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1.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675120

RESUMO

A noninvasive test to discriminate indolent prostate cancers from lethal ones would focus treatment where necessary while reducing over-treatment. We exploited the known activity of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) as a chaperone critical for the function of numerous oncogenic drivers, including the androgen receptor and its variants, to detect aggressive prostate cancer. We linked a near infrared fluorescing molecule to an HSP90 binding drug and demonstrated that this probe (designated HS196) was highly sensitive and specific for detecting implanted prostate cancer cell lines with greater uptake by more aggressive subtypes. In a phase I human study, systemically administered HS196 could be detected in malignant nodules within prostatectomy specimens. Single-cell RNA sequencing identified uptake of HS196 by malignant prostate epithelium from the peripheral zone (AMACR+ERG+EPCAM+ cells), including SYP+ neuroendocrine cells that are associated with therapeutic resistance and metastatic progression. A theranostic version of this molecule is under clinical testing.

2.
Oncoimmunology ; 10(1): 1976953, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595059

RESUMO

Human microbiota influence the response of malignancies to treatment with immune checkpoint blockade; however, their impact on other forms of immunotherapy is poorly understood. This study explored the effect of blood microbiota on clinical efficacy, represented by progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), of combined chemotherapy and adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) in advanced colon cancer patients. Plasma was collected from colorectal cancer patients (CRC) treated with either chemotherapy alone (oxaliplatin and capecitabine) (XELOX CT alone group, n = 19), or ACT with a mixed dendritic cell/cytokine-induced killer cell product (DC-CIK) + XELOX (ICT group, n = 20). Circulating microbiota analysis was performed by PCR amplification and next-generation sequencing of variable regions V3~V4 of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The association of the blood microbial diversity with clinical response to the therapy as measured by RECIST1.1 and OS was evaluated. The baseline Chao index of blood microbial diversity predicted prolonged PFS and OS of DC/CIK immunotherapy. More diverse blood microbiota that included Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Enterococcus were identified among responders to DC/CIK compared with non-responders. The plasma bacterial DNA copy number is inversely correlated with the CD3-/CD16+/CD56+ NK cells in circulation and decreased following DC-CIK; however, the Chao index of plasma microbiota significantly increased after administration of the DC-CIK product and this subsequent change was correlated with the number of CD3-/CD16+/CD56+ and CD8+/CD28+ cells infused. The diversity of the blood microbiome is a promising predictive marker for clinical responses to chemotherapy combined with DC-CIK. Cellular immunotherapy can affect the plasma microbiota's diversity in a manner favorable to clinical responses.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Microbiota , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Células Dendríticas , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Imunoterapia Adotiva , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Linfócitos T
3.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 15(3): 186, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277005

RESUMO

DeltaRex-G is a replication-incompetent amphotropic murine leukemia virus-based retroviral vector that displays a collagen-matrix-targeting decapeptide on its surface envelope protein, gp70, and encodes a cytocidal 'dominant negative', i.e. a truncated construct of the executive cyclin G1 (CCNG1) oncogene. DeltaRex-G inhibits the CCNG1 function of promoting cell competence and survival through the commanding CCNG1/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)/Myc/mouse double minute 2 homolog (Mdm2)/p53 axis. In 2009, DeltaRex-G was granted Fast Track designation from the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. In 2019, the results of a phase 1/2 study that used DeltaRex-G as monotherapy for stage 4 chemotherapy-resistant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) were published. A unique participant of the aforementioned phase 1/2 study is now an 84-year-old Caucasian woman with chemoresistant PDAC who was treated with DeltaRex-G, 3x1011 colony forming units (cfu)/dose, 3 times/week for 4 weeks with a 2-week rest period, for 1.5 years. During the treatment period, the patient's tumors in the liver, lymph node and peritoneum exhibited progressive decreases in size, which were accompanied by a reduction and normalization of serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels, and the patient achieved complete remission after 8 months of DeltaRex-G therapy with minimal side effects (grade 2 fatigue). Henceforth, the patient has been in remission for 12 years with no evidence of disease, no late therapy-related adverse events, and no further cancer therapy following DeltaRex-G treatment. The present study reports a mutation of tumor protein p53 (TP53) (G199V) found retrospectively in the patient's archived tumor samples. TP53 is a well-characterized tumor suppressor gene, and a critical regulatory component of the executive CCNG1/CDK/Myc/Mdm2/p53 axis, which regulates proliferative cell competence, DNA fidelity and survival. Studies are underway to determine whether TP53 mutations in pancreatic cancer can help identify a subset of patients with advanced metastatic cancer with an otherwise poor prognosis who would respond favorably to DeltaRex-G, which would broaden the treatment options for patients with otherwise lethal PDAC.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(11)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199946

RESUMO

XIAP, the most potent inhibitor of cell death pathways, is linked to chemotherapy resistance and tumor aggressiveness. Currently, multiple XIAP-targeting agents are in clinical trials. However, the characterization of XIAP expression in relation to clinicopathological variables in large clinical series of breast cancer is lacking. We retrospectively analyzed non-metastatic, non-inflammatory, primary, invasive breast cancer samples for XIAP mRNA (n = 2341) and protein (n = 367) expression. XIAP expression was analyzed as a continuous value and correlated with clinicopathological variables. XIAP mRNA expression was heterogeneous across samples and significantly associated with younger patients' age (≤50 years), pathological ductal type, lower tumor grade, node-positive status, HR+/HER2- status, and PAM50 luminal B subtype. Higher XIAP expression was associated with shorter DFS in uni- and multivariate analyses in 909 informative patients. Very similar correlations were observed at the protein level. This prognostic impact was significant in the HR+/HER2- but not in the TN subtype. Finally, XIAP mRNA expression was associated with lower pCR rate to anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in both uni- and multivariate analyses in 1203 informative patients. Higher XIAP expression in invasive breast cancer is independently associated with poorer prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy, suggesting the potential therapeutic benefit of targeting XIAP.

5.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 111(2): 479-490, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974888

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radiation therapy (RT) modulates immune cells and cytokines, resulting in both clinically beneficial and detrimental effects. The changes in peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets and cytokines during RT for pediatric brain tumors and the association of these changes with therapeutic outcomes have not been well described. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study population consisted of children (n = 83, aged 3~18) with primary brain tumors (medulloblastoma, glioma, germ cell tumors (GCT), and central nervous system embryonal tumor-not otherwise specified), with or without residual or disseminated (R/D) diseases who were starting standard postoperative focal or craniospinal irradiation (CSI). Peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets collected before and 4 weeks after RT were enumerated by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and IL-17A were measured by cytometric bead array. RESULTS: Patients with R/D lesions receiving CSI (n = 32) had a post-RT increase in the frequency of CD3+T and CD8+T cells, a decrease in CD4+T cells, and an increase in regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD8+CD28- suppressor cells, which was more predominantly seen in these patients than in other groups. In the CSI group with such R/D lesions, consisting of patients with medulloblastoma and germ cell tumors, 19 experienced a complete response (CR) and 13 experienced a partial response (PR) on imaging at 4 weeks after RT. The post/pre-RT ratio of Tregs (P = .0493), IL-6 (P = .0111), and IL-10 (P = .0070) was lower in the CR group than in the PR group. Multivariate analysis revealed that the post/pre-RT ratios of Treg, IL-6, and IL-10 were independent predictors of CR (P < .0001, P = .018, P < .0001, respectively). The areas under the receiver operating curves and confidence intervals were 0.7652 (0.5831-0.8964), 0.7794 (0.5980-0.9067), and 0.7085 (0.5223-0.8552) for IL-6, IL-10, and Treg, respectively. The sensitivities of IL-6, IL-10, and Treg to predict radiotherapeutic responses were 100%, 92.3%, and 61.5%, and specificity was 52.6%, 57.9%, and 84.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: CSI treatment to those with R/D lesions predominantly exerted an effect on antitumor immune response compared with both R/D lesion-free but exposed to focal or CSI RT and with R/D lesions and exposed to focal RT. Such CSI with R/D lesions group experiencing CR is more likely to have a decrease in immunoinhibitory molecules and cells than patients who only achieve PR. Measuring peripheral blood Treg, IL-6, and IL-10 levels could be valuable for predicting radiotherapeutic responses of pediatric brain tumors with R/D lesions to CSI for medulloblastoma and intracranial germ cell tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cerebelares/radioterapia , Radiação Cranioespinal , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Meduloblastoma/radioterapia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/radioterapia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Adolescente , Neoplasias Cerebelares/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Meduloblastoma/imunologia , Meduloblastoma/patologia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/imunologia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia
6.
Am J Cancer Res ; 11(4): 1709-1718, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948384

RESUMO

Recurrence and progression of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), frequent despite the availability of multiple treatment modalities, may be partly explained by the presence of immunosuppressive cell populations. We hypothesized that progression of disease could be prevented by the administration of an activated T cell immunotherapy (ACT) at time points when immunosuppressive populations increased in peripheral blood. In an N-of-1 study, a patient with multiple primary bladder high grade urothelial carcinomas, previously treated with standard local resection and chemotherapy but with evidence of progression, received ACT consisting of dendritic cells mixed with cytokine induced killer cells (DC/CIK), intravenously 18 times over a 6 year period at indicated time of observed increases in peripheral blood immunosuppressive CD8+/CD28- cells. Peripheral blood was analyzed for T cell phenotype by flow cytometry, T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) by next generation sequencing (NGS) at the time of each infusion. Cystoscopy and pelvic CT scans were performed at routine intervals to assess clinical status of disease. There has been no recurrence or metastasis of urothelial carcinoma. Peripheral blood cytotoxic T cells and unique TCR clones increased and suppressive T cell populations decreased after DC/CIK infusions evidenced by the two more proof-of concept cases. ctDNA analysis detected mutations in six genes (ARID1B, MYCN, CDH23, SETD2, NOTCH4 and FAT1) which appeared at different times, but all of them disappeared after the DC-CIK infusions. These data suggest that DC/CIK infusions may be associated with beneficial changes in T cell phenotype, TCR repertoire, decreases in circulating tumor DNA and sustained recurrence-free survival.

7.
AME Case Rep ; 5: 14, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912803

RESUMO

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma commonly presents as metastatic disease and harbors a dire prognosis due to its aggressive behavior, propensity for resistance to therapies, and lack of targetable driver mutations. Additionally, despite advances in other cancers, immunotherapy has been ineffective in this disease thus far and treatment remains centered around cytotoxic chemotherapy. Here, we present a case of a patient with pancreatic adenocarcinoma harboring both high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) and HER2 amplification. After an initial response to standard-of-care chemotherapy with FOLFIRINOX followed by progression, she was treated with dual immune checkpoint blockade, which resulted in a period of disease control. This was complicated by the development of autoimmune hypophysitis and an incidental finding of brain metastasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Her extracranial disease progressed while receiving stereotactic radiosurgery, with findings of lymphangitic spread in her lungs, and her treatment was changed to gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel with trastuzumab. This resulted in a degree of extracranial disease control, though she experienced progressive brain metastases despite radiation and therapeutic switch to lapatinib and trastuzumab. Ultimately, the patient developed leptomeningeal disease which was not controlled by intrathecal trastuzumab. Given the rarity of central nervous system metastasis, HER2 amplification, and MSI in pancreatic cancer, this patient's presentation represents a confluence of multiple unique features. This case highlights the clinical value of up-front next-generation sequencing in metastatic pancreatic cancer and the ability of pancreatic cancer with actionable molecular variants to develop atypical sites of disease and adaptive resistance.

9.
Oncologist ; 26(6): 465-e917, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469991

RESUMO

LESSONS LEARNED: Antitumor activity was observed in the study population. Dose modifications of cabozantinib improve long-term tolerability. Biomarkers are needed to identify patient populations most likely to benefit. Further study of cabozantinib with or without panitumumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer is warranted. BACKGROUND: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody panitumumab is active in patients with RAS wild-type (WT) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), but nearly all patients experience resistance. MET amplification is a driver of panitumumab resistance. Cabozantinib is an inhibitor of multiple kinases, including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and c-MET, and may delay or reverse anti-EGFR resistance. METHODS: In this phase Ib clinical trial, we established the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of cabozantinib and panitumumab. We then treated an expansion cohort to further describe the tolerability and clinical activity of the RP2D. Eligibility included patients with KRAS WT mCRC (later amended to include only RAS WT mCRC) who had received prior treatment with a fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and bevacizumab. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were enrolled and treated. The MTD/RP2D was cabozantinib 60 mg p.o. daily and panitumumab 6 mg/kg I.V. every 2 weeks. The objective response rate (ORR) was 16%. Median progression free survival (PFS) was 3.7 months (90% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-7.1). Median overall survival (OS) was 12.1 months (90% CI, 7.5-14.3). Five patients (20%) discontinued treatment due to toxicity, and 18 patients (72%) required a dose reduction of cabozantinib. CONCLUSION: The combination of cabozantinib and panitumumab has activity. Dose reductions of cabozantinib improve tolerability.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Anilidas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Humanos , Panitumumabe/farmacologia , Panitumumabe/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras) , Piridinas
10.
Target Oncol ; 16(2): 121-152, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512679

RESUMO

There are strong biologic and preclinical rationales for the development of therapeutic cancer vaccines; however, the clinical translation of this treatment strategy has been challenging. It is now understood that many previous clinical trials of cancer vaccines used target antigens or vaccine designs that inherently lacked sufficient immunogenicity to induce clinical responses. Despite the historical track record, breakthrough advances in cancer immunobiology and vaccine technologies have supported continued interest in therapeutic cancer vaccinations, with the hope that next-generation vaccine strategies will enable patients with cancer to develop long-lasting anti-tumor immunity. There has been substantial progress identifying antigens and vaccine vectors that lead to strong and broad T cell responses, tailoring vaccine designs to achieve optimal antigen presentation, and finding combination partners employing complementary mechanisms of action (e.g., checkpoint inhibitors) to overcome the diverse methods cancer cells use to evade and suppress the immune system. Results from randomized, phase 3 studies testing therapeutic cancer vaccines based on these advances are eagerly awaited. Here, we summarize the successes and failures in the clinical development of cancer vaccines, address how this historical experience and advances in science and technology have shaped efforts to improve vaccines, and offer a clinical perspective on the future role of vaccine therapies for cancer.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas Anticâncer/farmacologia , Humanos
11.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There remains a significant need to eliminate the risk of recurrence of resected cancers. Cancer vaccines are well tolerated and activate tumor-specific immune effectors and lead to long-term survival in some patients. We hypothesized that vaccination with alphaviral replicon particles encoding tumor associated antigens would generate clinically significant antitumor immunity to enable prolonged overall survival (OS) in patients with both metastatic and resected cancer. METHODS: OS was monitored for patients with stage IV cancer treated in a phase I study of virus-like replicon particle (VRP)-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), an alphaviral replicon particle encoding a modified CEA. An expansion cohort of patients (n=12) with resected stage III colorectal cancer who had completed their standard postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy was administered VRP-CEA every 3 weeks for a total of 4 immunizations. OS and relapse-free survival (RFS) were determined, as well as preimmunization and postimmunization cellular and humoral immunity. RESULTS: Among the patients with stage IV cancer, median follow-up was 10.9 years and 5-year survival was 17%, (95% CI 6% to 33%). Among the patients with stage III cancer, the 5-year RFS was 75%, (95%CI 40% to 91%); no deaths were observed. At a median follow-up of 5.8 years (range: 3.9-7.0 years) all patients were still alive. All patients demonstrated CEA-specific humoral immunity. Patients with stage III cancer had an increase in CD8 +TEM (in 10/12) and decrease in FOXP3 +Tregs (in 10/12) following vaccination. Further, CEA-specific, IFNγ-producing CD8+granzyme B+TCM cells were increased. CONCLUSIONS: VRP-CEA induces antigen-specific effector T cells while decreasing Tregs, suggesting favorable immune modulation. Long-term survivors were identified in both cohorts, suggesting the OS may be prolonged.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Memória Imunológica/fisiologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
Cancer Manag Res ; 12: 9713-9719, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116830

RESUMO

Purpose: The TELEACE study showed reductions in tumor size in patients with neuroendocrine tumors, receiving telotristat ethyl in US clinical practice. Here, we report progression-free survival, time to tumor progression, changes in carcinoid syndrome symptoms, and indictors of overall health. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective, single arm, pre-post medical chart review of patients with locally advanced or metastatic neuroendocrine tumors and documented carcinoid syndrome receiving telotristat ethyl for at least 6 months. Patients with poorly differentiated tumors, mixed tumor types or conflicting clinical trial enrollment were excluded. Descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier and chi-square tests were used to evaluate PFS, tumor progression, changes in symptoms, body weight and ECOG performance status before and after telotristat ethyl initiation. Subgroup analyses were conducted in patients with the same pre- and post-telotristat ethyl background treatment. Results: Anonymized data for 200 patients were provided by 114 physicians; patients received telotristat ethyl for a median of 9 months. Median time to tumor progression was 39.8 months (IQR, 18.7-39.8); most had no tumor progression at 6 (92%) and 12 months (87%). Median progression-free survival was 23.7 months (17.8-39.8); most had progression-free survival at 6 (90%) and 12 months (80%). Results were consistent in the subgroup of 65 patients with the same pre/post background treatment. Nearly all patients had improved carcinoid syndrome symptoms, stable or improved weight and ECOG performance status. Conclusion: Patients showed improvements in clinical outcomes and indicators of overall health following treatment with telotristat ethyl in this exploratory pilot study, consistent with previously observed reductions in tumor size.

13.
Pancreas ; 49(9): 1123-1130, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991344

RESUMO

Patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and carcinoid syndrome experience diarrhea that can have a debilitating effect on quality of life. Diarrhea also may develop in response to other hormonal syndromes associated with NETs, surgical complications, medical comorbidities, medications, or food sensitivities. Limited guidance on the practical approach to the differential diagnosis of diarrhea in these patients can lead to delays in appropriate treatment. This clinical review and commentary underscore the complexity in identifying the etiology of diarrhea in patients with NETs. Based on our collective experience and expertise, we offer a practical algorithm to guide medical oncologists and other care providers to expedite effective management of diarrhea and related symptoms in patients with NETs.


Assuntos
Diarreia/diagnóstico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida , Tumor Carcinoide/complicações , Tumor Carcinoide/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diarreia/etiologia , Dispepsia/complicações , Dispepsia/diagnóstico , Gastrite/complicações , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/complicações , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/complicações
14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(17): 4670-4681, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732224

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite promising advances in breast cancer immunotherapy, augmenting T-cell infiltration has remained a significant challenge. Although neither individual vaccines nor immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) have had broad success as monotherapies, we hypothesized that targeted vaccination against an oncogenic driver in combination with ICB could direct and enable antitumor immunity in advanced cancers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Our models of HER2+ breast cancer exhibit molecular signatures that are reflective of advanced human HER2+ breast cancer, with a small numbers of neoepitopes and elevated immunosuppressive markers. Using these, we vaccinated against the oncogenic HER2Δ16 isoform, a nondriver tumor-associated gene (GFP), and specific neoepitopes. We further tested the effect of vaccination or anti-PD-1, alone and in combination. RESULTS: We found that only vaccination targeting HER2Δ16, a driver of oncogenicity and HER2-therapeutic resistance, could elicit significant antitumor responses, while vaccines targeting a nondriver tumor-specific antigen or tumor neoepitopes did not. Vaccine-induced HER2-specific CD8+ T cells were essential for responses, which were more effective early in tumor development. Long-term tumor control of advanced cancers occurred only when HER2Δ16 vaccination was combined with αPD-1. Single-cell RNA sequencing of tumor-infiltrating T cells revealed that while vaccination expanded CD8 T cells, only the combination of vaccine with αPD-1 induced functional gene expression signatures in those CD8 T cells. Furthermore, we show that expanded clones are HER2-reactive, conclusively demonstrating the efficacy of this vaccination strategy in targeting HER2. CONCLUSIONS: Combining oncogenic driver targeted vaccines with selective ICB offers a rational paradigm for precision immunotherapy, which we are clinically evaluating in a phase II trial (NCT03632941).

15.
Cancer Manag Res ; 12: 6607-6614, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801896

RESUMO

Purpose: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) associated with carcinoid syndrome (CS) overproduce serotonin, mediated by tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1). The TPH inhibitor telotristat ethyl (TE) reduces peripheral serotonin and relieves CS symptoms. We conducted a real-world clinical practice study to explore the effects of TE on tumor growth in patients with NETs and CS. Patients and Methods: Single-arm, pre/post chart review study of patients with advanced NETs who received TE for ≥6 months and had ≥2 radiological scans within 12 months before and ≥1 scan after TE initiation. Linear regression and longitudinal analyses assessed changes in tumor size controlling for background NET treatment. Results: Two hundred patients were enrolled, most (61%) had well-differentiated gastrointestinal NETs (61%) and received TE for an average of 12 months (SD, 7.3). Mean reduction in tumor size after TE initiation was 0.59 cm (p=0.006). Longitudinal analysis showed an 8.5% reduction in tumor size (p=0.045) from pre- to post-TE periods. Documented NET treatment prior to initiating TE and time between scans were not significant predictors of changes in tumor size. Results were consistent in a subgroup of patients with the same documented NET treatment before and after initiating TE. Conclusion: TE may have antitumor effects consistent with serotonin overproduction in tumor growth.

16.
Am J Transl Res ; 12(7): 3940-3952, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774747

RESUMO

To explore the safety and efficacy of intra-cavitary infusions of autologous mixed dendritic cell (DC)-cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell products in advanced cancer patients with malignant pleural effusions or ascites. DC-CIKs were expanded ex vivo (mean yield of 1.36×109 cells (range, 0.74~4.98×109)) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained by repeated venipuncture or apheresis. Patients received at least 1 cycle of 3 infusions of the DC-CIKs administered by indwelling catheter into the pleural or peritoneal cavity every other day. The volume of malignant effusions was assessed radiologically. Peripheral blood lymphocyte populations were enumerated by flow cytometry. Quality of life (QoL) during the DC-CIK infusions was assessed by the EORTC QLQ-30 instrument. ctDNA sequencing was performed to analyze gene clonal load and molecular tumor burden during the infusion treatment. Thirty-seven patients with breast, lung and other malignancies were enrolled. The results showed that intra-cavitary DC-CIK infusions (16 intrapleural and 21 intraperitoneal) were well-tolerated with no grade 3/4 adverse events. There was one complete response with effusion disappearance (CR) (3%), 13 partial responses (PR) (35%), 12 with stable disease (SD) (32%) and 11 with progressive disease (PD) (30%), resulting in a clinical effusion control rate (CCR) of 70% (26/37). The total number of infused CIKs and the CD3+/CD8+ and CD8+/CD28+ T cell frequencies within the CIKs were associated with effusion control (P=0.013). Moreover, increased peripheral blood CD3+/CD8+ (P=0.035) and decreased CD4+/CD25+ T cell frequencies (P=0.041) following the DC-CIK infusions were associated with malignant effusion and ascites control. Reductions in ctDNA correlated with clinical benefit. In conclusion, intra-cavitary autologous cellular immunotherapy is an alternative method to effectively control malignant pleural effusions and ascites. The overall effusion control rate was associated with higher peripheral blood effector T cell frequencies.

17.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 226, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385408

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) ablates malignancies by applying focused near-infrared (nIR) light onto a lesion of interest after systemic administration of a photosensitizer (PS); however, the accumulation of existing PS is not tumor-exclusive. We developed a tumor-localizing strategy for PDT, exploiting the high expression of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in cancer cells to retain high concentrations of PS by tethering a small molecule Hsp90 inhibitor to a PS (verteporfin, VP) to create an Hsp90-targeted PS (HS201). HS201 accumulates to a greater extent than VP in breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in increased treatment efficacy of HS201-PDT in various human breast cancer xenografts regardless of molecular and clinical subtypes. The therapeutic index achieved with Hsp90-targeted PDT would permit treatment not only of localized tumors, but also more diffusely infiltrating processes such as inflammatory breast cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/antagonistas & inibidores , Fotoquimioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Verteporfina/administração & dosagem , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Células MCF-7
18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(14): 3557-3564, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303539

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to chemotherapy have limited treatment options. Ensituximab (NEO-102) is a novel chimeric mAb targeting a variant of MUC5AC with specificity to colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Single-arm, phase II trial assessed the efficacy and safety of ensituximab in patients with advanced, refractory cancer who expressed MUC5AC antigen in tumor tissue. Ensituximab was administered intravenously every 2 weeks with 3 mg/kg as recommended phase II dose (RP2D). A minimum sample size of 43 patients was required on the basis of the assumption that ensituximab would improve median overall survival (OS) by 7 months using a one-sided significance level of 10% and 80% power. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients with advanced, refractory colorectal cancer were enrolled and 53 subjects were treated in phase II arm. Median age was 58 years and 46% of the patients were female. Among 57 evaluable patients, median OS was 6.8 months. No responses were observed, and stable disease was achieved in 21% of the patients. The most common treatment-related adverse events (AE) at RP2D included fatigue (38%), anemia (30%), nausea (15%), vomiting (11%), increased bilirubin (9%), constipation (8%), decreased appetite (6%), and diarrhea (6%). Serious AEs at least possibly related to ensituximab occurred in 4 patients and included anemia, nausea, increased bilirubin, and hypoxia. No patients discontinued treatment due to drug-related AEs. CONCLUSIONS: Ensituximab was well tolerated and demonstrated modest antitumor activity in patients with heavily pretreated refractory colorectal cancer.

19.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 20(6): 601-607, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033522

RESUMO

Introduction: Immunotherapy is now a standard treatment for many malignancies. Although immune checkpoint inhibition has demonstrated substantial efficacy by enhancing T cell activation and function in the tumor microenvironment, adoptive transfer of T and NK cell products promises to provide activated cells capable of immediate and direct tumor destruction. A widely applicable, non-MHC dependent, cellular therapy, consisting of in vitro generated dendritic cells (DC) combined with cytokine-induced killer cells (CIK), is highly efficient to produce from individual patients and has demonstrated safety and efficacy alone or with chemotherapy.Areas covered: We summarize the clinical data from studies of DC-CIK and discuss future research directions.Expert opinion: Patients with a wide variety of tumor types who have received DC-CIK therapy may experience clinical responses. This versatile therapy synergizes with other anti-cancer therapies including chemotherapy and immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Induzidas por Citocinas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Células Matadoras Induzidas por Citocinas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Microambiente Tumoral
20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614368

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Prognosis of metastatic pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma following 131-Iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is incompletely characterized due to small samples and shorter follow-up in these rare, often indolent tumors. OBJECTIVE: To describe long-term survival, frequency, and prognostic impact of imaging, biochemical, and symptomatic response to 131-I MIBG. DESIGN: Retrospective chart and imaging review at a tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Six hundred sixty-eight person-years of follow-up in 125 patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma with progression through prior multimodal treatment. INTERVENTION: Median 18 800 MBq 131-I MIBG. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall survival, Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1 (RECIST) imaging response, symptomatic response per chart review, and biochemical response (20% change over 2 consecutive assays of catecholamines, vanillylmandelic acid, metanephrines, or chromogranin A). RESULTS: Median survival standard deviation [SD] from diagnosis was 11.5 years [2.4]; following metastasis, 6.5 years [0.8]; post treatment, 4.3 years [0.7]. Among 88 participants with follow-up imaging, 1% experienced complete response, 33% partial response, 53% stability, and 13% progression. Fifty-one percent showed subsequent progression, median progression-free survival [SD] of 2.0 years [0.6]. Stability/response vs progression at first imaging follow-up (3-6 months) predicted improved survival, 6.3 vs 2.4 years (P = 0.021). Fifty-nine percent of 54 patients demonstrated biochemical response. Fifty percent of these relapsed, with median time to laboratory progression [SD] of 2.8 years [0.7]. Biochemical response did not predict extended survival. Seventy-five percent of 83 patients reported improvement in pretreatment symptoms, consisting primarily of pain (42%), fatigue (27%), and hypertension (14%). Sixty-one percent of these patients experienced subsequent symptomatic progression at median [SD] 1.8 years [0.4]. Symptomatic response did not predict extended survival. CONCLUSIONS: Imaging, symptomatic, and laboratory response to multimodal treatment including high-dose 131-I MIBG were achieved on long-term follow-up in metastatic pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma. Imaging response at 3 to 6 months was prognostic.


Assuntos
3-Iodobenzilguanidina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/radioterapia , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Paraganglioma/radioterapia , Feocromocitoma/radioterapia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/secundário , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraganglioma/patologia , Feocromocitoma/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
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