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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(9): 1177-1186, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and history of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are at high risk for recurrent cardiovascular events and death. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the clinical benefit of adding alirocumab to statins in ACS patients with prior CABG in a pre-specified analysis of ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab). METHODS: Patients (n = 18,924) 1 to 12 months post-ACS with elevated atherogenic lipoprotein levels despite high-intensity statin therapy were randomized to alirocumab or placebo subcutaneously every 2 weeks. Median follow-up was 2.8 years. The primary composite endpoint of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) comprised coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. All-cause death was a secondary endpoint. Patients were categorized by CABG status: no CABG (n = 16,896); index CABG after qualifying ACS, but before randomization (n = 1,025); or CABG before the qualifying ACS (n = 1,003). RESULTS: In each CABG category, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for MACE (no CABG 0.86 [0.78 to 0.95], index CABG 0.85 [0.54 to 1.35], prior CABG 0.77 [0.61 to 0.98]) and death (0.88 [0.75 to 1.03], 0.85 [0.46 to 1.59], 0.67 [0.44 to 1.01], respectively) were consistent with the overall trial results (0.85 [0.78 to 0.93] and 0.85 [0.73 to 0.98], respectively). Absolute risk reductions (95% confidence intervals) differed across CABG categories for MACE (no CABG 1.3% [0.5% to 2.2%], index CABG 0.9% [-2.3% to 4.0%], prior CABG 6.4% [0.9% to 12.0%]) and for death (0.4% [-0.1% to 1.0%], 0.5% [-1.9% to 2.9%], and 3.6% [0.0% to 7.2%]). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with recent ACS and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite intensive statin therapy, alirocumab was associated with large absolute reductions in MACE and death in those with CABG preceding the ACS event. (ODYSSEY OUTCOMES: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab; NCT01663402).

2.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(8): 618-628, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After acute coronary syndrome, diabetes conveys an excess risk of ischaemic cardiovascular events. A reduction in mean LDL cholesterol to 1·4-1·8 mmol/L with ezetimibe or statins reduces cardiovascular events in patients with an acute coronary syndrome and diabetes. However, the efficacy and safety of further reduction in LDL cholesterol with an inhibitor of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) after acute coronary syndrome is unknown. We aimed to explore this issue in a prespecified analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial of the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab, assessing its effects on cardiovascular outcomes by baseline glycaemic status, while also assessing its effects on glycaemic measures including risk of new-onset diabetes. METHODS: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, done at 1315 sites in 57 countries, that compared alirocumab with placebo in patients who had been admitted to hospital with an acute coronary syndrome (myocardial infarction or unstable angina) 1-12 months before randomisation and who had raised concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins despite use of high-intensity statins. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive alirocumab or placebo every 2 weeks; randomisation was stratified by country and was done centrally with an interactive voice-response or web-response system. Alirocumab was titrated to target LDL cholesterol concentrations of 0·65-1·30 mmol/L. In this prespecified analysis, we investigated the effect of alirocumab on cardiovascular events by glycaemic status at baseline (diabetes, prediabetes, or normoglycaemia)-defined on the basis of patient history, review of medical records, or baseline HbA1c or fasting serum glucose-and risk of new-onset diabetes among those without diabetes at baseline. The primary endpoint was a composite of death from coronary heart disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal or non-fatal ischaemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospital admission. ODYSSEY OUTCOMES is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01663402. FINDINGS: At study baseline, 5444 patients (28·8%) had diabetes, 8246 (43·6%) had prediabetes, and 5234 (27·7%) had normoglycaemia. There were no significant differences across glycaemic categories in median LDL cholesterol at baseline (2·20-2·28 mmol/L), after 4 months' treatment with alirocumab (0·80 mmol/L), or after 4 months' treatment with placebo (2·25-2·28 mmol/L). In the placebo group, the incidence of the primary endpoint over a median of 2·8 years was greater in patients with diabetes (16·4%) than in those with prediabetes (9·2%) or normoglycaemia (8·5%); hazard ratio (HR) for diabetes versus normoglycaemia 2·09 (95% CI 1·78-2·46, p<0·0001) and for diabetes versus prediabetes 1·90 (1·65-2·17, p<0·0001). Alirocumab resulted in similar relative reductions in the incidence of the primary endpoint in each glycaemic category, but a greater absolute reduction in the incidence of the primary endpoint in patients with diabetes (2·3%, 95% CI 0·4 to 4·2) than in those with prediabetes (1·2%, 0·0 to 2·4) or normoglycaemia (1·2%, -0·3 to 2·7; absolute risk reduction pinteraction=0·0019). Among patients without diabetes at baseline, 676 (10·1%) developed diabetes in the placebo group, compared with 648 (9·6%) in the alirocumab group; alirocumab did not increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (HR 1·00, 95% CI 0·89-1·11). HRs were 0·97 (95% CI 0·87-1·09) for patients with prediabetes and 1·30 (95% CI 0·93-1·81) for those with normoglycaemia (pinteraction=0·11). INTERPRETATION: After a recent acute coronary syndrome, alirocumab treatment targeting an LDL cholesterol concentration of 0·65-1·30 mmol/L produced about twice the absolute reduction in cardiovascular events among patients with diabetes as in those without diabetes. Alirocumab treatment did not increase the risk of new-onset diabetes. FUNDING: Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals.

3.
Circulation ; 140(2): 103-112, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous trials of PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9) inhibitors demonstrated reductions in major adverse cardiovascular events, but not death. We assessed the effects of alirocumab on death after index acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) was a double-blind, randomized comparison of alirocumab or placebo in 18 924 patients who had an ACS 1 to 12 months previously and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite intensive statin therapy. Alirocumab dose was blindly titrated to target achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) between 25 and 50 mg/dL. We examined the effects of treatment on all-cause death and its components, cardiovascular and noncardiovascular death, with log-rank testing. Joint semiparametric models tested associations between nonfatal cardiovascular events and cardiovascular or noncardiovascular death. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Death occurred in 334 (3.5%) and 392 (4.1%) patients, respectively, in the alirocumab and placebo groups (hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.98; P=0.03, nominal P value). This resulted from nonsignificantly fewer cardiovascular (240 [2.5%] vs 271 [2.9%]; HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.05; P=0.15) and noncardiovascular (94 [1.0%] vs 121 [1.3%]; HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.01; P=0.06) deaths with alirocumab. In a prespecified analysis of 8242 patients eligible for ≥3 years follow-up, alirocumab reduced death (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.94; P=0.01). Patients with nonfatal cardiovascular events were at increased risk for cardiovascular and noncardiovascular deaths ( P<0.0001 for the associations). Alirocumab reduced total nonfatal cardiovascular events ( P<0.001) and thereby may have attenuated the number of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular deaths. A post hoc analysis found that, compared to patients with lower LDL-C, patients with baseline LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL (2.59 mmol/L) had a greater absolute risk of death and a larger mortality benefit from alirocumab (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.90; Pinteraction=0.007). In the alirocumab group, all-cause death declined with achieved LDL-C at 4 months of treatment, to a level of approximately 30 mg/dL (adjusted P=0.017 for linear trend). CONCLUSIONS: Alirocumab added to intensive statin therapy has the potential to reduce death after acute coronary syndrome, particularly if treatment is maintained for ≥3 years, if baseline LDL-C is ≥100 mg/dL, or if achieved LDL-C is low. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01663402.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 40(33): 2801-2809, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121022

RESUMO

AIMS : The third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (MI) Task Force classified MIs into five types: Type 1, spontaneous; Type 2, related to oxygen supply/demand imbalance; Type 3, fatal without ascertainment of cardiac biomarkers; Type 4, related to percutaneous coronary intervention; and Type 5, related to coronary artery bypass surgery. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction with statins and proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors reduces risk of MI, but less is known about effects on types of MI. ODYSSEY OUTCOMES compared the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab with placebo in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and elevated LDL-C (≥1.8 mmol/L) despite intensive statin therapy. In a pre-specified analysis, we assessed the effects of alirocumab on types of MI. METHODS AND RESULTS : Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Myocardial infarction types were prospectively adjudicated and classified. Of 1860 total MIs, 1223 (65.8%) were adjudicated as Type 1, 386 (20.8%) as Type 2, and 244 (13.1%) as Type 4. Few events were Type 3 (n = 2) or Type 5 (n = 5). Alirocumab reduced first MIs [hazard ratio (HR) 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-0.95; P = 0.003], with reductions in both Type 1 (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77-0.99; P = 0.032) and Type 2 (0.77, 0.61-0.97; P = 0.025), but not Type 4 MI. CONCLUSION : After ACS, alirocumab added to intensive statin therapy favourably impacted on Type 1 and 2 MIs. The data indicate for the first time that a lipid-lowering therapy can attenuate the risk of Type 2 MI. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction below levels achievable with statins is an effective preventive strategy for both MI types.

5.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(9): 1167-1176, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and concomitant noncoronary atherosclerosis have a high risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and death. The impact of lipid lowering by proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibition in such patients is undetermined. OBJECTIVES: This pre-specified analysis from ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) determined whether polyvascular disease influenced risks of MACEs and death and their modification by alirocumab in patients with recent ACS and dyslipidemia despite intensive statin therapy. METHODS: Patients were randomized to alirocumab or placebo 1 to 12 months after ACS. The primary MACEs endpoint was the composite of coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal or nonfatal ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. All-cause death was a secondary endpoint. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Of 18,924 patients, 17,370 had monovascular (coronary) disease, 1,405 had polyvascular disease in 2 beds (coronary and peripheral artery or cerebrovascular), and 149 had polyvascular disease in 3 beds (coronary, peripheral artery, cerebrovascular). With placebo, the incidence of MACEs by respective vascular categories was 10.0%, 22.2%, and 39.7%. With alirocumab, the corresponding absolute risk reduction was 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6% to 2.3%), 1.9% (95% CI: -2.4% to 6.2%), and 13.0% (95% CI: -2.0% to 28.0%). With placebo, the incidence of death by respective vascular categories was 3.5%, 10.0%, and 21.8%; the absolute risk reduction with alirocumab was 0.4% (95% CI: -0.1% to 1.0%), 1.3% (95% CI: -1.8% to 4.3%), and 16.2% (95% CI: 5.5% to 26.8%). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with recent ACS and dyslipidemia despite intensive statin therapy, polyvascular disease is associated with high risks of MACEs and death. The large absolute reductions in those risks with alirocumab are a potential benefit for these patients. (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab [ODYSSEY OUTCOMES]: NCT01663402).

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2018 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial compared alirocumab with placebo, added to high-intensity or maximum tolerated statin treatment, after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in 18,924 patients. Alirocumab reduced the first occurrence of the primary composite endpoint and was associated with fewer all-cause deaths. OBJECTIVES: This pre-specified analysis determined the extent to which alirocumab reduced total (first and subsequent) nonfatal cardiovascular events and all-cause deaths in ODYSSEY OUTCOMES. METHODS: Hazard functions for total nonfatal cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, ischemia-driven coronary revascularization, and hospitalization for unstable angina or heart failure) and death were jointly estimated, linked by a shared frailty accounting for patient risk heterogeneity and correlated within-patient nonfatal events. An association parameter also quantified the strength of the linkage between risk of nonfatal events and death. The model provides accurate relative estimates of nonfatal event risk if nonfatal events are associated with increased risk for death. RESULTS: With 3,064 first and 5,425 total events, 190 fewer first and 385 fewer total nonfatal cardiovascular events or deaths were observed with alirocumab compared with placebo. Alirocumab reduced total nonfatal cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 0.93) and death (hazard ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.97) in the presence of a strong association between nonfatal and fatal event risk. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ACS, the total number of nonfatal cardiovascular events and deaths prevented with alirocumab was twice the number of first events prevented. Consequently, total event reduction is a more comprehensive metric to capture the totality of alirocumab clinical efficacy after ACS.

7.
N Engl J Med ; 379(22): 2097-2107, 2018 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients who have had an acute coronary syndrome are at high risk for recurrent ischemic cardiovascular events. We sought to determine whether alirocumab, a human monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9), would improve cardiovascular outcomes after an acute coronary syndrome in patients receiving high-intensity statin therapy. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 18,924 patients who had an acute coronary syndrome 1 to 12 months earlier, had a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level of at least 70 mg per deciliter (1.8 mmol per liter), a non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of at least 100 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter), or an apolipoprotein B level of at least 80 mg per deciliter, and were receiving statin therapy at a high-intensity dose or at the maximum tolerated dose. Patients were randomly assigned to receive alirocumab subcutaneously at a dose of 75 mg (9462 patients) or matching placebo (9462 patients) every 2 weeks. The dose of alirocumab was adjusted under blinded conditions to target an LDL cholesterol level of 25 to 50 mg per deciliter (0.6 to 1.3 mmol per liter). The primary end point was a composite of death from coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal or nonfatal ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. RESULTS: The median duration of follow-up was 2.8 years. A composite primary end-point event occurred in 903 patients (9.5%) in the alirocumab group and in 1052 patients (11.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 0.93; P<0.001). A total of 334 patients (3.5%) in the alirocumab group and 392 patients (4.1%) in the placebo group died (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.98). The absolute benefit of alirocumab with respect to the composite primary end point was greater among patients who had a baseline LDL cholesterol level of 100 mg or more per deciliter than among patients who had a lower baseline level. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups, with the exception of local injection-site reactions (3.8% in the alirocumab group vs. 2.1% in the placebo group). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients who had a previous acute coronary syndrome and who were receiving high-intensity statin therapy, the risk of recurrent ischemic cardiovascular events was lower among those who received alirocumab than among those who received placebo. (Funded by Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals; ODYSSEY OUTCOMES ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01663402 .).

8.
Eur Heart J ; 39(5): 374-381, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186504

RESUMO

Aims: Despite patient reports of neurocognitive disorders with lipid-lowering treatments (LLTs), large clinical trials have found no significant association between neurocognitive disorders and LLTs. We assessed incidence of neurocognitive treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) from 14 Phase 2 and 3 trials of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor alirocumab. Methods and results: Patients (most on background maximally tolerated statin) received alirocumab 75/150 mg every 2 weeks (n = 3340; 4029 patient-years of exposure), placebo (n = 1276), or ezetimibe (n = 618). Data were pooled by the control used. Neurocognitive TEAEs were reported by 22 (0.9%) alirocumab-treated patients vs. 9 (0.7%) with placebo in placebo-controlled trials [hazard ratio (HR) 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57-2.68] and 10 (1.2%) with alirocumab vs. 8 (1.3%) with ezetimibe in ezetimibe-controlled trials (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.32-2.08). Rates of neurocognitive TEAEs were similar in patients receiving alirocumab with LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels <25 mg/dL (<0.65 mmol/L; n = 5/839; 0.6%; 0.5/100 patient-years) vs. ≥25 mg/dL (n = 26/2501; 1.0%; 0.8/100 patient-years). One patient (0.1%; ezetimibe-controlled pool) receiving alirocumab had a neurocognitive TEAE leading to discontinuation vs. two (0.2%) patients receiving placebo and three (0.4%) patients receiving ezetimibe. Neurocognitive TEAE incidence was also similar between alirocumab and controls when stratified by age. Conclusions: Neurocognitive TEAE incidences were low (≤1.2%), with no significant differences between alirocumab vs. controls up to 104 weeks. No association was found between neurocognitive TEAEs and LDL-C <25 mg/dL based on the completed Phase 2 and 3 trials examined, although long-term effects of very low LDL-C levels induced by PCSK9 inhibitors are currently unknown.

9.
Am Heart J ; 168(5): 682-9, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25440796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the risk for future cardiovascular events is high and is related to levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) even within the setting of intensive statin treatment. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulates LDL receptor expression and circulating levels of LDL-C. Antibodies to PCSK9 can produce substantial and sustained reductions of LDL-C. The ODYSSEY Outcomes trial tests the hypothesis that treatment with alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody to PCSK9, improves cardiovascular outcomes after ACS. DESIGN: This Phase 3 study will randomize approximately 18,000 patients to receive biweekly injections of alirocumab (75-150 mg) or matching placebo beginning 1 to 12 months after an index hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina. Qualifying patients are treated with atorvastatin 40 or 80 mg daily, rosuvastatin 20 or 40 mg daily, or the maximum tolerated and approved dose of one of these agents and fulfill one of the following criteria: LDL-C ≥ 70 mg/dL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥ 100 mg/dL, or apolipoprotein B ≥ 80 mg/dL. The primary efficacy measure is time to first occurrence of coronary heart disease death, acute myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, or ischemic stroke. The trial is expected to continue until 1613 primary end point events have occurred with minimum follow-up of at least 2 years, providing 90% power to detect a 15% hazard reduction. Adverse events of special interest include allergic events and injection site reactions. Interim analyses are planned when approximately 50% and 75% of the targeted number of primary end points have occurred. SUMMARY: ODYSSEY Outcomes will determine whether the addition of the PCSK9 antibody alirocumab to intensive statin therapy reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality after ACS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Angina Instável/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Pró-Proteína Convertases/antagonistas & inibidores , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Atorvastatina , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fluorbenzenos/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Heptanoicos/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9 , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Rosuvastatina Cálcica , Serina Endopeptidases , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
JAMA ; 310(11): 1145-55, 2013 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23995608

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: The optimal anticoagulant for patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) managed with an invasive strategy remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of otamixaban, a novel intravenous direct factor Xa inhibitor, with that of unfractionated heparin plus downstream eptifibatide in patients with NSTE-ACS undergoing a planned early invasive strategy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized, double-blind, active-controlled superiority trial that enrolled 13,229 patients with NSTE-ACS and a planned early invasive strategy, at 568 active sites in 55 countries and conducted between April 2010 and February 2013. A planned interim analysis was conducted for otamixaban dose selection. INTERVENTIONS: Eligible participants were randomized to otamixaban (bolus and infusion, at 1 of 2 doses) or unfractionated heparin plus, at the time of percutaneous coronary intervention, eptifibatide. The otamixaban dose selected at interim analysis was an intravenous bolus of 0.080 mg/kg followed by an infusion of 0.140 mg/kg per hour. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary efficacy outcome was the composite of all-cause death or new myocardial infarction through day 7. RESULTS: Rates of the primary efficacy outcome were 5.5% (279 of 5105 patients) randomized to receive otamixaban and 5.7% (310 of 5466 patients) randomized to receive unfractionated heparin plus eptifibatide (adjusted relative risk, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.85-1.16]; P = .93). There were no differences for the secondary end points, including procedural thrombotic complications. The primary safety outcome of Thrombosis in Myocardial Infarction major or minor bleeding through day 7 was increased by otamixaban (3.1% vs 1.5%; relative risk, 2.13 [95% CI, 1.63-2.78]; P < .001). Results were consistent across prespecified subgroups. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Otamixaban did not reduce the rate of ischemic events relative to unfractionated heparin plus eptifibatide but did increase bleeding. These findings do not support the use of otamixaban for patients with NSTE-ACS undergoing planned early percutaneous coronary intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01076764.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Causas de Morte , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Eptifibatida , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIIb-IIIa de Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Am Heart J ; 164(6): 817-24.e13, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23194481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Otamixaban is a synthetic intravenous direct factor Xa inhibitor, with rapid onset/offset, linear kinetics, and no significant renal elimination. A phase II trial in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) showed a marked reduction in the combined end point of death or myocardial infarction (MI) and similar bleeding rates with otamixaban at midrange doses, compared with unfractionated heparin (UFH) and eptifibatide. DESIGN: The TAO trial is a phase III, randomized, double-blind, triple-dummy controlled trial testing the efficacy of otamixaban over UFH plus eptifibatide in patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS to be treated with dual oral antiplatelet therapy and an invasive strategy. Approximately 13,220 patients in 55 countries will be randomized (1:1:1 ratio) to receive UFH plus downstream eptifibatide (started pre-percutaneous coronary intervention and continued per label) or otamixaban (0.08 mg/kg intravenous bolus at randomization then 0.100 or 0.140 mg/kg per hour intravenous infusion). An interim analysis was performed after ≥1,969 patients per arm completed 7 days of follow-up and the Data Monitoring Committee selected 1 otamixaban dose (blinded to investigators) to be carried forward using a prespecified algorithm. The primary efficacy outcome is the composite of all-cause mortality or new MI through day 7. The primary safety outcome is thrombolysis in MI major or minor bleeding through day 7. Secondary outcomes include all-cause mortality, recurrent ischemia/infarction resulting in prolonged/recurrent hospitalization, periprocedural angiographic complications, and pharmacokinetic data in 6,000 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The TAO trial will assess the clinical efficacy and safety of otamixaban in non-ST-segment elevation ACS with planned invasive strategy.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Eptifibatida , Hemorragia/etiologia , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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