. Using a prospective cohort study of 447 male BRCA2 PV carriers recruited in the UK and Ireland from 1998 to 2016, we estimated standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) compared with population incidences and assessed variation in risk by PV location. Carriers of PVs in the PCCR had a PCa SIR of 8.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.46-15.6) and were at a higher risk of PCa than carriers of other BRCA2 PVs (SIR = 3.31, 95% CI 1.97-5.57; hazard ratio = 2.34, 95% CI 1.09-5.03). PCCR PV carriers had an estimated cumulative PCa risk of 44% (95% CI 23-72%) by the age of 75 yr and 78% (95% CI 54-94%) by the age of 85 yr. Our results corroborate the existence of a PCCR in BRCA2 in a prospective cohort. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we investigated whether the risk of prostate cancer for men with a harmful mutation in the BRCA2 gene differs based on where in the gene the mutation is located. We found that men with mutations in one region of BRCA2 had a higher risk of prostate cancer than men with mutations elsewhere in the gene.

3.
Lancet ; 395(10240): 1855-1863, 2020 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer and with a broader spectrum of cancers, especially endometrial cancer. In 2011, our group reported long-term cancer outcomes (mean follow-up 55·7 months [SD 31·4]) for participants with Lynch syndrome enrolled into a randomised trial of daily aspirin versus placebo. This report completes the planned 10-year follow-up to allow a longer-term assessment of the effect of taking regular aspirin in this high-risk population. METHODS: In the double-blind, randomised CAPP2 trial, 861 patients from 43 international centres worldwide (707 [82%] from Europe, 112 [13%] from Australasia, 38 [4%] from Africa, and four [<1%] from The Americas) with Lynch syndrome were randomly assigned to receive 600 mg aspirin daily or placebo. Cancer outcomes were monitored for at least 10 years from recruitment with English, Finnish, and Welsh participants being monitored for up to 20 years. The primary endpoint was development of colorectal cancer. Analysis was by intention to treat and per protocol. The trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN59521990. FINDINGS: Between January, 1999, and March, 2005, 937 eligible patients with Lynch syndrome, mean age 45 years, commenced treatment, of whom 861 agreed to be randomly assigned to the aspirin group or placebo; 427 (50%) participants received aspirin and 434 (50%) placebo. Participants were followed for a mean of 10 years approximating 8500 person-years. 40 (9%) of 427 participants who received aspirin developed colorectal cancer compared with 58 (13%) of 434 who received placebo. Intention-to-treat Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed a significantly reduced hazard ratio (HR) of 0·65 (95% CI 0·43-0·97; p=0·035) for aspirin versus placebo. Negative binomial regression to account for multiple primary events gave an incidence rate ratio of 0·58 (0·39-0·87; p=0·0085). Per-protocol analyses restricted to 509 who achieved 2 years' intervention gave an HR of 0·56 (0·34-0·91; p=0·019) and an incidence rate ratio of 0·50 (0·31-0·82; p=0·0057). Non-colorectal Lynch syndrome cancers were reported in 36 participants who received aspirin and 36 participants who received placebo. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses showed no effect. For all Lynch syndrome cancers combined, the intention-to-treat analysis did not reach significance but per-protocol analysis showed significantly reduced overall risk for the aspirin group (HR=0·63, 0·43-0·92; p=0·018). Adverse events during the intervention phase between aspirin and placebo groups were similar, and no significant difference in compliance between intervention groups was observed for participants with complete intervention phase data; details reported previously. INTERPRETATION: The case for prevention of colorectal cancer with aspirin in Lynch syndrome is supported by our results. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK, European Union, MRC, NIHR, Bayer Pharma AG, Barbour Foundation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Método Duplo-Cego , Seguimentos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Tábuas de Vida , Adesão à Medicação , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
4.
Hum Mutat ; 41(9): 1615-1628, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579715

RESUMO

Serine biosynthesis disorders comprise a spectrum of very rare autosomal recessive inborn errors of metabolism with wide phenotypic variability. Neu-Laxova syndrome represents the most severe expression and is characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and pre- or perinatal lethality. Here, we present the mutation spectrum and a detailed phenotypic analysis in 15 unrelated families with severe types of serine biosynthesis disorders. We identified likely disease-causing variants in the PHGDH and PSAT1 genes, several of which have not been reported previously. Phenotype analysis and a comprehensive review of the literature corroborates the evidence that serine biosynthesis disorders represent a continuum with varying degrees of phenotypic expression and suggest that even gradual differences at the severe end of the spectrum may be correlated with particular genotypes. We postulate that the individual residual enzyme activity of mutant proteins is the major determinant of the phenotypic variability, but further functional studies are needed to explore effects at the enzyme protein level.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(3): 412-421, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142645

RESUMO

Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a combination of neurological, psychiatric, and cognitive decline associated with calcium deposition on brain imaging. To date, mutations in five genes have been linked to PFBC. However, more than 50% of individuals affected by PFBC have no molecular diagnosis. We report four unrelated families presenting with initial learning difficulties and seizures and later psychiatric symptoms, cerebellar ataxia, extrapyramidal signs, and extensive calcifications on brain imaging. Through a combination of homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, we mapped this phenotype to chromosome 21q21.3 and identified bi-allelic variants in JAM2. JAM2 encodes for the junctional-adhesion-molecule-2, a key tight-junction protein in blood-brain-barrier permeability. We show that JAM2 variants lead to reduction of JAM2 mRNA expression and absence of JAM2 protein in patient's fibroblasts, consistent with a loss-of-function mechanism. We show that the human phenotype is replicated in the jam2 complete knockout mouse (jam2 KO). Furthermore, neuropathology of jam2 KO mouse showed prominent vacuolation in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum and particularly widespread vacuolation in the midbrain with reactive astrogliosis and neuronal density reduction. The regions of the human brain affected on neuroimaging are similar to the affected brain areas in the myorg PFBC null mouse. Along with JAM3 and OCLN, JAM2 is the third tight-junction gene in which bi-allelic variants are associated with brain calcification, suggesting that defective cell-to-cell adhesion and dysfunction of the movement of solutes through the paracellular spaces in the neurovascular unit is a key mechanism in CNS calcification.


Assuntos
Idade de Início , Alelos , Encefalopatias/genética , Calcinose/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Genes Recessivos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem
7.
Ulster Med J ; 89(1): 14-16, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218621

RESUMO

Introduction: Fibrous cephalic plaques (FCP) are a characteristic manifestation of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and occur in one third of cases. Their natural history and long term course is unknown, as is the outcome of long term follow-up of TSC cases in old age. Phenotype and methods: We describe an 80 year old with TSC due to a c.2784dupC TSC2 mutation, who was diagnosed in infancy with an FCP and was regularly followed up at the TSC clinic over 8 decades with regular epilepsy treatment and renal monitoring. Results: Regular clinical photography and clinical records document the plaque at different ages. The FCP naturally resolved at 74 years. Facial angiofibromas also faded with time in the last decade. His epilepsy and renal abnormalities remained under control with careful surveillance and monitoring. Discussion: Natural aging in the eighth decade causes progressive laxity of collagen and leads to natural resolution of FCPs. This novel finding with a unique 80 year follow up yields valuable insights into the aging changes within FCPs and facial angiofibromas as the pathways linking facial angiofibromas and FCP's through the TGF-ß1 pathway are now being elucidated. Conclusion: We present a clinical odyssey showing the natural progression and history of FCPs in TSC and comment on the mechanistic pathways allowing potential interventions in this disfiguring condition. TSC cases can be successfully managed and complications - particularly in the brain and kidney, can be avoided over an entire lifetime. This is encouraging for long term prospects for patients with TSC.

8.
Neurol Genet ; 6(2): e399, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211515

RESUMO

Objective: To identify the phenotypic, neuroimaging, and genotype-phenotype expression of MYORG mutations. Methods: Using next-generation sequencing, we screened 86 patients with primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) from 60 families with autosomal recessive or absent family history that were negative for mutations in SLC20A2, PDGFRB, PDGBB, and XPR1. In-depth phenotyping and neuroimaging investigations were performed in all cases reported here. Results: We identified 12 distinct deleterious MYORG variants in 7 of the 60 families with PFBC. Overall, biallelic MYORG mutations accounted for 11.6% of PFBC families in our cohort. A heterogeneous phenotypic expression was identified within and between families with a median age at onset of 56.4 years, a variable combination of parkinsonism, cerebellar signs, and cognitive decline. Psychiatric disturbances were not a prominent feature. Cognitive assessment showed impaired cognitive function in 62.5% of cases. Parkinsonism associated with vertical nuclear gaze palsy was the initial clinical presentation in 1/3 of cases and was associated with central pontine calcifications. Cerebral cortical atrophy was present in 37% of cases. Conclusions: This large, multicentric study shows that biallelic MYORG mutations represent a significant proportion of autosomal recessive PFBC. We recommend screening MYORG mutations in all patients with primary brain calcifications and autosomal recessive or negative family history, especially when presenting clinically as atypical parkinsonism and with pontine calcification on brain CT.

9.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 6(2): 146-153, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022473

RESUMO

Multifocal (MF)/multicentric (MC) breast cancer is generally considered to be where two or more breast tumours are present within the same breast, and is seen in ~10% of breast cancer cases. This study investigates the prevalence of multifocality/multicentricity in a cohort of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with breast cancer from Northern Ireland via cross-sectional analysis. Data from 211 women with BRCA1/2 mutations (BRCA1-91, BRCA2-120) and breast cancer were collected including age, tumour focality, size, type, grade and receptor profile. The prevalence of multifocality/multicentricity within this group was 25% but, within subgroups, prevalence amongst BRCA2 carriers was more than double that of BRCA1 carriers (p = 0.001). Women affected by MF/MC tumours had proportionately higher oestrogen receptor positivity (p = 0.001) and lower triple negativity (p = 0.004). These observations are likely to be driven by the higher BRCA2 mutation prevalence observed within this cohort. The odds of a BRCA2 carrier developing MF/MC cancer were almost four-fold higher than a BRCA1 carrier (odds ratio: 3.71, CI: 1.77-7.78, p = 0.001). These findings were subsequently validated in a second, large independent cohort of patients with BRCA-associated breast cancers from a UK-wide multicentre study. This confirmed a significantly higher prevalence of MF/MC tumours amongst BRCA2 mutation carriers compared with BRCA1 mutation carriers. This has important implications for clinicians involved in the treatment of BRCA2-associated breast cancer, both in the diagnostic process, in ensuring that tumour focality is adequately assessed to facilitate treatment decision-making, and for breast surgeons, particularly if breast conserving surgery is being considered as a treatment option for these patients.

10.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 59(6): 333-347, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943436

RESUMO

Constitutional translocations, typically involving chromosome 3, have been recognized as a rare cause of inherited predisposition to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) for four decades. However, knowledge of the molecular basis of this association is limited. We have characterized the breakpoints by genome sequencing (GS) of constitutional chromosome abnormalities in five individuals who presented with RCC. In one individual with constitutional t(10;17)(q11.21;p11.2), the translocation breakpoint disrupted two genes: the known renal tumor suppressor gene (TSG) FLCN (and clinical features of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome were detected) and RASGEF1A. In four cases, the rearrangement breakpoints did not disrupt known inherited RCC genes. In the second case without chromosome 3 involvement, the translocation breakpoint in an individual with a constitutional t(2;17)(q21.1;q11.2) mapped 12 Kb upstream of NLK. Interestingly, NLK has been reported to interact indirectly with FBXW7 and a previously reported RCC-associated translocation breakpoint disrupted FBXW7. In two cases of constitutional chromosome 3 translocations, no candidate TSGs were identified in the vicinity of the breakpoints. However, in an individual with a constitutional chromosome 3 inversion, the 3p breakpoint disrupted the FHIT TSG (which has been reported previously to be disrupted in two apparently unrelated families with an RCC-associated t(3;8)(p14.2;q24.1). These findings (a) expand the range of constitutional chromosome rearrangements that may be associated with predisposition to RCC, (b) confirm that chromosome rearrangements not involving chromosome 3 can predispose to RCC, (c) suggest that a variety of molecular mechanisms are involved the pathogenesis of translocation-associated RCC, and (d) demonstrate the utility of GS for investigating such cases.

11.
Eur Urol ; 77(1): 24-35, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk but a wide range of risk estimates have been reported that are based on retrospective studies. OBJECTIVE: To estimate relative and absolute PCa risks associated with BRCA1/2 mutations and to assess risk modification by age, family history, and mutation location. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a prospective cohort study of male BRCA1 (n = 376) and BRCA2 carriers (n = 447) identified in clinical genetics centres in the UK and Ireland (median follow-up 5.9 and 5.3 yr, respectively). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Standardised incidence/mortality ratios (SIRs/SMRs) relative to population incidences or mortality rates, absolute risks, and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using cohort and survival analysis methods. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Sixteen BRCA1 and 26 BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed with PCa during follow-up. BRCA2 carriers had an SIR of 4.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.99-6.61) and absolute PCa risk of 27% (95% CI 17-41%) and 60% (95% CI 43-78%) by ages 75 and 85 yr, respectively. For BRCA1 carriers, the overall SIR was 2.35 (95% CI 1.43-3.88); the corresponding SIR at age <65 yr was 3.57 (95% CI 1.68-7.58). However, the BRCA1 SIR varied between 0.74 and 2.83 in sensitivity analyses to assess potential screening effects. PCa risk for BRCA2 carriers increased with family history (HR per affected relative 1.68, 95% CI 0.99-2.85). BRCA2 mutations in the region bounded by positions c.2831 and c.6401 were associated with an SIR of 2.46 (95% CI 1.07-5.64) compared to population incidences, corresponding to lower PCa risk (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.96) than for mutations outside the region. BRCA2 carriers had a stronger association with Gleason score ≥7 (SIR 5.07, 95% CI 3.20-8.02) than Gleason score ≤6 PCa (SIR 3.03, 95% CI 1.24-7.44), and a higher risk of death from PCa (SMR 3.85, 95% CI 1.44-10.3). Limitations include potential screening effects for these known mutation carriers; however, the BRCA2 results were robust to multiple sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The results substantiate PCa risk patterns indicated by retrospective analyses for BRCA2 carriers, including further evidence of association with aggressive PCa, and give some support for a weaker association in BRCA1 carriers. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study we followed unaffected men known to carry mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to investigate whether they are at higher risk of developing prostate cancer compared to the general population. We found that carriers of BRCA2 mutations have a high risk of developing prostate cancer, particularly more aggressive prostate cancer, and that this risk varies by family history of prostate cancer and the location of the mutation within the gene.

12.
Cerebellum ; 19(1): 161-163, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721007

RESUMO

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA-5) is a predominantly slowly progressive adult onset ataxia. We describe a child with a presentation of ataxic cerebral palsy (CP) and developmental delay at 6 months of age. Genetic testing confirmed a c.812C>T p.(Thr271Ile) mutation within the SPTBN2 gene. Seven previous cases of infantile onset SCA-5 are reported in the literature, four of which had a CP presentation. Early onset of SCA-5 presents with ataxic CP and is a rare cause of cerebral palsy.


Assuntos
Ataxia/complicações , Ataxia/diagnóstico por imagem , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Paralisia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/complicações , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/complicações , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Ataxia/genética , Paralisia Cerebral/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/genética
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD012894, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women who carry a pathogenic mutation in either a BRCA1 DNA repair associated or BRCA2 DNA repair associated (BRCA1 or BRCA2) gene have a high lifetime risk of developing breast and tubo-ovarian cancer. To manage this risk women may choose to undergo risk-reducing surgery to remove breast tissue, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. Surgery should increase survival, but can impact women's lives adversely at the psychological and psychosexual levels. Interventions to facilitate psychological adjustment and improve quality of life post risk-reducing surgery are needed. OBJECTIVES: To examine psychosocial interventions in female BRCA carriers who have undergone risk-reducing surgery and to evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions on psychological adjustment and quality of life. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and Embase via Ovid, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science up to April 2019 and Scopus up to January 2018. We also handsearched abstracts of scientific meetings and other relevant publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCT), non-randomised studies (NRS), prospective and retrospective cohort studies and interventional studies using baseline and postintervention analyses in female BRCA carriers who have undergone risk-reducing surgery. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed eligibility studies for inclusion in the review. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We screened 4956 records from the searches, selecting 34 unique studies for full-text scrutiny, of which two met the inclusion criteria: one RCT and one NRS. The included studies assessed 113 female BRCA carriers who had risk-reducing surgery, but there was attrition, and outcome data were not available for all participants at final study assessments. We assessed the RCT as at a high risk of bias whilst the NRS did not have a control group. Our GRADE assessment of the studies was very low-certainty due to the paucity of data and methodological shortcomings of the studies. The primary outcome of quality of life was only measured in the RCT and that was specific to the menopause. Both studies reported on psychological distress and sexual function. Neither study measured body image, perhaps because this is most often associated with risk-reducing mastectomy rather than oophorectomy.The RCT (66 participants recruited with 48 followed to 12 months) assessed the short- and long-term effects of an eight-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) training programme on quality of life, sexual functioning, and sexual distress in female BRCA carriers (n = 34) in a specialised family cancer clinic in the Netherlands compared to female BRCA carriers (n = 32) who received usual care. Measurements on the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) showed some improvement at 3 and 12 months compared to the usual care group. At 3 months the mean MENQOL scores were 3.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0 to 3.9) and 3.8 (95% CI 3.3 to 4.2) for the MBSR and usual care groups respectively, whilst at 12 months the corresponding values were 3.6 (95% CI 3.1 to 4.0) and 3.9 (95% CI 3.5 to 4.4) (1 study; 48 participants followed up at 12 months). However, these results should be interpreted with caution due to the very low-certainty of the evidence, where a lower score is better. Other outcome measures on the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale showed no significant differences between the two groups. Our GRADE assessment of the evidence was very low-certainty due to the lack of blinding of participants and personnel, attrition bias and self-selection (as only one-third of eligible women chose to participate in the study) and serious imprecision due to the small sample size and wide 95% CI.The NRS comprised 37 female BRCA carriers selected from three Boston-area hospitals who had undergone a novel sexual health intervention following risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) without a history of tubo-ovarian cancer. The intervention consisted of targeted sexual-health education, body awareness and relaxation training, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy strategies, followed by two sessions of tailored telephone counselling. This was a single-arm study without a control group. Our GRADE assessment of the evidence was very low-certainty, and as there was no comparison group in the included study, we could not estimate a relative effect. The study reported change in psychosexual adjustment from baseline to postintervention (median 2.3 months) using measures of Female Sexual Function Index (n = 34), which yielded change with a mean of 3.91, standard deviation (SD) 9.12, P = 0.018 (1 study, 34 participants; very low-certainty evidence). The Brief Symptom Inventory, Global Severity Index yielded a mean change of 3.92, SD 5.94, P < 0.001. The Sexual Self-Efficacy Scale yielded change with a mean of 12.14, SD 20.56, P < 0.001. The Sexual Knowledge Scale reported mean change of 1.08, SD 1.50, P < 0.001 (n = 36). Participant satisfaction was measured by questionnaire, and 100% participants reported that they enjoyed taking part in the psychoeducation group and felt "certain" or "very certain" that they had learned new skills to help them cope with the sexual side effects of RRSO. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effect of psychosocial interventions on quality of life and emotional well-being in female BRCA carriers who undergo risk-reducing surgery is uncertain given the very low methodological quality in the two studies included in the review. The absence of such interventions highlights the need for partnership between researchers and clinicians in this specific area to take forward the patient-reported outcomes and develop interventions to address the psychosocial issues related to risk-reducing surgery in female BRCA carriers, particularly in this new era of genomics, where testing may become more mainstream and many more women are identified as gene carriers.

18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(6): 1023-1037, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445560

RESUMO

Prolactinomas are the most frequent type of pituitary tumors, which represent 10-20% of all intracranial neoplasms in humans. Prolactinomas develop in mice lacking the prolactin receptor (PRLR), which is a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily that signals via Janus kinase-2-signal transducer and activator of transcription-5 (JAK2-STAT5) or phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K-Akt) pathways to mediate changes in transcription, differentiation and proliferation. To elucidate the role of the PRLR gene in human prolactinomas, we determined the PRLR sequence in 50 DNA samples (35 leucocytes, 15 tumors) from 46 prolactinoma patients (59% males, 41% females). This identified six germline PRLR variants, which comprised four rare variants (Gly57Ser, Glu376Gln, Arg453Trp and Asn492Ile) and two low-frequency variants (Ile76Val, Ile146Leu), but no somatic variants. The rare variants, Glu376Gln and Asn492Ile, which were in complete linkage disequilibrium, and are located in the PRLR intracellular domain, occurred with significantly higher frequencies (P < 0.0001) in prolactinoma patients than in 60 706 individuals of the Exome Aggregation Consortium cohort and 7045 individuals of the Oxford Biobank. In vitro analysis of the PRLR variants demonstrated that the Asn492Ile variant, but not Glu376Gln, when compared to wild-type (WT) PRLR, increased prolactin-induced pAkt signaling (>1.3-fold, P < 0.02) and proliferation (1.4-fold, P < 0.02), but did not affect pSTAT5 signaling. Treatment of cells with an Akt1/2 inhibitor or everolimus, which acts on the Akt pathway, reduced Asn492Ile signaling and proliferation to WT levels. Thus, our results identify an association between a gain-of-function PRLR variant and prolactinomas and reveal a new etiology and potential therapeutic approach for these neoplasms.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Prolactinoma/etiologia , Prolactinoma/metabolismo , Receptores da Prolactina/genética , Receptores da Prolactina/metabolismo , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Everolimo/farmacologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Masculino , Mutação , Prolactinoma/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores da Prolactina/química , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Fetal Pediatr Pathol ; 37(4): 276-281, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a heterogeneous condition that can be associated with fetus papyraceus. Few reports exist documenting genetic investigations in ACC or determining the etiology and recurrence risks. OBJECTIVE: We present a Frieden group 5 ACC with fetus papyraceus along with molecular studies. RESULTS: The newborn had multifocal aplasia cutis congenita involving the head, trunk, and limbs with cerebral ischemic changes demonstrated by imaging. The newborn had a monochorionic twin fetus papyraceus. The array cytogenetic analysis was normal. CONCLUSION: Supported by the ischemic cerebral damage, a monochorionic twin fetus papyraceus (monochorionic twins often have vascular anastomoses), and a normal cytogenetic array, this ACC with Frieden group 5 may have resulted from rapid but non-fatal exsanguination of the surviving twin into the dead twin. This type of ACC may have a low recurrence risk.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/congênito , Doenças em Gêmeos/patologia , Displasia Ectodérmica/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Morte Fetal , Feto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos
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