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1.
J Arthroplasty ; 37(6S): S355-S363, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35219574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients have received cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) implants for their joint replacement for decades. There have been reports of inflammatory cell-induced corrosion (ICIC) of these implants from retrieval studies. The goal of this study is to see if we could recreate ICIC in vitro and whether electrocautery damage to alloy surfaces may hasten this process. METHODS: Murine macrophages were cultured on CoCr disks with and without damage from a monopolar electrocautery. Culture medium was replaced every 12 hours and supernatant was collected every 4 days. After 30 days, cells were removed, counted, and digested. The metal concentrations in the supernatant and within cells were assessed using inductively coupled plasma spectrometry for comparison. RESULTS: The Co supernatant concentration was higher in the undamaged disks with activated macrophages. Higher concentrations of Co and Mo were found in the supernatant of the undamaged disks vs the electrocautery (EC) corrosion damaged disks. There was a significantly higher intracellular Co and Mo concentration with activated cells on CoCrMo disks vs the control group and no difference compared to EC damaged disk group. Scanning electron microscopy displayed microscopic pitting on the surfaces exposed to macrophages without EC damage. CONCLUSION: We found that macrophages could reproduce findings of ICIC pits on the surface of CoCrMo alloy and that the addition of EC damage to the surface did not increase the process. The clinical significance of these findings should be further investigated to determine if this could explain a small number of poor total knee arthroplasty reported outcomes.

2.
Subst Abus ; 43(1): 649-656, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846993

RESUMO

ABTSTRACTBackground: Opioid misuse during pregnancy has been associated with adverse infant outcomes including preterm birth, stillbirth, and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is an on-going state-based surveillance system of maternal behaviors, attitudes, and experiences prior to, during, and after pregnancy. Methods: We analyzed qualitative comments related to opioid use during pregnancy collected in 2016 from an open-ended prompt at the end of the PRAMS survey in 35 states (N = 40,408). Key word searches were conducted on the open-ended responses (n = 9,549) to identify opioid-related content with an automated function using Microsoft Excel. All responses from the initial screening (n = 1,035) were manually reviewed, and 69 responses were confirmed to relate to the respondent's personal experience with opioid use during pregnancy. Content analysis was conducted by 3 independent coders; key themes were compiled, discussed, and finalized by the coding team. Results: Five key themes related to opioid use during pregnancy were identified: (1) gratitude for treatment, recovery, and healthy infants; (2) pregnancy as motivation to seek treatment; (3) difficulty finding prenatal care providers with training in substance use disorders; (4) concern about the effects of treatment on the infant; and (5) experiences of discrimination and stigma in the hospital around the time of delivery. Conclusions: Women may be aware of the potential impact of opioid use during pregnancy on the health of their infants and motivated to seek treatment. Findings may help inform new and ongoing initiatives designed to improve care and reduce stigma for women needing or seeking treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Nascimento Prematuro , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Prosthodont ; 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942682

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the potential of adding silver-nanoparticle-containing amorphous calcium phosphate microparticles as bioactive fillers into commercially available nonbioactive dental resin cement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental cement was formulated by adding 7.5% silver-nanoparticle-containing amorphous calcium phosphate microparticles to Multilink Automix resin cement (Ivoclar Vivadent). The experimental cement was evaluated for shear bond strength (N = 11 per group) and demineralization/remineralization (N = 16 per group), with BioCem® Universal BioActive cement (NuSmile) as the positive control and Multilink Automix cement as the negative control. One-way analysis of variance and post hoc tests were used to assess the significance of differences among or between the groups RESULTS: The addition of silver-nanoparticle-containing amorphous calcium phosphate microparticles at the level of 7.5% by weight into Multilink Automix did not have a statistically significant effect on the shear bond strength (p > 0.05), but statistically significantly increased the depth of remineralization on both dentin and enamel (p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively) when compared to Multilink Automix alone. The experimental cement prepared in the present study was comparable to BioCem® on the depths of remineralization on both dentin and enamel (p = 0.59 and p = 0.99, respectively). CONCLUSION: When incorporated into nonbioactive commercial dental resin cements as bioactive fillers at the level of 7.5% by weight, silver-nanoparticle-containing amorphous calcium phosphate microparticles could provide remineralization potential without affecting the shear bond strength.

4.
Am J Dent ; 34(5): 240-244, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689445

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate color and gloss changes of three different resin composites after staining and whitening. METHODS: 57 disc-shaped composite samples were made for each of three resin composite materials [Activa BioActive Restorative (Activa), Filtek Supreme (Filtek), and TPH Spectra (TPH)], producing 19 samples per composite (n=19). Each group of resin samples was divided among four solutions: red wine, coffee, tea, and water (control), producing six samples per staining group (n=6) and one control (n=1). Samples were stained for 40 days for 3 hours/day at room temperature. When not undergoing staining/whitening, samples were stored in DI water at 37°C. Measurements were obtained for color and gloss before staining, after staining, and after whitening. Illuminant source specular component excluded (SCE) and included (SCI), with both CIE L*a*b* and CIE 2000 L*C*h* systems, were obtained with colorimetric measurements. The standard ΔE (total color change) = 3.3 was used as a clinically acceptable value. Stained groups were divided into two groups (n= 9 each) for each whitening product: Opalescence Boost and Opalescence PF. Both were applied according to manufacturer's instructions. RESULTS: Staining of all samples consistently showed decreased lightness. Filtek showed the most colorimetric changes, especially with wine, while TPH and Activa composites showed few changes; most changes were with tea. Whitening altogether showed generalized increased lightness. All Activa specimens returned to clinically acceptable levels, but the other two materials tested varied. Gloss was most affected for TPH, followed by Filtek; and gloss improved with Activa groups. Overall, Filtek's color varied most, with Activa and TPH being less. All Activa groups returned to clinically acceptable values. However, multiple TPH and Filtek groups had ΔE> 3.3. Furthermore, TPH had the most gloss changes. Activa composites appeared the most stable under the conditions of this study. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Clinicians should be aware that resin composites can undergo staining from a variety of sources. Some resin composites can return to their original esthetic appearance after using bleaching agents. In addition, staining beverages can affect the gloss of the resin composite.


Assuntos
Café , Água , Cor , Coloração e Rotulagem
5.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-10, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine emergency preparedness behaviors among women with a recent live birth in Hawaii. METHODS: Using the 2016 Hawaii Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we estimated weighted prevalence of 8 preparedness behaviors. RESULTS: Among 1010 respondents (weighted response rate, 56.3%), 79.3% reported at least 1 preparedness behavior, and 11.2% performed all 8 behaviors. The prevalence of women with a recent live birth in Hawaii reporting preparedness behaviors includes: 63.0% (95% CI: 58.7-67.1%) having enough supplies at home for at least 7 days, 41.3% (95% CI: 37.1-45.6%) having an evacuation plan for their child(ren), 38.7% (95% CI: 34.5-43.0%) having methods to keep in touch, 37.8% (95% CI: 33.7-42.1%) having an emergency meeting place, 36.6% (95% CI: 32.6-40.9%) having an evacuation plan to leave home, 34.9% (95% CI: 30.9-39.2%) having emergency supplies to take with them if they have to leave quickly, 31.8% (95% CI: 27.9-36.0%) having copies of important documents, and 31.6% (95% CI: 27.7-35.8%) having practiced what to do during a disaster. CONCLUSIONS: One in 10 women practiced all 8 behaviors, indicating more awareness efforts are needed among this population in Hawaii. The impact of preparedness interventions implemented in Hawaii can be tracked with this question over time.

6.
J Dent ; 109: 103655, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798640

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVE: The tailored amorphous multi-porous (TAMP) material fabrication technology has led to a new class of bioactive materials possessing versatile characteristics. It has not been tested for dental applications. Thus, we aimed to assess its biocompatibility and ability to regenerate dental mineral tissue. METHODS: 30CaO-70SiO2 model TAMP discs were fabricated by a sol-gel method followed by in vitro biocompatibility testing with isolated human or mini-swine dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). TAMP scaffolds were tested in vivo as a pulp exposure (pin-point, 1 mm, 2 mm, and entire pulp chamber roof) capping material in the molar teeth of mini-swine. RESULTS: The in vitro assays showed that DPSCs attached well onto the TAMP discs with comparable viability to those attached to culture plates. Pulp capping tests on mini-swine showed that after 4.5 months TAMP material was still present at the capping site, and mineral tissue (dentin bridge) had formed in all sizes of pulp exposure underneath the TAMP material. CONCLUSIONS: TAMP calcium silicate is biocompatible with both human and swine DPSCs in vitro and with pulp in vivo, it may help regenerate the dentin bridge after pulp exposure.


Assuntos
Capeamento da Polpa Dentária , Endodontia Regenerativa , Animais , Compostos de Cálcio , Polpa Dentária , Silicatos , Suínos
7.
Pediatr Dent ; 43(1): 50-56, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662251

RESUMO

Purpose: Since pediatric zirconia crowns (ZRCs) are prefabricated, they may be sterilized following try-in for re-use. Possible changes in color stability, gloss, and translucency were evaluated for four brands of prefabricated zirconia crowns following autoclave and cold sterilization. Methods: Sixteen maxillary right central incisor prefabricated ZRCs were obtained from NuSmile ®, Sprig, Cheng Crowns, and Kinder Krowns ® manufacturers and either autoclaved or cold sterilized. Gloss unit measurements were obtained with a small object Novo-Curve glossmeter. CIE-L*a*b* system values were measured with a CM-700d spectrophotometer under three different illuminants to calculate DE (quantitative representation of the perceived color). ΔE equals one was used for perceptibility threshold (PT) and ΔE equals 2.7 for acceptability threshold (AT). Results: All groups' baseline was ΔE less than one for all illuminants except Cheng Crowns to be autoclaved, indicating crowns are not identical in color from the manufacturer. For autoclaving, Cheng Crowns reached ΔE PT greater than one following the 10th sterilization cycle for all illuminants (D65 1.08±0.32 (standard deviation; P<0.001), A equals 1.07±0.32 (P<0.001), and F2 equals 1.25±0.38 (P<0.001). For cold sterilization, Sprig EZCrowns reached PT greater than one for all sterilization cycles, and Cheng Crowns reached ΔE PT greater than one for the sixth and 10th sterilization cycles. Gloss was not affected by either sterilization method. Spring EZcrowns had the highest mean translucency. Conclusions: Although each group may have a slight perceived difference, there was no clinically significant difference in color; all groups remained below the acceptability threshold of ΔE equals 2.7.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Prótese Dentária , Zircônio , Criança , Cor , Coroas , Humanos , Esterilização
8.
J Prosthodont ; 30(3): 245-251, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869384

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of various finishing and polishing techniques on the surface roughness of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) materials, lithium disilicate (IPS e.max), lithium disilicate reinforced with lithium aluminosilicate (Straumann® n!ce™), and a stackable low-fusing nanofluorapatite glass ceramic (Ceram). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Flat specimens (n = 12) per treatment group were fabricated 2 mm thick, 15 mm in length, and 12mm in width. Samples were either glazed or polished. Glazing was accomplished with either Ivoclar IPS e.max CAD crystall glaze spray or IPS e.max Ceram glaze paste, according to manufacturer instructions. Three different polishing systems were tested: Brasseler Dialite HP, Ivoclar OptraFine, and Komet LD/ZR. Polishing was performed using a Kavo adjustable slow speed electric contra-angle handpiece mounted to an oscillating Toothbrush Dentifrice Assessment Instrument. Surface roughness data was collected using a benchtop stylus profilometer and analyzed for statistical significance using two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). Representative scanning electron micrograph images were generated for all samples. RESULTS: Overall there was no significant difference in Ra when comparing types of ceramic (p = 0.9315, F = 0.071). However, there was a statistically significant difference when comparing groups of finishing treatments (p < 0.001, F = 113.5) and also when comparing finishing treatment with ceramic type (p < 0.001, F = 11.13). No significant difference was found with IPS e.max CAD crystall glaze spray on Straumann® n!ce™ versus IPS e.max Ceram glaze paste on IPS e.max Ceram (p = 0.8745) or IPS e.max CAD crystall glaze spray on IPS e.max versus IPS e.max Ceram glaze paste on IPS e.max Ceram (p = 0.3373). Significant differences in Ra of Straumann® n!ce™ were found when comparing Brasseler with Ivoclar (p = 0.0014) and Ivoclar with Komet (p = 0.047). No significant difference was observed between Brasseler and Komet (p = 0.8099). CONCLUSIONS: It appears that the degree of surface roughness depends upon the specific finishing system and ceramic combination used. Straumann® n!ce™ is more efficiently polished using Brasseler Dialite HP or Komet LD/ZR polishing systems. Ivoclar crystal glaze spray was found to be equally as effective on Straumann® n!ce™ and IPS e.max as IPS e.max Ceram glaze paste on IPS e.max Ceram.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Porcelana Dentária , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Polimento Dentário , Teste de Materiais , Polônia , Propriedades de Superfície
9.
J Pharm Sci ; 110(5): 2177-2184, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373607

RESUMO

Collagen membranes have been used as bioresorbable barrier membranes in guided tissue/bone regeneration. However, the collagen membranes currently used in clinics lack an active antibacterial function, although infection at surgical sites presents a realistic challenge for guided tissue/bone regeneration. In this study, we successfully prepared novel and advanced collagen composite membranes from collagen and complexes of heparin and chelates of minocycline and Ca2+ ions. These membranes were characterized for chemical structures, morphology, elemental compositions and tensile strength. In vitro release studies were conducted to evaluate the release kinetics of minocycline from these membranes. Agar disk diffusion assays were used to assess their sustained antibacterial capability against model pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. The chemical and physical characterization confirmed the successful synthesis of minocycline-loaded collagen composite membranes, namely NCCM-1 and NCCM-2. Both membranes had weaker tensile strength as compared with commercial collagen membranes. They achieved sustained release of minocycline for at least 4 weeks in simulated body fluid (pH 7.4) at 37°C. Moreover, both membranes demonstrated potent sustained antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus. These results suggested that the advanced collagen composite membranes containing minocycline can be exploited as novel guided tissue regeneration membranes or wound dressing by providing additional antibacterial functions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Minociclina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bandagens , Colágeno , Membranas Artificiais , Minociclina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus
10.
J Arthroplasty ; 36(3): 1126-1132, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pitting damage on implants has been reported and attributed to the use of electrocautery. This study aimed to determine how different total knee arthroplasty bearing surfaces are susceptible to this type of damage and whether surgeons are aware that this damage can occur. METHODS: A survey was sent to Hip and Knee Society members to determine what percentage of adult reconstructive surgeons use electrocautery after implantation of components. Three bearing surfaces for total knee arthroplasty were selected: cobalt chromium, Oxinium, and zirconium nitride to be damaged by electrocautery with a monopolar (MP) and bipolar (BP) electrocautery with 3 different energy settings. A comparison of surface damage using scanning electron microscopy and elemental differences using energy dispersion spectroscopy was performed. Average roughness (Ra), maximal peak-to-valley height (Rz), kurtosis (Rk), and skewness (Rsk) were recorded for comparison using a profilometer was performed. RESULTS: Median Rz and Ra measurements were larger for BP damaged areas compared to MP for all bearing surfaces. The Oxinium surface had the greatest increase in roughness parameters. Survey results indicate that a significant percentage of adult reconstructive surgeons use the electrocautery after implants are in place and are not aware of this type of damage. Backscatter scanning electron microscopy analysis found significant changes for BP damage compared to MP. CONCLUSION: Surface damage caused by electrocautery can have significant effects on the bearing surfaces of implants but further study needs to be performed to determine if this is a clinical issue. Our survey determined that many arthroplasty experts are unaware that this damage can occur.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Prótese do Joelho , Adulto , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Ligas de Cromo , Eletrocoagulação/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Prótese do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Desenho de Prótese
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(28): 897-903, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prescription opioid use during pregnancy has been associated with poor outcomes for mothers and infants. Studies using administrative data have estimated that 14%-22% of women filled a prescription for opioids during pregnancy; however, data on self-reported prescription opioid use during pregnancy are limited. METHODS: CDC analyzed 2019 data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey in 32 jurisdictions and maternal and infant health surveys in two additional jurisdictions not participating in PRAMS to estimate self-reported prescription opioid pain reliever (prescription opioid) use during pregnancy overall and by maternal characteristics among women with a recent live birth. This study describes source of prescription opioids, reasons for use, want or need to cut down or stop use, and receipt of health care provider counseling on how use during pregnancy can affect an infant. RESULTS: An estimated 6.6% of respondents reported prescription opioid use during pregnancy. Among these women, 21.2% reported misuse (a source other than a health care provider or a reason for use other than pain), 27.1% indicated wanting or needing to cut down or stop using, and 68.1% received counseling from a provider on how prescription opioid use during pregnancy could affect an infant. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: Among respondents reporting opioid use during pregnancy, most indicated receiving prescription opioids from a health care provider and using for pain reasons; however, answers from one in five women indicated misuse. Improved screening for opioid misuse and treatment of opioid use disorder in pregnant patients might prevent adverse outcomes. Implementation of public health strategies (e.g., improving state prescription drug monitoring program use and enhancing provider training) can support delivery of evidence-based care for pregnant women.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Dent ; 33(2): 69-73, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259410

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate marginal seal, adaptation, surface texture, and bubble presence of pit and fissure sealants when using a novel instrument (C-Shape It) or the manufacturers' supplied applicators for sealant placement into occlusal fissures. METHODS: Extracted molars with occlusal fissures were cleaned with pumice slurry and divided into six groups (n= 10/gp); three treatment and three control. Sealant materials placed included Ultraseal, Delton, and Helioseal. Excess water was removed per manufacturers' instructions. Sealants were applied with each applicator and with the C-Shape It to each group from cusp to cusp without covering marginal ridges, and the polymerization guidelines for photocuring were followed for all the groups. Samples were thermocycled at 500x between 5° and 55°C. Teeth were sectioned in a buccolingual direction with a minimum of four sections per tooth and examined under a light microscope at 50x and scored. RESULTS: Marginal seal, adaptation, penetration ability, surface texture, bubble formation and location of the sealants were analyzed using two-way ANOVA on ranks with a 95% confidence interval. The C-Shape It instrument showed consistently smoother surface texture (P< 0.001), which was statistically significant versus all manufacturers' applicators for all materials. Bubble presence was statistically significantly less with the instrument C-Shape It versus the manufacturers' applicators for all materials (P< 0.001). Results also revealed significant differences in marginal sealant adaptation. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: C-Shape It demonstrated consistent ability to reduce bubbles and improve surface texture and adaptation in occlusal fissures for all pit and fissure products tested.


Assuntos
Infiltração Dentária , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras , Bis-Fenol A-Glicidil Metacrilato , Dente Molar
13.
Gen Dent ; 68(3): 51-56, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348244

RESUMO

Low-viscosity polymer resins, or surface sealants (SSs), have been utilized as a means of finalizing the polishing step following the placement of composite resin restorations. The aim of this study was to measure the surface roughness (Ra) of composite resins treated with different SSs before and after exposure to an accelerated artificial aging protocol. The study included 5 experimental groups of composite resin discs (TPH Spectra ST) treated with different SSs (PermaSeal, Embrace WetBond Seal-n-Shine, OptiGuard, BisCover LV, and DuraFinish) and a control group consisting of untreated discs (n = 6 per group). The discs were prepared by inserting composite resin in 10 × 1-mm rings, covering the ring and material with a transparent strip, compressing the assembly between glass slides, and polymerizing through the slides on each side for 40 seconds with an LED curing light. Each disc except for the control specimens received a coating of the selected SS followed by application of a transparent matrix strip and then light polymerization for 20 seconds using an LED light source. Surface roughness measurements were obtained with a digital contact profilometer at baseline (immediately after polymerization) and following exposure to a thermocycling regimen to simulate aging. The data were analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance and post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test with significance set at P < 0.05. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups at baseline. There were no statistically significant differences between the baseline and post-thermocycling Ra measurements except among the DuraFinish specimens, which were significantly rougher than all other groups after accelerated artificial aging. The use of SSs for the initial insertion and possibly for the long-term maintenance of composite resins could be minimally beneficial for restoration maintenance if a transparent covering medium is utilized during polymerization. However, due to the effects caused by formation of an oxygen-inhibited layer of unpolymerized monomers if a covering medium is not used, the results suggest the benefits do not offset the costs considering both gloss and Ra surface-testing parameters.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas , Polimento Dentário , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 29(5): 703-712, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393215

RESUMO

Background: Understanding and addressing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has implications for maternal and child health outcomes. Heart age, the modeled age of an individual's cardiovascular system based on risk level, and excess heart age, the difference between a person's heart age and chronological age, are alternative simplified ways to communicate CVD risk. Among women with a recent live birth, we predicted heart age, calculated prevalence of excess heart age (≥5 years), and examined factors associated with excess heart age. Materials and Methods: Data were analyzed in 2017 from 2009 to 2014 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). To calculate heart age we used maternal age, prepregnancy body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, and diabetic status. Weighted prevalence and prevalence ratios compared the likelihood of excess heart age across racial/ethnic groups by selected factors. Results: Prevalence of excess heart age was higher in non-Hispanic black women (11.8%) than non-Hispanic white women (7.3%, prevalence ratio [PR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.62, 1.49-1.76) and Hispanic women (4.9%, PR, 95% CI: 2.39, 2.10-2.72). Prevalence of excess heart age was highest among women who were without health insurance, obese or overweight, engaged in physical activity less than thrice per week, or were smokers in the prepregnancy period. Among women with less than high school education, non-Hispanic black women had a higher prevalence of excess heart age than Hispanic women (PR, 95% CI: 4.01, 3.15-5.10). Conclusions: Excess heart age may be an important tool for decreasing disparities and encouraging CVD risk reduction among certain groups of women.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Coração/fisiopatologia , /estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Nascido Vivo , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Gen Dent ; 67(6): 62-66, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658028

RESUMO

This study evaluated how exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light affected the gloss of composite resins following application of resin-based surface sealants (SSs). Thirty composite resin discs were fabricated using cylindrical molds and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 SS groups (n = 6 each). Both sides of each disc received a polyester film clear matrix surface finish, and then rotary finishing and polishing procedures were performed on 1 side only. Six baseline measurements for each disc surface were performed using a 60-degree-angle gloss meter. The finished and polished side then received an SS application and was polymerized with an LED light through a polyester film matrix. Gloss measurements were then obtained. All specimens were then exposed to an artificial UV light source for a total of 382 hours, after which final gloss measurements were made. A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls pairwise multiple comparison tests revealed statistically significant differences between the SS materials and surface treatments (P < 0.05). No statistically significant (P > 0.05) differences were found between the surfaces that were mechanically finished and polished and those that only received a polyester film finish. However, all specimens exhibited significantly (P < 0.0001) higher gloss readings after SS application. Following UV exposure, all SS specimens exhibited significantly (P < 0.0001) lower gloss readings. The study results suggest that application of SSs to composite resin discs increases the gloss on a short-term basis; however, long-term exposure of SSs to an artificial UV light source might have a negative effect on the surface properties. Thus, dentists need to periodically evaluate composite resin restorations.


Assuntos
Polimento Dentário , Raios Ultravioleta , Resinas Compostas , Materiais Dentários , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
J Prosthodont ; 28(6): 677-683, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149753

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of the location of a partial ferrule on 2 walls and the influence of ferrule height variations on remaining walls, fracture resistance, and failure mode of maxillary incisors endodontically treated and restored with fiber posts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty intact human maxillary central incisors were divided into 6 groups (n = 10): no ferrule (NF), 2-mm ferrule (CF2), absence of lingual wall and 1 proximal wall with remaining walls' height, 1 mm (IF1), 2 mm (IF2), 3 mm (IF3), and 4 mm (IF4). They were restored with a fiberglass post and composite resin core. Complete metal crowns were then cemented on all specimens. Completed specimens were subjected to thermal cycling (6000 cycles, 5°C/55°C) followed by the immediate testing of fracture resistance. After failure, the specimens were sectioned buccolingually and evaluated to identify the mode of failure. The data were analyzed with an ANOVA and the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison tests (α = 0.05). RESULTS: An incomplete ferrule (IF2) with the lingual wall missing and 1 proximal wall had a fracture resistance of 494 ± 137 N, which was significantly less that of a complete ferrule (CF2) (707 ± 162 N, p = 0.002). An increase of 3 to 4 mm in height of the remaining walls had negligible influence on the fracture resistance: 514 ± 117 N (IF3), 557 ± 177 N (IF4). Partial decementation was observed in all specimens of IF3 and IF4, in 9 of IF1 and IF2, in 6 in NF, and in 3 in CF2. Root fractures occurred in 7 specimens, 4 in CF2, 1 in IF1, 1 in IF2, and 1 in IF4. Cracks under the cemento-enamel junction occurred in 4 specimens (NF and IF1), in 5 (IF2 and IF3), and in 6 (CF2 and IF4) and were considered catastrophic failures. CONCLUSIONS: Specimens with a complete ferrule of 2 mm height were more resistant to fracture than specimens with 2 mm height and absence of the lingual wall and 1 proximal wall. A 3 or 4 mm wall height increase was associated with an insignificant increase in fracture resistance and cannot compensate for the absence of the lingual wall and 1 proximal wall.


Assuntos
Técnica para Retentor Intrarradicular , Fraturas dos Dentes , Dente não Vital , Resinas Compostas , Coroas , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Humanos , Incisivo
17.
J Long Term Eff Med Implants ; 29(3): 231-238, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478996

RESUMO

Recently, inflammatory cell-induced corrosion (ICIC), a unique type of damage, has been reported in cobalt-chromium (CoCr) implants, but the mechanism remains poorly understood and controversial because electrocautery damage has also been shown to produce similar findings. This study aimed to distinguish between these two damage mechanisms. Forty-one CoCr primary total knee arthroplasty specimens were collected at time of necropsy. After removal and cleaning, light microscopy was used to identify areas of ICIC-like damage scars. A CoCr knee implant was intentionally damaged by electrocautery from both Bovie and Aquamantys sources using a 3-second hover method with 3 different energy settings for comparison to necropsy findings. Average roughness (Ra), max peak-to-valley height (Rmax), kurtosis (Rk), and skewness (Rsk) measurements were collected to represent the topography on the damaged areas for the CoCr implants. Necropsy implants showed signs of ICIC in 7 of 41 implants (17%) examined. Fe/C ratios of the Bovie electrocautery-damaged knee implant were shown to be statistically higher than those of necropsy-retrieved implants. Median Ra measurements were statistically less (P = 0.008) for Bovie-damaged areas compared to ICIC-dam-aged areas on CoCr. Median Rmax and Ra measurements were statistically less (P = 0.012, P < 0.001, respectively) for Aquamantys-damaged areas compared to ICIC-damaged areas on CoCr. While the visual patterns seen in necropsy-retrieved implants appeared similar to those with the intentionally damaged CoCrMo implant, the contents of the corroded regions are unique. The difference in roughness found on ICIC-damaged and electrocautery-damaged regions also indicates examination of surface topography as another distinguishing feature between the two mechanisms.


Assuntos
Eletrocoagulação/efeitos adversos , Prótese do Joelho , Macrófagos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Falha de Prótese/etiologia , Artroplastia do Joelho , Cadáver , Ligas de Cromo/análise , Corrosão , Humanos , Íons/imunologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Espectrometria por Raios X
18.
Am J Dent ; 32(6): 276-280, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920052

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the antibacterial efficiency of silver-loaded gelatin sponges prepared from gelatin and silver diamine fluoride, Ag(NH3)2F. METHODS: A series of novel silver-loaded gelatin sponges were prepared from gelatin and silver diamine fluoride. They were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The antibacterial activities against one oral bacteria model S. mutans were evaluated using the agar disk diffusion method and biofilm-grown bacteria assay. For the purpose of comparison, a second series of silver-loaded sponges were prepared using silver nitrate (AgNO3) as the silver source. RESULTS: FT-IR, SEM and EDX results confirmed the successful preparation of silver-loaded gelatin sponges from both silver diamine fluoride and silver nitrate. Agar disk diffusion assays revealed that the antibacterial activity of silver-loaded sponges was strongly correlated with the silver content, and also depending on the silver source used in the preparation of sponges. Sustained inhibition of S. mutans in agar plates was observed for silver-loaded gelatin sponges containing about 5 wt% Ag or more. Biofilm assays showed different viabilities when treated with different formulations, with the viability of 11.4±3.1% for the sponges containing 5.30±1.18 wt% Ag prepared from silver diamine fluoride, and the viability of 15.4±3.1% for the sponges containing 29.13±10.34 wt% Ag prepared from silver nitrate. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The silver loading contents had a significant effect on the antibacterial activities of silver-loaded gelatin sponges prepared with silver diamine fluoride. In addition, silver diamine fluoride was a superior silver source to prepare antibacterial silver-loaded gelatin sponges when compared with silver nitrate.


Assuntos
Fluoretos Tópicos , Gelatina , Antibacterianos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Compostos de Prata , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
19.
J Pharm Sci ; 107(12): 3134-3142, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201483

RESUMO

It is important to address the periodontitis-associated bacteria in the residual subgingival plaque after scaling and root planing to successfully treat periodontitis. In this study, we explored the possibility of exploiting the ion pairing/complexation of minocycline, Ca2+, and sulfate/sulfonate-bearing biopolymers to develop an intrapocket delivery system of minocycline as an adjunct to scaling and root planing. Minocycline-calcium-dextran sulfate complex microparticles were synthesized from minocycline, CaCl2, and dextran sulfate. They were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. An in vitro release study was conducted to evaluate the release kinetics of minocycline from these microparticles. Agar disk diffusion assays and biofilm-grown bacteria assays were used to assess antibacterial capability. High loading efficiency (96.98% ± 0.12%) and high loading content (44.69% ± 0.03%) for minocycline were observed for these complex microparticles. Mino-Ca-DS microparticles achieved sustained release of minocycline for at least 9 days at pH 7.4 and 18 days at pH 6.4 in phosphate-buffered saline, respectively. They also demonstrated potent antimicrobial effects against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in agar disk diffusion and biofilm assays. These results suggested that the ion pairing/complexation of minocycline, Ca2+, and sulfonate/sulfate-bearing biopolymers can be exploited to develop complex microparticles as local delivery systems for periodontitis treatment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Sulfato de Dextrana/química , Minociclina/administração & dosagem , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/efeitos dos fármacos , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/fisiologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Minociclina/química , Minociclina/farmacologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia
20.
Am J Dent ; 31(3): 149-154, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028934

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of exploiting amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) formed in situ from chitosan calcium microspheres and phosphate ions in water during brushing for caries control. METHODS: A prototype toothpaste, namely Chi-ACP paste, was specially formulated containing CaCl2/chitosan microspheres. The efficiency of Chi-ACP paste for remineralization on human tooth enamel was evaluated via an in vitro pH cycling approach. After 15 demineralization/remineralization cycles, the treated teeth were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) /energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and polarized light microscope (PLM). RESULTS: EDX analysis showed the treated enamel in the Chi-ACP paste group had statistically significantly higher calcium content and Ca/P weight ratios than those in the negative control group, while the MI plus group had a slightly higher Ca content and a slightly higher Ca/P weight ratio. PLM analysis revealed that the Chi-ACP paste group had a larger remineralization band in treated enamel than the negative control group, although there was no statistically significant difference on the demineralization depths in the enamel among the three groups. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Antibacterial chitosan could be used to encapsulate CaCl2 and then formulated into toothpaste for caries control through in-situ formed amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) during brushing.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Quitosana , Microesferas , Remineralização Dentária , Cremes Dentais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Caseínas , Quitosana/uso terapêutico , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
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