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2.
Clin Chem ; 67(1): 87-95, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism, which can be significantly reduced with anticoagulant treatment. Key goals in the clinical management of AF are the identification of patients at high risk for developing AF and accurate stratification of the risk of stroke and systemic embolic events (S/SEE) as well as treatment-related major bleeding. CONTENT: In this review, we describe the expanding evidence regarding the use of circulating biomarkers for predicting the risks of both incident AF and its clinically important complications of S/SEE and treatment-related major bleeding. We also review emerging biomarker-based scores for assessing these risks. SUMMARY: Patients with AF undergo progressive cardiac structural remodeling, which may precede the onset of the arrhythmia. Abnormal concentrations of circulating biomarkers reflecting the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of hemodynamic stress (i.e., natriuretic peptides), inflammation (i.e., C-reactive protein), and myocardial fibrosis identify patients at higher risk of developing AF. Circulating biomarkers can also be used to identify patients with AF who are at greatest risk for developing S/SEE or major bleeding. In particular, biomarkers of hemodynamic stress, myocardial injury (i.e., cardiac troponin), and coagulation activity (i.e., D-dimer) are key indicators of thromboembolic risk, and cardiac troponin and growth-differentiation factor-15 are strongly associated with risk of anticoagulant-related major bleeding. The biomarker-based age, biomarker, clinical history (ABC)-stroke and ABC-bleeding risk scores improve risk stratification for S/SEE and major bleeding, respectively, when compared with traditional clinical risk scores like the CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores.

4.
Am Heart J ; 233: 48-58, 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are the preferred class of medications for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation unless contraindications exist. Five large, international, randomized, controlled trials of NOACs versus either warfarin or aspirin have been completed to date. DESIGN: COMBINE AF incorporates de-identified individual patient data from 77,282 patients with atrial fibrillation at risk for stroke randomized to NOAC, warfarin, or aspirin from 5 pivotal randomized controlled trials. All patients randomized in the constituent trials are included. Variables common to ≥3 of the constituent trials are included in the master database. Individual trial data sets from the 4 coordinating centers were combined at the Duke Clinical Research Institute. The final database will be securely shared with the 4 academic coordinating centers. The combined master database will be used to perform statistical analyses aimed at better understanding underlying risk factors and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with oral anticoagulants, with a special focus on patient subgroups and uncommon outcomes. The initial analysis from COMBINE AF will be a network meta-analysis investigating the relative efficacy and safety of pooled higher-dose NOACs versus pooled lower-dose NOACs versus warfarin with respect to multiple time-to-event efficacy and safety outcomes. COMBINE AF is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020178771). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, COMBINE AF provides a rich and robust database consisting of individual patient data and will offer opportunities to investigate oral anticoagulants across many patient subgroups. Data sharing and collaboration across academic institutions and investigators will serve as overarching themes.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269486

RESUMO

AIMS: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of the composite of cardiovascular (CV) death or hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in DECLARE-TIMI 58. We hypothesized that baseline N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) levels would help identify patients who are at higher baseline risk and we describe the treatment effects of dapagliflozin in patients according to their baseline NT-proBNP and hsTnT levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a pre-specified biomarker study from DECLARE-TIMI 58, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled CV outcomes trial of dapagliflozin. Baseline NT-proBNP and hsTnT levels were measured in the TIMI Clinical Trials Laboratory in 14 565 patients. Among the included patients, 9143 patients (62.8%) were male, 1464 (10.1%) had a history of heart failure and the mean age was 63.9 years. The median baseline NT-proBNP and hsTnT levels were 75 pg/mL [interquartile range (IQR) 35-165] and 10.2 pg/mL (IQR 6.9-15.5), respectively. Patients with higher NT-proBNP and hsTnT quartiles had higher rates of CV death/HHF (Q4 vs. Q1: NT-proBNP: 4-year Kaplan-Meier event rates 13.7% vs. 1.0%; hsTnT: 11.8% vs. 1.4%; P-trend <0.001). Dapagliflozin consistently reduced the relative risk of CV death/HHF regardless of baseline NT-proBNP (P-interaction 0.72) or hsTnT quartiles (P-interaction 0.93). Given their higher baseline risk, patients with NT-proBNP and/or hsTnT levels above the median derived larger absolute risk reductions with dapagliflozin (NT-proBNP 1.9% vs. 0%, P-interaction 0.010; hsTnT 1.8% vs. 0.1%, P-interaction 0.026). CONCLUSION: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and higher NT-proBNP or hsTnT levels are at increased risk of CV death and HHF. Dapagliflozin reduced the relative risk of CV death/HHF irrespective of NT-proBNP and hsTnT levels, with greater absolute risk reductions seen in patients with higher baseline biomarker levels.

8.
Circulation ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200953

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed longstanding racial/ethnic inequities in health risks and outcomes in the U.S.. We sought to identify racial/ethnic differences in presentation and outcomes for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods: The American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry is a retrospective observational registry capturing consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19. We present data on the first 7,868 patients by race/ethnicity treated at 88 hospitals across the US between 01/17/2020 and 7/22/2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality; secondary outcomes included major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: death, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure) and COVID-19 cardiorespiratory ordinal severity score (worst to best: death, cardiac arrest, mechanical ventilation with mechanical circulatory support, mechanical ventilation with vasopressors/inotrope support, mechanical ventilation without hemodynamic support, and hospitalization without any of the above). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between race/ethnicity and each outcome adjusting for differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and presentation features, and accounting for clustering by hospital. Results: Among 7,868 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 33.0% were Hispanic, 25.5% were non-Hispanic Black, 6.3% were Asian, and 35.2% were non-Hispanic White. Hispanic and Black patients were younger than non-Hispanic White and Asian patients and were more likely to be uninsured. Black patients had the highest prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Black patients also had the highest rates of mechanical ventilation (23.2%) and renal replacement therapy (6.6%) but the lowest rates of remdesivir use (6.1%). Overall mortality was 18.4% with 53% of all deaths occurring in Black and Hispanic patients. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for mortality were 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76-1.14) for Black patients, 0.90 (95% CI 0.73-1.11) for Hispanic patients, and 1.31 (95% CI 0.96-1.80) for Asian patients compared with non-Hispanic White patients. The median OR across hospitals was 1.99 (95% CI 1.74-2.48). Results were similar for MACE. Asian patients had the highest COVID-19 cardiorespiratory severity at presentation (adjusted OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.16-1.90). Conclusions: Although in-hospital mortality and MACE did not differ by race/ethnicity after adjustment, Black and Hispanic patients bore a greater burden of mortality and morbidity due to their disproportionate representation among COVID-19 hospitalizations.

11.
Circulation ; 142(22): 2095-2106, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is increasingly used to treat cardiogenic shock. However, VA-ECMO might hamper myocardial recovery. The Impella unloads the left ventricle. This study aimed to evaluate whether left ventricular unloading in patients with cardiogenic shock treated with VA-ECMO was associated with lower mortality. METHODS: Data from 686 consecutive patients with cardiogenic shock treated with VA-ECMO with or without left ventricular unloading using an Impella at 16 tertiary care centers in 4 countries were collected. The association between left ventricular unloading and 30-day mortality was assessed by Cox regression models in a 1:1 propensity score-matched cohort. RESULTS: Left ventricular unloading was used in 337 of the 686 patients (49%). After matching, 255 patients with left ventricular unloading were compared with 255 patients without left ventricular unloading. In the matched cohort, left ventricular unloading was associated with lower 30-day mortality (hazard ratio, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.63-0.98]; P=0.03) without differences in various subgroups. Complications occurred more frequently in patients with left ventricular unloading: severe bleeding in 98 (38.4%) versus 45 (17.9%), access site-related ischemia in 55 (21.6%) versus 31 (12.3%), abdominal compartment in 23 (9.4%) versus 9 (3.7%), and renal replacement therapy in 148 (58.5%) versus 99 (39.1%). CONCLUSIONS: In this international, multicenter cohort study, left ventricular unloading was associated with lower mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock treated with VA-ECMO, despite higher complication rates. These findings support use of left ventricular unloading in patients with cardiogenic shock treated with VA-ECMO and call for further validation, ideally in a randomized, controlled trial.

12.
Clin Cardiol ; 43(12): 1573-1578, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity troponin assays (hs-Tn) detect lower serum concentrations than prior-generation assays and help guide acute coronary syndrome (ACS) evaluation in emergency departments. Outpatient hs-Tn utilization is not well described. HYPOTHESIS: Outpatient providers use hs-TnT to triage patients with suspected ACS. METHODS: We compared the volume of outpatient prior-generation troponin tests in the pre-hsTn implementation period (January 2015-March 2018) with outpatient hs-TnT volume in the post-implementation period (April 2018-January 2020). Triage patterns were compared between patients with hs-TnT≥99th vs <99th percentile, using two-sample t tests. In patients triaged home, adverse events were compared between patients with hs-TnT≥99th vs <99th percentile, using log-rank tests. RESULTS: Across a large tertiary healthcare system, a mean of 80 prior-generation tests/month were ordered during the pre-hsTn implementation period compared with 12 hs-TnT tests/month in the post-implementation period. Prior-generation orders rose by 1.72 tests/month during pre-implementation, vs a decline of 2.74 hs-TnT tests/month during post-implementation (P < .001). Among 129 hs-TnT orders, most were placed by cardiologists (54%) and primary care providers (32%). Patient symptoms at the time of troponin ordering included dyspnea (34%) and chest pain (33%), although 25% were asymptomatic. Among symptomatic patients (n = 74), those with hs-TnT > 99th percentile were more likely to be sent to the ED (RR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.22-9.25; P = .002). Among patients sent home (n = 66), those with hs-TnT > 99th percentile had more adverse events by 6 months (3.3% vs 22.2% RR, 6.67; 95% CI, 1.04-42.9; P = .026). CONCLUSIONS: In this healthcare system, outpatient troponin utilization significantly declined since hs-TnT implementation. Some providers use hs-TnT to triage patients with suspected ACS to the ED; others test asymptomatic patients and some send patients home despite high hs-TnT values.

13.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(10): 859-866, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919915

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study compared the efficacy and safety of sacubitril/valsartan to enalapril in Black and non-Black Americans with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). BACKGROUND: Black patients have a different response to treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors compared with other racial and ethnic groups. How Black patients with ADHF respond to sacubitril/valsartan, an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, is unclear. PIONEER-HF was a double-blind randomized clinical trial of sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril in hospitalized patients with ADHF following hemodynamic stabilization. METHODS: In a pre-specified subgroup analysis, we examined changes in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, clinical outcomes, and safety according to race. RESULTS: The study population, all enrolled in the United States, included 316 (36%) Black participants, 515 (58%) White participants, and 50 (5.7%) participants of other racial groups. The reduction in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentration at weeks 4 and 8 was significantly greater with sacubitril/valsartan than enalapril in both Black (ratio of change with sacubitril/valsartan vs. enalapril: 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.58 to 0.88) and non-Black patients (ratio of change: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.83; interaction p = 1.00). Compared with enalapril, sacubitril/valsartan also reduced the pre-specified exploratory composite of cardiovascular death or HF rehospitalization in both Black (hazard ratio: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.93) and non-Black patients (hazard ratio: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.40 to 1.06; interaction p = 0.44). CONCLUSIONS: Among Black patients admitted with ADHF in the United States, the in-hospital initiation of sacubitril/valsartan was more effective than enalapril in reducing natriuretic peptide levels and the composite of cardiovascular death or HF rehospitalization. The effect of sacubitril/valsartan did not differ by race. (Comparison of Sacubitril/Valsartan Versus Enalapril on Effect on NT-proBNP in Patients Stabilized From an Acute Heart Failure Episode [PIONEER-HF]; NCT02554890).

14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(9): 1084-1101, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854844

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) and cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) are increasingly prevalent in hospitalized patients with cardiovascular disease and remain associated with poor short- and long-term outcomes. There are no specific therapies to reduce mortality related to either AKI or CRS, apart from supportive care and volume status management. Acute renal replacement therapies (RRTs), including ultrafiltration, intermittent hemodialysis, and continuous RRT are used to manage complications of medically refractory AKI and CRS and may restore normal electrolyte, acid-base, and fluid balance before renal recovery. Patients who require acute RRT have a significant risk of mortality and long-term dialysis dependence, emphasizing the importance of appropriate patient selection. Despite the growing use of RRT in the cardiac intensive care unit, there are few resources for the cardiovascular specialist that integrate the epidemiology, diagnostic workup, and medical management of AKI and CRS with an overview of indications, multidisciplinary team management, and transition off of RRT.

15.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(11): 1255-1262, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756916

RESUMO

Importance: The 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) cholesterol management guidelines identified 2 distinct groups of patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) prompting different treatment recommendations. Objective: To investigate whether the addition of high-sensitivity troponin (hsTn) testing to guideline-derived ASCVD risk can improve risk classification and downstream treatment recommendations. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort biomarker substudy was performed that included 8635 patients enrolled in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 54 (PEGASUS-TIMI 54) trial. Patients were assigned to risk groups of either very high-risk ASCVD or lower-risk ASCVD based on their cardiovascular history and comorbidities, in line with the 2018 AHA/ACC cholesterol management guidelines criteria. Patients were also classified on the basis of hsTnI level (ARCHITECT assay; Abbott) using cut points of 2 ng/L (limit of detection) and 6 ng/L (risk threshold), followed by joint classification on the basis of clinical features and hsTnI level. The setting was a nested prospective cohort study in a completed multinational trial. Participants were all patients who had a myocardial infarction 1 to 3 years before enrollment, were at least 50 years of age, and had at least 1 high-risk feature. The study dates were October 2010 to December 2014. The dates of analysis were June 2019 to January 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Results: Among 8635 patients enrolled in the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 trial, the median age was 65 years (interquartile range, 58-71 years), and 6614 (76.6%) were men; 8340 (96.6%) were White individuals and 176 (2.0%) were Black individuals. Patients meeting clinical criteria for the very high-risk ASCVD group had a primary end point 3-year event rate of 8.8% compared with 5.0% in the lower-risk ASCVD group (hazard ratio, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.58-2.57; P < .001). When patients in the very high-risk ASCVD group were further risk stratified by hsTnI level, 614 of 6789 patients (9.0%) with an undetectable hsTnI level had a 3-year event rate of 2.7% (<1% per year), which was less than the overall rate in the lower-risk ASCVD group. Analogously, in the lower-risk ASCVD group, 417 of 1846 patients (22.6%) with an hsTnI level exceeding 6 ng/L had an event rate of 9.1%, comparable to the overall rate in the very high-risk ASCVD group. The addition of hsTnI to guideline-derived ASCVD risk led to a net reclassification index at event rate of 0.15 (95% CI, 0.10-0.21). Overall, use of hsTnI reclassified 1031 of 8635 patients (11.9%) (1 in 11 with very high-risk ASCVD and 1 in 4 with lower-risk ASCVD). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort substudy suggest that a strategy incorporating hsTn into a guideline-derived ASCVD risk algorithm provides enhanced risk stratification and reclassifies 11.9% of patients into a more appropriate risk group. This application of hsTn testing might be used to optimize the care of patients with ASCVD.

16.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(10): 834-843, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800511

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sacubitril/valsartan according to dose level achieved in the PIONEER-HF (Comparison of Sacubitril/Valsartan Versus Enalapril on Effect on NT-proBNP in Patients Stabilized From an Acute Heart Failure Episode) trial. BACKGROUND: In patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), in-hospital initiation and continuation of sacubitril/valsartan as compared with enalapril is well tolerated, achieves a greater reduction in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and reduces the risk of cardiovascular death or rehospitalization for HF through 8 weeks. However, not all patients achieve the target dose of sacubitril/valsartan, and its efficacy and safety in such patients are of interest. METHODS: PIONEER-HF was a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial of sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril in 881 patients stabilized during hospitalization for ADHF. Blinded study medication was administered for 8 weeks, with initial dosing selected based on the systolic blood pressure at randomization and titrated toward a target of sacubitril/valsartan 97/103 mg twice daily, or enalapril 10 mg twice daily, with an algorithm based on systolic blood pressure and the investigator's assessment of tolerability. RESULTS: At 4 weeks, 199 (55%) patients allocated to sacubitril/valsartan and 211 (60%) patients allocated to enalapril were dispensed the target dose. Baseline characteristics were similar in the 2 treatment groups within each dose level. There was no heterogeneity across dose levels in the effect of sacubitril/valsartan on the reduction in NT-proBNP (pinteraction = 0.69), the reduction in cardiovascular death or rehospitalization for heart failure (pinteraction = 0.42), or the pre-specified adverse events of special interest through 8 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: In hemodynamically stabilized patients with ADHF, the efficacy and safety of sacubitril/valsartan are generally consistent across dose levels. (Comparison of Sacubitril/Valsartan Versus Enalapril on Effect on NT-proBNP in Patients Stabilized From an Acute Heart Failure Episode [PIONEER-HF]; NCT02554890).

17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(9): 1034-1048, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PIONEER-HF (comParIson Of sacubitril/valsartaN versus Enalapril on Effect on nt-pRo-bnp in patients stabilized from an acute Heart Failure episode) trial demonstrated the efficacy and safety of sacubitril/valsartan (S/V) in stabilized patients with acute decompensated heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction. OBJECTIVES: The study sought to determine whether and how prior HF history and treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) affected the results. METHODS: The PIONEER-HF trial was a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial enrolling 881 patients with an ejection fraction ≤40%. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to in-hospital initiation of S/V (n = 440) versus enalapril (n = 441). Pre-specified subgroup analyses were performed based on prior HF history (i.e., de novo HF vs. worsening chronic HF) and treatment with an ACE inhibitor or ARB (i.e., ACE inhibitor or ARB-yes vs. ACE inhibitor or ARB-no) at admission. RESULTS: At enrollment, 303 (34%) patients presented with de novo HF and 576 (66%) patients with worsening chronic HF. A total of 421 (48%) patients had been treated with an ACE inhibitor or ARB, while 458 (52%) had not been treated with an ACE inhibitor or ARB. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide declined significantly in all 4 subgroups (p < 0.001), with greater decreases in the S/V versus the enalapril arm (p < 0.001). There was no interaction between prior HF history (p = 0.350) or ACE inhibitor or ARB treatment (p = 0.880) and the effect of S/V versus enalapril on cardiovascular death or rehospitalization for HF. The incidences of adverse events were comparable between S/V and enalapril across all 4 subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients admitted for acute decompensated HF, S/V was safe and well tolerated, led to a significantly greater reduction in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and improved clinical outcomes compared with enalapril irrespective of previous HF history or ACE inhibitor or ARB treatment. (Comparison of Sacubitril/Valsartan Versus Enalapril on Effect of NT-proBNP in Patients Stabilized From an Acute Heart Failure Episode [PIONEER-HF]; NCT02554890).

18.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(11): 1236-1244, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785628

RESUMO

Importance: Sacubitril-valsartan use reduces mortality and hospitalizations compared with enalapril among patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF); however, the cost-effectiveness of these treatments when initiated during hospitalization for HF is unknown. Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of inpatient initiation of sacubitril-valsartan vs enalapril compared with no initiation or posthospitalization initiation of sacubitril-valsartan among stabilized patients with HFrEF. Design, Setting, and Participants: This economic evaluation included data on US patients with HFrEF who were eligible for sacubitril-valsartan treatment from December 8, 2009, to May 15, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: A 5-state Markov model with all-cause mortality, HF, and non-HF hospitalization probabilities was used. Quality of life was estimated using Euro-QoL EQ-5D scores. Hospitalization, long-term care, and medication costs for sacubitril-valsartan and enalapril were modeled with a discount rate of 3%. The base-case analysis included a lifetime horizon from a health care and societal perspective. Results: Modeled patients were a mean (SD) age of 63.8 (11.5) years. Inpatient treatment with sacubitril-valsartan ($5628 per year) was associated with 62 fewer HF-related admissions per 1000 patients compared with outpatient initiation or 116 fewer HF-related admissions compared with continuation of enalapril treatment. From a health care system perspective, initiation of sacubitril-valsartan during hospitalization saved $452 per year compared with continuing enalapril and $811 per year compared with initiation at 2 months after hospitalization and was associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $21 532 per quality-adjusted life-year compared with continued enalapril treatment over a lifetime. From a societal perspective, inpatient initiation was estimated to save $460 per year per patient compared with no initiation of sacubitril-valsartan and $813 per year per patient compared with initiation after hospitalization. In a budget analysis, inpatient initiation of sacubitril-valsartan was estimated to save up to $449 per person for 1 year or $2550 per person over 5 years compared with continuation of enalapril. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that, for patients with HFrEF, initiation of sacubitril-valsartan during hospitalization may be associated with reduced hospitalizations, increased quality-adjusted life expectancy, and cost savings compared with no initiation or initiation after hospitalization.

19.
EClinicalMedicine ; : 100504, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838244

RESUMO

Background: Despite over 4 million cases of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States, limited data exist including socioeconomic background and post-discharge outcomes for patients hospitalized with this disease. Methods: In this case series, we identified patients with COVID-19 admitted to 3 Partners Healthcare hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts between March 7th, 2020, and March 30th, 2020. Patient characteristics, treatment strategies, and outcomes were determined. Findings: A total of 247 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were identified; the median age was 61 (interquartile range [IQR]: 50-76 years), 58% were men, 30% of Hispanic ethnicity, 21% enrolled in Medicaid, and 12% dual-enrolled Medicare/Medicaid. The median estimated household income was $66,701 [IQR: $50,336-$86,601]. Most patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine (72%), and statins (76%; newly initiated in 34%). During their admission, 103 patients (42%) required intensive care. At the end of the data collection period (June 24, 2020), 213 patients (86.2%) were discharged alive, 2 patients (0.8%) remain admitted, and 32 patients (13%) have died. Among those discharged alive (n = 213), 70 (32.9%) were discharged to a post-acute facility, 31 (14.6%) newly required supplemental oxygen, 19 (8.9%) newly required tube feeding, and 34 (16%) required new prescriptions for antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, methadone, or opioids. Over a median post-discharge follow-up of 80 days (IQR, 68-84), 22 patients (10.3%) were readmitted. Interpretation: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are frequently of vulnerable socioeconomic status and often require intensive care. Patients who survive COVID-19 hospitalization have substantial need for post-acute services.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683645

RESUMO

Prolonged use of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been shown to reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), but with increased bleeding. It remains unknown whether biomarkers of platelet activation may be useful for identifying patients at increased risk of MACE. The DAPT study was a randomized trial of 12 versus 30 months of DAPT in patients who underwent PCI. Serum biomarkers [myeloid-related protein (MRP)-8/14, P-selectin, soluble CD-40 ligand (sCD40L)] were assessed in 1399 patients early post-PCI. On-treatment platelet reactivity index (PRI) using VASP phosphorylation was assessed in 443 patients randomized to continued DAPT at 1 year. MACE was defined as CV death, MI, or ischemic stroke. Multivariable models were adjusted for baseline characteristics, index event, and stent type. A stepwise increase in the risk of MACE was observed with increasing tertiles of both MRP-8/14 and P-selectin (p-trend = 0.04 for both). After multivariable adjustment, the adjusted HR (95% CI) for MACE in patients in the top tertile was 1.94 (1.14-3.30) for MRP-8/14 and 1.62 (0.99-2.64) for P-selectin. In contrast, baseline sCD40L was not associated with CV risk. Among patients randomized to continued DAPT, higher on-treatment platelet reactivity was not significantly associated with risk of MACE (p-trend = 0.32; adj-HR T3 vs. T1 1.54, 95% CI 0.20-12.18) or bleeding (P-trend = 0.17; adj-HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.05-1.21). MRP-8/14 and soluble P-selectin may be useful for identifying patients at increased risk of MACE after PCI. The utility of on-treatment platelet function testing requires further study.Clinical Trial Registration https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier NCT00977938.

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