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1.
Nord J Psychiatry ; : 1-11, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630698

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Self-reports of psychosis-related symptoms may be a valuable supplement to clinician-ratings, but more validation studies are required. The aim of this study was to conduct clinical validation for the Symptom Self-rating Scale for Schizophrenia (4S) in an inpatient setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were invited to participate in the study. The participants completed the 4S, the 5-item World Health Organization Wellbeing Index (WHO-5) and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) at two time points. Trained raters assessed participants using the 6-item Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-6). The relationship between the 4S and PANSS-6, self-reported side effects, functioning and wellbeing was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient (rho). RESULTS: Sixty-one participants completed the 4S at least once (yielding a total of 91 completed 4S questionnaires). The 4S total score was weakly correlated with the PANSS-6 total score (rho = 0.37, p < 0.001). The rho's for individual 4S and PANSS-6 subscales and item comparisons ranged from -0.24 (thought disorder) to 0.69 (hallucinations). Finally, the 4S hallucination subscale was also sensitive to change. The 4S was strongly inversely correlated with wellbeing (WHO-5) and moderately inversely correlated with functioning (SDS total score). CONCLUSION: The 4S holds promise as a valid self-report of core schizophrenia symptoms among inpatients. While the hallucination subscale seems superior to existing scales, the thought disorder subscale needs to be re-developed.

2.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580479

RESUMO

In the last decade, many studies have examined associations between poor psychosocial work environment and depression. We aimed to assess the evidence for a causal association between psychosocial factors at work and depressive disorders. We conducted a systematic literature search from 1980 to March 2019. For all exposures other than night and shift work and long working hours, we limited our selection of studies to those with a longitudinal design. We extracted available risk estimates for each of 19 psychosocial exposures, from which we calculated summary risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (PROSPERO, identifier CRD42019130266). 54 studies were included, addressing 19 exposures and 11 different measures of depression. Only data on depressive episodes were sufficient for evaluation. Heterogeneity of exposure definitions and ascertainment, outcome measures, risk parameterization and effect contrasts limited the validity of meta-analyses. Summary risk estimates were above unity for all but one exposure, and below 1.60 for all but another. Outcome measures were liable to high rates of false positives, control of relevant confounding was mostly inadequate, and common method bias was likely in a large proportion of studies. The combination of resulting biases is likely to have inflated observed effect estimates. When statistical uncertainties and the potential for bias and confounding are taken into account, it is not possible to conclude with confidence that any of the psychosocial exposures at work included in this review is either likely or unlikely to cause depressive episodes or recurrent depressive disorders.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559734

RESUMO

Cognitive heterogeneity characterizes individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder; however, little is known of cognitive heterogeneity within young children at familial high-risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. This study aimed to investigate heterogeneity across social cognitive and language functions in children at familial high-risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, i.e. severe mental illness (FHR-SMI). This may help designate subgroups in need of intervention initiatives. A data-driven, hierarchical cluster analysis was applied across a sample of 322 children at FHR-SMI (FHR-SZ, n = 200; FHR-BP, n = 120) on measures of Theory of Mind, facial emotion recognition, social cognitive processing speed, receptive and pragmatic language. We examined differences between subgroups as well as differences between subgroups and a control group. Exploratively, the subgroups were compared in terms of social responsiveness and global functioning. A Typical-High Functioning Subgroup with intact social cognitive and language functioning (34.5%), a Mildly Impaired Subgroup with selective impairments in explicit Theory of Mind and language functioning (58.7%), and a Significantly Impaired Subgroup with social cognitive and language functioning impairments (6.8%) were identified. The subgroups differed significantly from each other and overall compares to the controls. The Significantly and Mildly Impaired Subgroups presented with poorer social responsiveness and global functioning than the Typical-High Functioning Subgroup. In young children with FHR-SMI, three subgroups with relatively homogeneous social cognitive and language functioning profiles were observed. Only a small proportion of children at FHR-SMI displayed large social cognitive and language functioning impairments in middle childhood.

4.
Schizophr Res ; 228: 438-446, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578367

RESUMO

The six-item Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-6) allows for a brief assessment of the severity of core symptoms of schizophrenia. However, implementing the PANSS-6 in clinical practice requires that staff members' ratings are accurate and reliable. We aimed to investigate whether such accuracy and reliability can be obtained via a brief video-based training program. One-hundred-and-four staff members from a psychiatric hospital in Denmark participated in the training. Participants performed a baseline PANSS-6 rating based on a video of a patient being interviewed using the Simplified positive And Negative Symptoms interview (SNAPSI). Subsequently, a theoretical introduction video was displayed followed by five successive videotaped SNAPSI patient interviews. After each SNAPSI video, individual ratings were conducted before a video providing the gold standard rating was displayed. The accuracy of ratings was estimated by calculating the proportion of participants not deviating from the gold standard rating with >2 points on individual items or >6 points on the PANSS-6 total score. Reliability was tested after each step in the training by means of Gwet's Agreement Coefficient (Gwet). By the end of the training, 72% of the participants rated within the acceptable deviations of the gold standard, ranging from 60% (nurses) to 91% (medical doctors & psychologists). The reliability improved (Gwet baseline vs. endpoint) for all PANSS-6 items, except for Blunted affect. In conclusion, the majority of the staff members conducted accurate PANSS-6 ratings after a brief standardized training program, supporting the implementation of PANSS-6 in clinical settings to facilitate measurement-based care.

5.
Stress Health ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527630

RESUMO

Mental healthcare providers face many difficult interactions with patients that can be emotionally demanding and have adverse effects on their well-being. Recent theoretical models suggest that the interpretation of stressful episodes may be more important for psychological adjustment than the nature of the episodes. This study examined whether care providers' interpretations of mechanical restraint episodes were related to their adjustment. We asked 80 mental healthcare providers to recall mechanical restraint episodes and to rate them on centrality to identity and positive and negative influence on self-understanding. They also completed scales measuring current symptoms of post-traumatic stress, depression, life satisfaction, and well-being. The results showed that care providers who interpreted mechanical restraint episodes as having a central negative influence on their identity experienced more symptoms of post-traumatic stress. Care providers who gave higher ratings of positive self-change following episodes reported more well-being. Our findings suggest, that considering care providers' subjective interpretations of episodes and not merely the objective facts surrounding them is critical if we wish to mitigate the negative emotional impact of episodes.

6.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(3): 201-209, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting) is a common disorder affecting 10-16% of 7-year-old children globally. Nocturnal enuresis is highly heritable, but its genetic determinants remain unknown. We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with nocturnal enuresis and explore its genetic architecture and underlying biology. METHODS: We did a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of nocturnal enuresis. Nocturnal enuresis cases were identified in iPSYCH2012, a large Danish population-based case cohort established to investigate mental disorders, on the basis of 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) diagnoses and redeemed desmopressin prescriptions in Danish registers. The GWAS was done in a genetically homogeneous sample of unrelated individuals using logistic regression with relevant covariates. All genome-wide significant variants were analysed for their association with nocturnal enuresis in an independent Icelandic sample from deCODE genetics. Standardised polygenic risk scores for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder were constructed from summary statistics of large GWASs and analysed for association with nocturnal enuresis. FINDINGS: The GWAS included 3882 nocturnal enuresis cases and 31 073 controls. We found two loci at chromosome 6 and chromosome 13 significantly associated with nocturnal enuresis. Six genetic variants at the two loci (five variants at chromosome 6q16.2 and one variant at chromosome 13q22.3) surpassed the threshold for genome-wide significance (p<5 × 10-8). There were two lead variants: rs9376454 (chromosome 6q16.2), with an odds ratio (OR) of 1·199 (95% CI 1·135-1·267; p=9·91 × 10-11), and rs60721117 (chromosome 13q22.3), with an OR of 1·149 (1·095-1·205; p=1·21 × 10-8). All associated variants in the chromosome 6 locus were replicated (p<8 × 10-3) in the independent Icelandic cohort of 5475 nocturnal enuresis cases and 303 996 controls, whereas the associated variant in the chromosome 13 locus showed nominal significant association (p=0·031). The percentage of nocturnal enuresis phenotypic variance explained by the common genetic variants was 23·9-30·4%. Polygenic risk for ADHD was associated with nocturnal enuresis (OR 1·06, 95% CI, 1·01-1·10; p=0·011). Among the potential nocturnal enuresis risk genes mapped, PRDM13 and EDNRB have biological functions associated with known pathophysiological mechanisms in nocturnal enuresis, and SIM1 regulates the formation of the hypothalamic neuroendocrine lineage that produces arginine vasopressin, a well known nocturnal enuresis drug target. INTERPRETATION: This study shows that common genetic variants contribute considerably to nocturnal enuresis, and it identifies potential nocturnal enuresis risk genes with roles in sleep, urine production, and bladder function. Given that available treatments target these mechanisms, any of the identified genes and their functional gene networks are potential drug targets. FUNDING: The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Stanley Foundation.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 576, 2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495439

RESUMO

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a childhood psychiatric disorder often comorbid with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). Here, we report a GWAS meta-analysis of ADHD comorbid with DBDs (ADHD + DBDs) including 3802 cases and 31,305 controls. We identify three genome-wide significant loci on chromosomes 1, 7, and 11. A meta-analysis including a Chinese cohort supports that the locus on chromosome 11 is a strong risk locus for ADHD + DBDs across European and Chinese ancestries (rs7118422, P = 3.15×10-10, OR = 1.17). We find a higher SNP heritability for ADHD + DBDs (h2SNP = 0.34) when compared to ADHD without DBDs (h2SNP = 0.20), high genetic correlations between ADHD + DBDs and aggressive (rg = 0.81) and anti-social behaviors (rg = 0.82), and an increased burden (polygenic score) of variants associated with ADHD and aggression in ADHD + DBDs compared to ADHD without DBDs. Our results suggest an increased load of common risk variants in ADHD + DBDs compared to ADHD without DBDs, which in part can be explained by variants associated with aggressive behavior.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
8.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439215

RESUMO

Importance: Combining information on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) with other known risk factors could potentially improve the identification of risk of depression in the general population. However, to our knowledge, no study has estimated the association of PRS with the absolute risk of depression, and few have examined combinations of the PRS and other important risk factors, including parental history of psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic status (SES), in the identification of depression risk. Objective: To assess the individual and joint associations of PRS, parental history, and SES with relative and absolute risk of early-onset depression. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-cohort study included participants from the iPSYCH2012 sample, a case-cohort sample of all singletons born in Denmark between May 1, 1981, and December 31, 2005. Hazard ratios (HRs) and absolute risks were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression for case-cohort designs. Exposures: The PRS for depression; SES measured using maternal educational level, maternal marital status, and paternal employment; and parental history of psychiatric disorders (major depression, bipolar disorder, other mood or psychotic disorders, and other psychiatric diagnoses). Main Outcomes and Measures: Hospital-based diagnosis of depression from inpatient, outpatient, or emergency settings. Results: Participants included 17 098 patients with depression (11 748 [68.7%] female) and 18 582 (9429 [50.7%] male) individuals randomly selected from the base population. The PRS, parental history, and lower SES were all significantly associated with increased risk of depression, with HRs ranging from 1.32 (95% CI, 1.29-1.35) per 1-SD increase in PRS to 2.23 (95% CI, 1.81-2.64) for maternal history of mood or psychotic disorders. Fully adjusted models had similar effect sizes, suggesting that these risk factors do not confound one another. Absolute risk of depression by the age of 30 years differed substantially, depending on an individual's combination of risk factors, ranging from 1.0% (95% CI, 0.1%-2.0%) among men with high SES in the bottom 2% of the PRS distribution to 23.7% (95% CI, 16.6%-30.2%) among women in the top 2% of PRS distribution with a parental history of psychiatric disorders. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that current PRSs for depression are not more likely to be associated with major depressive disorder than are other known risk factors; however, they may be useful for the identification of risk in conjunction with other risk factors.

9.
J Affect Disord ; 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Slower and suboptimal decision making has been identified in adults with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Owing to the limited evidence on decision making in first-degree relatives, we aimed to investigate, whether alterations in decision making are present in young children at familial high risk of bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study we assessed decision making in 197 children at familial high risk of schizophrenia (FHR-SZ), 115 children at familial high risk of bipolar disorder (FHR-BP), and 190 controls aged seven using the Cambridge Gambling Task. Potential associations to neurocognition, psychopathology, and the home environment were investigated. RESULTS: Children at FHR-SZ or FHR-BP displayed intact decision making. Quality of decision making showed significant but weak cross-sectional associations to neurocognition and adequacy of the home environment. Associations to aspects of executive functions and the home environment differed across groups. LIMITATIONS: Due to the cross-sectional nature of this study, the predictive value of efficient and inefficient decision making remains to be investigated in planned follow-up studies of this cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Young children at FHR-SZ or FHR-BP do not differ from controls in decision making efficacy, which does not appear to be an early risk marker of bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Decision making is weakly associated to neurocognition and the home environment, but not to general intelligence or psychopathology.

11.
Schizophr Res ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308959

RESUMO

We aimed to examine the prevalence of psychotic experiences (PEs) in children with familial high risk of schizophrenia (FHR-SZ) or bipolar disorder (FHR-BP) and, in exploratory analyses, to examine the possible associations between PEs and mental disorders as well as level of functioning. A cohort of seven-year-old children with FHR-SZ (N = 199), FHR-BP (N = 118) and controls (N = 196) was recruited through Danish nationwide registers. Lifetime PEs were assessed through interviews using the psychosis section of the 'Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime Version' (K-SADS-PL). Lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses were ascertained through K-SADS-PL and the level of functioning of the children through 'Children's Global Assessment Scale'. Both children with FHR-SZ (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.4-6.2, p = 0.005) and FHR-BP (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.3-6.7, p = 0.011) had an increased risk of having experienced "severe" PEs compared with controls. In the overall cohort PEs were associated with any lifetime mental disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, anxiety disorders and a lower level of functioning. The findings of a higher proportion of high risk children reporting PEs could represent an early manifestation of later more severe psychopathology or simply an unspecific transitory symptom. Future follow-up studies of this cohort will explore the predictive value of the occurrence of PEs at age seven.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6398, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328473

RESUMO

Asthma with severe exacerbation is the most common cause of hospitalization among young children. We aim to increase the understanding of this clinically important disease entity through a genome-wide association study. The discovery analysis comprises 2866 children experiencing severe asthma exacerbation between ages 2 and 6 years, and 65,415 non-asthmatic controls, and we replicate findings in 918 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) birth cohorts. We identify rs281379 near FUT2/MAMSTR on chromosome 19 as a novel risk locus (OR = 1.18 (95% CI = 1.11-1.25), Pdiscovery = 2.6 × 10-9) as well as a biologically plausible interaction between functional variants in FUT2 and ABO. We further discover and replicate a potential causal mechanism behind this interaction related to S. pneumoniae respiratory illnesses. These results suggest a novel mechanism of early childhood asthma and demonstrates the importance of phenotype-specificity for discovery of asthma genes and epistasis.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Asma/genética , Epistasia Genética , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Infecções Pneumocócicas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Streptococcus pneumoniae/patogenicidade
13.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168953

RESUMO

Although the genetic influence on voter turnout is substantial (typically 40-50%), the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Across the social sciences, research suggests that 'resources for politics' (as indexed notably by educational attainment and intelligence test performance) constitute a central cluster of factors that predict electoral participation. Educational attainment and intelligence test performance are heritable. This suggests that the genotypes that enhance these phenotypes could positively predict turnout. To test this, we conduct a genome-wide complex trait analysis of individual-level turnout. We use two samples from the Danish iPSYCH case-cohort study, including a nationally representative sample as well as a sample of individuals who are particularly vulnerable to political alienation due to psychiatric conditions (n = 13,884 and n = 33,062, respectively). Using validated individual-level turnout data from the administrative records at the polling station, genetic correlations and Mendelian randomization, we show that there is a substantial genetic overlap between voter turnout and both educational attainment and intelligence test performance.

14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5980, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239672

RESUMO

Miscarriage is a common, complex trait affecting ~15% of clinically confirmed pregnancies. Here we present the results of large-scale genetic association analyses with 69,054 cases from five different ancestries for sporadic miscarriage, 750 cases of European ancestry for multiple (≥3) consecutive miscarriage, and up to 359,469 female controls. We identify one genome-wide significant association (rs146350366, minor allele frequency (MAF) 1.2%, P = 3.2 × 10-8, odds ratio (OR) = 1.4) for sporadic miscarriage in our European ancestry meta-analysis and three genome-wide significant associations for multiple consecutive miscarriage (rs7859844, MAF = 6.4%, P = 1.3 × 10-8, OR = 1.7; rs143445068, MAF = 0.8%, P = 5.2 × 10-9, OR = 3.4; rs183453668, MAF = 0.5%, P = 2.8 × 10-8, OR = 3.8). We further investigate the genetic architecture of miscarriage with biobank-scale Mendelian randomization, heritability, and genetic correlation analyses. Our results show that miscarriage etiopathogenesis is partly driven by genetic variation potentially related to placental biology, and illustrate the utility of large-scale biobank data for understanding this pregnancy complication.

15.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(12): 1032-1045, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variation in liability to cannabis use disorder has a strong genetic component (estimated twin and family heritability about 50-70%) and is associated with negative outcomes, including increased risk of psychopathology. The aim of the study was to conduct a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel genetic variants associated with cannabis use disorder. METHODS: To conduct this GWAS meta-analysis of cannabis use disorder and identify associations with genetic loci, we used samples from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Substance Use Disorders working group, iPSYCH, and deCODE (20 916 case samples, 363 116 control samples in total), contrasting cannabis use disorder cases with controls. To examine the genetic overlap between cannabis use disorder and 22 traits of interest (chosen because of previously published phenotypic correlations [eg, psychiatric disorders] or hypothesised associations [eg, chronotype] with cannabis use disorder), we used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate genetic correlations. FINDINGS: We identified two genome-wide significant loci: a novel chromosome 7 locus (FOXP2, lead single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs7783012; odds ratio [OR] 1·11, 95% CI 1·07-1·15, p=1·84 × 10-9) and the previously identified chromosome 8 locus (near CHRNA2 and EPHX2, lead SNP rs4732724; OR 0·89, 95% CI 0·86-0·93, p=6·46 × 10-9). Cannabis use disorder and cannabis use were genetically correlated (rg 0·50, p=1·50 × 10-21), but they showed significantly different genetic correlations with 12 of the 22 traits we tested, suggesting at least partially different genetic underpinnings of cannabis use and cannabis use disorder. Cannabis use disorder was positively genetically correlated with other psychopathology, including ADHD, major depression, and schizophrenia. INTERPRETATION: These findings support the theory that cannabis use disorder has shared genetic liability with other psychopathology, and there is a distinction between genetic liability to cannabis use and cannabis use disorder. FUNDING: National Institute of Mental Health; National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine and the Centre for Integrative Sequencing; The European Commission, Horizon 2020; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Health Research Council of New Zealand; National Institute on Aging; Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium; UK Research and Innovation Medical Research Council (UKRI MRC); The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation; National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA); National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Australia; Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program of the University of California; Families for Borderline Personality Disorder Research (Beth and Rob Elliott) 2018 NARSAD Young Investigator Grant; The National Child Health Research Foundation (Cure Kids); The Canterbury Medical Research Foundation; The New Zealand Lottery Grants Board; The University of Otago; The Carney Centre for Pharmacogenomics; The James Hume Bequest Fund; National Institutes of Health: Genes, Environment and Health Initiative; National Institutes of Health; National Cancer Institute; The William T Grant Foundation; Australian Research Council; The Virginia Tobacco Settlement Foundation; The VISN 1 and VISN 4 Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Centers of the US Department of Veterans Affairs; The 5th Framework Programme (FP-5) GenomEUtwin Project; The Lundbeck Foundation; NIH-funded Shared Instrumentation Grant S10RR025141; Clinical Translational Sciences Award grants; National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Institute of General Medical Sciences.

16.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 335, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009369

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the polygenic liability for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the psychosocial environment impact the risk of ADHD in interaction or independently of each other. We conducted a register- and biobank-based cohort study of 13,725 individuals with ADHD and 20,147 randomly drawn population-based controls. These 33,872 cohort members were genotyped on the Infinium PsychChip v1.0 array (Illumina). Subsequently, we calculated the polygenic risk score (PRS) for ADHD and extracted register data regarding the following risk factors pertaining to the psychosocial environment for each cohort member at the time of birth: maternal/paternal history of mental disorders, maternal/paternal education, maternal/paternal work status, and maternal/paternal income. We used logistic regression analyses to assess the main effects of the PRS for ADHD and the psychosocial environment on the risk of ADHD. Subsequently, we evaluated whether the effect of the PRS and the psychosocial environment act independently or in interaction upon the risk of ADHD. We found that ADHD was strongly associated with the PRS (odds ratio: 6.03, 95%CI: 4.74-7.70 for highest vs. lowest 2% liability). All risk factors pertaining to the psychosocial environment were associated with an increased risk of ADHD. These associations were only slightly attenuated after mutual adjustments. We found no statistically significant interaction between the polygenic liability and the psychosocial environment upon the risk of ADHD. In conclusion, we found main effects of both polygenic liability and risk factors pertaining to the psychosocial environment on the risk of ADHD-in the expected direction.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025076

RESUMO

Cognitive impairments are strongly associated with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) with executive functions (EF) impairments as a likely key feature. Studies of everyday behavior rated EF in young children at familial high risk of SZ (FHR-SZ) are scarce and, to our knowledge, non-existent in young children at familial high risk of BP (FHR-BP). We aimed to compare everyday behavior-rated EF of FHR-SZ, FHR-BP, and control children. A nationwide population-based cohort of 522 7-year-old children with parents diagnosed with either SZ (N = 202) or BP (N = 120) and matched controls (N = 200) were recruited using the Danish national registries. The children's EF were assessed with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions questionnaire rated by primary caregivers and teachers. According to primary caregiver assessments, FHR-SZ children displayed widespread EF impairments and had an odds ratio of 3.7 (2.0-6.9) of having clinically significant global EF impairments compared to controls. FHR-BP children were most severely impaired regarding EF related to emotional control and had an odds ratio of 2.5 (1.2-5.1) of clinically significant global EF impairments compared to controls. Teacher assessments were overall comparable to primary caregiver assessments but teachers rated more difficulties in the FHR-SZ group than primary caregivers. Already at age 7, children with a parental history of SZ or BP displayed significant impairments of EF in everyday-life situations. FHR-SZ children displayed widespread significant impairments of EF, whereas FHR-BP children were most severely impaired on emotional control. Clinicians should be aware of potential EF impairments in FHR children.

18.
BMC Neurosci ; 21(1): 30, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the most basic human traits is language. Linguistic ability, and disability, have been shown to have a strong genetic component in family and twin studies, but molecular genetic studies of language phenotypes are scarce, relative to studies of other cognitive traits and neurodevelopmental phenotypes. Moreover, most genetic studies examining such phenotypes do not incorporate parent-of-origin effects, which could account for some of the heritability of the investigated trait. We performed a genome-wide association study of receptive language, examining both child genetic effects and parent-of-origin effects. RESULTS: Using a family-based cohort with 400 children with receptive language scores, we found a genome-wide significant paternal parent-of-origin effect with a SNP, rs11787922, on chromosome 9q21.31, whereby the T allele reduced the mean receptive language score by ~ 23, constituting a reduction of more than 1.5 times the population SD (P = 1.04 × 10-8). We further confirmed that this association was not driven by broader neurodevelopmental diagnoses in the child or a family history of psychiatric diagnoses by incorporating covariates for the above and repeating the analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reports a genome-wide significant association for receptive language skills; to our knowledge, this is the first documented genome-wide significant association for this phenotype. Furthermore, our study illustrates the importance of considering parent-of-origin effects in association studies, particularly in the case of cognitive or neurodevelopmental traits, in which parental genetic data are not always incorporated.

19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 239, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681022

RESUMO

The schizophrenia-associated gene, BRD1, encodes an epigenetic regulator in which chromatin interactome is enriched with genes implicated in mental health. Alterations in histone modifications and epigenetic regulation contribute to brain transcriptomic changes in affective disorders and preclinical data supports a role for BRD1 in psychopathology. However, the implication of BRD1 on affective pathology remains poorly understood. In this study, we assess affective behaviors and associated neurobiology in Brd1+/- mice along with their responses to Fluoxetine and Imipramine. This involves behavioral, neurostructural, and neurochemical characterizations along with regional cerebral gene expression profiling combined with integrative functional genomic analyses. We report behavioral changes in female Brd1+/- mice with translational value to depressive symptomatology that can be alleviated by the administration of antidepressant medications. Behavioral changes are accompanied by altered brain morphometry and imbalances in monoaminergic systems. In accordance, gene expression changes across brain tissues reveal altered neurotransmitter signaling and cluster in functional pathways associated with depression including 'Adrenergic-, GPCR-, cAMP-, and CREB/CREM-signaling'. Integrative gene expression analysis specifically links changes in amygdaloid intracellular signaling activity to the behavioral treatment response in Brd1+/- mice. Collectively, our study highlights the importance of BRD1 as a modulator of affective pathology and adds to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying affective disorders and their treatment response.

20.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated the bidirectionality between autoimmune and mental disorders. However, genetic studies underpinning the co-occurrence of the two disorders have been lacking. In this study, we examined the potential genetic contribution to the association between autoimmune and mental disorders and investigated the genetic basis of overall autoimmune disease. METHODS: We used diagnostic information from patients with seven autoimmune diseases and six mental disorders from the Danish population-based case-cohort sample (iPSYCH2012). We explored the epidemiological association using survival analysis and modelled the effect of polygenic risk scores (PRSs) on autoimmune and mental diseases. Genetic factors were investigated using GWAS and imputed HLA alleles in the iPSYCH cohort. RESULTS: Of 64,039 individuals, a total of 43,902 (68.6%) were diagnosed with mental disorders and 1383 (2.2%) with autoimmune diseases. There was a significant comorbidity between the two disease classes (P = 2.67 × 10-7, OR = 1.38, 95%CI = 1.22-1.56), with an overall bidirectional association, wherein individuals with autoimmune diseases had an increased risk of subsequent mental disorders (HR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.07-1.21, P = 7.95 × 10-5) and vice versa (HR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.16-1.39, P = 8.77 × 10-15). Adding PRSs to these adjustment models did not have an impact on the associations. PRSs for autoimmune diseases were only slightly associated with increased risk of mental disorders (HR = 1.01, 95%CI: 1.00-1.02, p = 0.038), whereas PRSs for mental disorders were not associated with autoimmune diseases overall. Our GWAS highlighted 12 loci on chromosome 6 (minimum P = 2.74 × 10-36, OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.64-1.96), which were implicated in gene regulation through bioinformatic functional analyses, thereby identifying new candidate genes for overall autoimmune disease. Moreover, we observed 20 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles strongly associated, either positively or negatively, with overall autoimmune disease, but we did not find significant evidence of their associations with overall mental disorders. A GWAS of a comorbid diagnosis of an autoimmune disease and a mental disorder identified a genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 7 as well (P = 1.43 × 10-8, OR = 10.65, 95%CI = 3.21-35.36). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm the overall comorbidity and bidirectionality between autoimmune diseases and mental disorders and identify HLA genes which are significantly associated with overall autoimmune disease. Additionally, we identified several new candidate genes for overall autoimmune disease and ranked them based on their association with the investigated diseases.

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