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1.
Scand J Urol ; 53(6): 392-397, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830847

RESUMO

Background: To investigate the incidence, timing, and risk factors of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) following radical cystectomy and urinary diversion in a large cohort of patients.Patients and Methods: The electronic data base of patients underwent radical cystectomy and urinary diversion in a tertiary referral center between January 2004 and February 2014 was retrospectively reviewed. Patients developed VTE namely deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) within 90 days after surgery were identified and compared to those without VTE. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the predictors of the VTE.Results: Out of 1737 patients, 77 VTE have occurred in 70 (4%) patients. DVT and PE occurred in 34 (2%) and 43 (2.5%) patients, respectively. PE was the leading cause of mortality in 17 patients. The median (range) time for VTE was 11 days (1-92) with 39 (50.6%) events developed after the stoppage of thrombo-prophylaxis. On multivariate analysis, older age ≥60 years (OR = 1.9; p = 0.009), female gender (OR = 1.9; p = 0.02), morbid obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2) (OR = 2.4; p = 0.008) and preoperative platelet count (≥300.000/cc) (OR = 1.6; p = 0.045) were significant predictors for developing VTE.Conclusion: The overall incidence of VTE is 4% with more than half of events occurred after the stoppage of thromboprophylaxis highlighting the necessity of adopting an extended protocol. Independent predictors included older age, female gender, morbid obesity and preoperative thrombocytosis. These group of patients require particular attention for the prevention of this complication.

2.
Arab J Urol ; 17(2): 150-159, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285928

RESUMO

Objectives: To design a new canine model to assess the renoprotective effect of local sildenafil administration, as the renoprotective effect of systemic sildenafil administration in renal ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in animal models has been shown but its local effects have not been established to date. Materials and methods: In all, 120 dogs were assigned to five groups: sham, oral control (OC) group (right nephrectomy + left renal ischaemia for 60 min), oral sildenafil (OS) group (oral sildenafil 1 mg/kg, 60 min before ischaemia), local control (LC) group (local renal perfusion with saline and heparin for 5 min) and local sildenafil (LS) group (perfusion with sildenafil 0.5 mg/kg). Renal functions, histopathological changes, expression of caspase-3, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), inflammatory cytokines (intracellular adhesion molecule 1, tumour necrosis factor α and interleukin 1ß) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in renal tissues were assessed in all groups at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days. Results: There were significant improvements in renal functions and cortical and medullary damage scores in the sildenafil-treated groups compared to their control groups (P < 0.05). Also, the LS group showed significantly better improvement of renal functions and cortical and medullary damage scores than the OS group (P < 0.05). Moreover, sildenafil significantly decreased the expression of caspase-3 and inflammatory cytokines and increased the expression of Nrf2 and eNOS in renal tissue, which were statistically significant in the LS group. Conclusion: LS has a greater renoprotective effect against renal IR injury than systemic administration via anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic pathways. Abbreviations: BUN: blood urea nitrogen; Ct: cycle threshold; eNOS: endothelial nitric oxide synthase; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; H&E: haematoxylin and eosin; IL-1ß: interleukin 1ß; NO: nitric oxide; Nrf2: nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2; OC: oral control; OS: oral sildenafil; LC: local control; LS: local sildenafil.

3.
Urol Oncol ; 37(7): 478-484, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910351

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Checkpoint inhibitors are approved for the treatment of urothelial bladder cancer. However, there have been no reports on the prognostic value of programmed-death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder. We assessed the relationship between PD-L1 expression, clinicopathological features, and oncologic outcomes in bladder SCC. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Immunohistochemistry of PD-L1 was performed on 151 radical cystectomy specimens with pure SCC treated in Mansoura, Egypt from 1997 to 2004. RESULTS: Median patient age was 52 years (range: 36-74 years) and median length of follow up was 63 months (range: 1-100 months). Schistosomiasis was present in 81% of the specimens and 93% had muscle-invasive disease on pathologic staging. PD-L1 expression was negative in 50 (33%) of the specimens. Negative PD-L1 expression was associated with higher pathologic tumor stage (P = 0.04), higher grade lesions (P = 0.01), and the presence of lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.01). Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that negative PD-L1 expression is associated with worse recurrence-free (P = 0.01) and worse cancer-specific survival (P = 0.01). Multivariable Cox regression analyses showed negative PD-L1 expression was an independent predictor of disease recurrence (hazards ratio 2.05, 95% confidence interval 1.06-3.96, P = 0.03) and cancer-specific mortality (hazards ratio 2.89, 95% confidence interval 1.22-6.82, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Negative PD-L1 expression is associated with higher pathologic tumor stage, higher grade lesions, presence of lymphovascular invasion, and worse oncologic outcomes after radical cystectomy for SCC. These findings support the need for the inclusion of patients with bladder SCC into immunotherapy clinical trials.

4.
BMC Urol ; 18(1): 100, 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression is believed to be associated with bladder cancer (BC) progression and poor clinical outcomes. In vivo studies have linked EGFR subcellular trafficking and chemo-resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapies. This has not been studied in the clinical adjuvant setting. We aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of EGFR expression in patients receiving cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy following radical cystectomy for advanced BC. METHODS: The database from the Urology and Nephrology Center at Mansoura University was reviewed. BC patients who were treated with radical cystectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy for adverse pathological features or node positive disease were identified. Patients who underwent palliative cystectomy, had histological diagnoses other than pure urothelial carcinoma, or received adjuvant radiotherapy were excluded from the study. Immunohistochemical staining for EGFR expression was performed on archived bladder specimens. The following in vitro functional analyses were performed to study the relationship of EGFR expression and chemoresponse. RESULTS: The study included 58 patients, among which the mean age was 57 years old. Majority of patients had node positive disease (n = 53, 91%). Mean follow up was 26.61 months. EGFR was overexpressed in 25 cystectomy specimens (43%). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that EGFR over-expression significantly correlated with disease recurrence (p = 0.021). Cox proportional hazard modeling identified EGFR overexpression as an independent predictor for disease recurrence (p = 0.04). Furthermore, in vitro experiments demonstrated that inhibition of EGFR may sensitize cellular responses to cisplatin. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that EGFR overexpression is associated with disease recurrence following adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced BC. This may aid in patient prognostication and selection prior to chemotherapeutic treatment for BC.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/biossíntese , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Musculares/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/genética , Receptores ErbB/biossíntese , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Musculares/tratamento farmacológico , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
5.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 50(11): 2007-2014, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30232721

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the role of low-intensity extra corporeal shock wave therapy (LI-ESWT) in penile rehabilitation (PR) post nerve-sparing radical cystoprostatectomy (NS-RCP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 152 sexually active men with muscle invasive bladder cancer. After bilateral NS-RCP with orthotopic diversion by a single expert surgeon between June 2014 and July 2016, 128 patients were available categorized into three groups: LI-ESWT group (42 patients), phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors (PDE5i) group (43 patients), and control group (43 patients). RESULTS: Mean age was 53.2 ± 6.5 years. Mean ± SD follow-up period was 21 ± 8 months. During first follow-up FU1, all patients of the three groups had insufficient erection for vaginal penetration; with decrease of preoperative IIEF-EF mean score from 27.9 to 6.9. Potency recovery rates at 9 months were 76.2%, 79.1%, and 60.5% in LI-ESWT, PDE5i, and control groups, respectively. There was statistically significant increase in IIEF-EF and EHS scores during all follow-up periods in all the study groups (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the three groups during all follow-up periods. Statistical evaluation showed no significant difference in continence and oncological outcomes during all follow-up points among the three groups (p = 0.55 and 0.07, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: During last follow-up, 16% more patients in LI-ESWT group had recovery of potency as compared to the control group. Although the difference is not statistically significant, but of clinical importance. LI-ESWT is safe as oral PDE5i in penile rehabilitation post nerve-sparing radical cystoprostatectomy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/cirurgia , Cistectomia/reabilitação , Disfunção Erétil/reabilitação , Tratamento por Ondas de Choque Extracorpóreas/métodos , Prostatectomia/reabilitação , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Adulto , Carcinoma/patologia , Cistectomia/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(4): 726-733, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-954086

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after major surgeries is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We aim to report incidence, predictors and associated comorbidities of AKI after radical cystectomy in a large cohort of patients. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 1000 patients who underwent open radical cystectomy in a tertiary referral center. Perioperative serum creatinine measurements were used to define AKI according to the RIFLE criteria (as Risk, Injury and Failure). The predictors of AKI after surgery were determined using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Out of 988 evaluable patients, AKI developed in 46 (4.7%). According to RIFLE criteria; AKI-Risk, AKI-Injury and AKI-Failure occurred in 26 (2.6%), 9 (0.9%) and 11 (1.1%) patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that performing nephroureterectomy with cystectomy (Odds ratio [OR]: 4.3; 95% Confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-13.6; p=0.01) and the development of high grade complications (OR: 3.8; 95% CI 1.9-7.2; p<0.0001) were independently associated with AKI. Conclusions: AKI is a significant morbidity after radical cystectomy and the term should be included during routine cystectomy morbidity assessment.

7.
World J Urol ; 36(11): 1845-1852, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29736609

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of three chemoprophylaxis approaches in prevention of post-transrectal biopsy infectious complications (TBICs). METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive ciprofloxacin 3 days 500 mg B.I.D 3 days starting the night prior to biopsy (standard prophylaxis), augmented prophylaxis using ciprofloxacin and single preprocedure shot of 160 mg gentamicin IM (augmented prophylaxis) and rectal swab culture-based prophylaxis (targeted prophylaxis). Patients were assessed 2 weeks prior to biopsy, at biopsy and 2 weeks after. Primary end point was occurrence of post-TBICs that included simple UTI, febrile UTI or sepsis. Secondary end points were post-biopsy change in the inflammatory markers (TLC, ESR and CRP), unplanned visits, hospitalization and occurrence of fluoroquinolones resistance (FQ-R; bacterial growth on MacConkey agar plate with 10 µg/ml ciprofloxacin) in the fecal carriage of screened men. RESULTS: Between April/2015 and January/2017, standard, augmented and targeted prophylaxes were given to 163, 166 and 167 patients, respectively. Post-TBICs were reported in 43 (26%), 13 (7.8%) and 34 (20.3%) patients following standard, augmented and targeted prophylaxes protocols, respectively (P = 0.000). Post-TBICs included UTI in 23 (4.6%), febrile UTI in 41 (8.2%) and sepsis in 26 (5.2%) patients. Significantly lower number of post-biopsy positive urine culture was depicted in the augmented group (P = 0.000). The number of biopsy cores was statistically different in the three groups (P = 0.004). On multivariate analysis, augmented prophylaxis had independently lower post-TBICs (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.4, P = 0.000) when compared with the other two groups regardless of the number of biopsy cores taken (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.95-1.17, P = 0.229). Post-biopsy hospitalization was needed in four (2%), one (0.6%) and ten (6%) patients following standard, augmented and targeted prophylaxes, respectively (P = 0.014). However, sepsis-related hospitalization was not statistically different. Post-biopsy changes in the inflammatory markers were significantly less in augmented prophylaxis (P < 0.05). FQ-R was depicted in 139 (83.2%) of the screened men. CONCLUSION: Augmented prophylaxis with single-dose gentamicin is an effective and practical approach. Targeted prophylaxis might be reserved for cases with contraindication to gentamicin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/métodos , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Gentamicinas/uso terapêutico , Próstata/patologia , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura , Febre/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Prostatite/diagnóstico , Prostatite/patologia , Reto/microbiologia , Sepse/epidemiologia , Cateterismo Urinário/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
8.
Int Braz J Urol ; 44(4): 726-733, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757568

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after major surgeries is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We aim to report incidence, predictors and associated comorbidities of AKI after radical cystectomy in a large cohort of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 1000 patients who underwent open radical cystectomy in a tertiary referral center. Perioperative serum creatinine measurements were used to define AKI according to the RIFLE criteria (as Risk, Injury and Failure). The predictors of AKI after surgery were determined using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Out of 988 evaluable patients, AKI developed in 46 (4.7%). According to RIFLE criteria; AKI-Risk, AKI-Injury and AKI-Failure occurred in 26 (2.6%), 9 (0.9%) and 11 (1.1%) patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that performing nephroureterectomy with cystectomy (Odds ratio [OR]: 4.3; 95% Confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-13.6; p=0.01) and the development of high grade complications (OR: 3.8; 95% CI 1.9-7.2; p<0.0001) were independently associated with AKI. CONCLUSIONS: AKI is a significant morbidity after radical cystectomy and the term should be included during routine cystectomy morbidity assessment.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Cistectomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Derivação Urinária/efeitos adversos , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
World J Urol ; 36(11): 1835-1843, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29761225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in pathological features and prognostics across four bladder cancer histopathological types: urothelial carcinoma (UC), urothelial carcinoma with variant histology (UCV), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC), utilizing a large cohort of radical cystectomy (RC) patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent RC at a single institution in Egypt between 1997 and 2004 was performed. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic significance of pathological features including tumor stage, grade, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and lymph node (LN) involvement in the different subtypes on disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: 1238 patients (975 male, 263 female) were included, of whom 577 (47%) had UC, 174 (14%) UCV, 398 (32%) SCC, and 89 (7%) ADC. Median age was 54 (20-87) years and median follow-up was 40 months (0-110). There were significant differences in stage, grade, LVI, LN involvement, and presence of schistosomiasis across the subtypes (all p < 0.05). The prognostic significance of LVI was more evident in SCC (HR 2.14, p = 0.003) and ADC (HR 2.17, p = 0.044) than in UC (HR 1.66, p = 0.008). LN involvement was the strongest prognostic factor in UCV (HR 2.14, p = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: There are significant differences in clinicopathological features and their prognostic impact across bladder cancer subtypes. The prognostic significance of LVI is more evident in SCC and ADC, while LN involvement is more prognostic in UCV. Determining independent predictors in individual subtypes can guide multimodal treatment selection and clinical trial design.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/cirurgia , Cistectomia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Scand J Urol ; 52(1): 76-80, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of antimicrobial [silver sulfadiazine (SSD)]-coated ureteral stents with non-coated stents in the prevention of stent-related bacteriuria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted between September 2014 and September 2016 after approval from the local ethics committee. Inclusion criteria were adults who underwent unilateral double-J ureteral stent placement after ureteroscopic lithotripsy. All patients underwent placement of the same stent type (Carbothan® with hydrophilic surface) and dimensions (6 F, 26 cm). In the test group, stents were coated with SSD. Patients who used antibiotics during the stenting period or underwent stent removal elsewhere were excluded from the study. Urine and stent cultures were obtained on the day of stent removal. All patients answered the Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ). RESULTS: The study included 126 patients. The mean ± SD stent duration was 3.1 ± 1.2 weeks. There were no significant differences between groups in the incidence of bacteriuria and USSQ scores. However, two stents (3.2%) in the SSD group had significant bacterial growth, compared to eight stents (12.5%) in the control group (p = 0.054). The incidence of newly diagnosed bacteriuria was higher in the control group (11%) than the antimicrobial group (6.5%), but the difference was not significant (p = 0.372). CONCLUSIONS: This study could not justify the use of antimicrobial (SSD)-coated stents for short stenting periods. The trend towards decreasing stent colonization in the antimicrobial group was not translated to a significantly lower incidence of stent-related bacteriuria or improvement in patients' quality of life.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Sulfadiazina de Prata/administração & dosagem , Stents/efeitos adversos , Ureter/cirurgia , Adulto , Bacteriúria/epidemiologia , Bacteriúria/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Litotripsia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Stents/microbiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ureter/microbiologia , Ureteroscopia/efeitos adversos , Urina/microbiologia
11.
Int J Urol ; 23(10): 861-865, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27545102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare treatment-related outcomes of ureteral stenting with an external versus double J stent in patients with orthotopic reservoirs after radical cystectomy. METHODS: Patients undergoing radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder were randomized into two groups; group I patients received external stents, whereas group II received double J stents. In both groups, preoperative parameters were recorded, and patients were assessed regarding urinary tract infection, urinary leakage, upper tract deterioration, readmission and hospital stay. RESULTS: A total of 48 and 45 patients were randomized in the external stent group and double J group, respectively. Both groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, associated comorbidity and oncological status. Early urinary leak was observed in two patients (4.2%) in the external stent group, and in two patients (4.4%) in the double J group (P = 0.95). None of our patients developed ureteral strictures in the external stent group, and one patient did in the double J group (P = 0.3). Positive urine culture (58.3%, 51.1%) as well as febrile urinary tract infections (2.1%, 6.7%) were comparable between both groups, respectively (P = 0.43, 0.28). Wound complications (12.5%, 8.9%) and stent-related complications (2.1%, 0%) were comparable between both groups, respectively (P = 0.57, 0.33). The mean hospital stay was 17.5 days (range 14-32 days) and 14.6 days (range 10-42 days) in both groups, respectively (P = 0.001), with comparable re-admission rates (P = 0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Incorporation of double J stents in orthotopic urinary diversion is a safe alternative to the routinely used external stenting.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Stents , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Drenagem , Humanos
12.
Urol Oncol ; 34(9): 417.e1-8, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27157247

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) with oncologic outcomes of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary bladder following radical cystectomy (RC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 1,280 patients who underwent RC for invasive bladder cancer between 1997 and 2003 in Mansoura, Egypt. Only patients with pure urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) or SCC pathology were included. Using multivariate Cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meier analyses, prognostic significance of LVI in disease-free survival and cancer-specific survival was evaluated for patients with UCB and SCC. RESULTS: Our cohort included 519 (59%) patients with UCB and 360 (41%) with SCC. Median patient age and follow-up were 55 years (20-87) and 64 months (0-128), respectively. Median number of lymph nodes (LN) retrieved was 19 (4-70). LVI was present in 288 (32.8%) patients (241 [46.4%] UCB vs. 47 [13.1%] SCC; P<0.001). LVI was an independent predictor of oncologic outcomes in both UCB and SCC groups; however, LVI had more prognostic significance in SCC. LN negative, LVI positive (LVI+/LN-) patients with SCC had higher risk of recurrence and cancer-specific mortality compared to LN positive, LVI negative (LVI-/LN+) patients with SCC (hazard ratio = 2.8 vs. 1.9 and hazard ratio = 3.6 vs. 2.2, respectively). CONCLUSION: The presence of LVI is an independent predictor of poor oncologic outcomes after RC and had greater prognostic significance in patients with SCC compared to UCB.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Cistectomia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
World J Urol ; 34(7): 963-8, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26453222

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of tamsulosin and solifenacin in relieving ureteral stents related symptoms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted between January 2013 and July 2014. Inclusion criteria were patients aged 20-50 years who underwent temporary unilateral ureteral stent for drainage of calcular upper tract obstruction or after ureteroscopic lithotripsy. Patients with history of lower urinary tract symptoms before stent placement, stents that were fixed after open or laparoscopic procedures, and those who developed complications related to the primary procedure were not included. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups using computer-generated random tables. Patients in group 1 received placebo, patients in group 2 received tamsulosin 0.4 mg once daily, and those in group 3 received solifenacin 5 mg once daily. Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ) was answered by all patients 1-2 weeks after stent placement. The primary outcome was the comparison of total score of USSQ between all groups. RESULTS: The study included 131 patients. All baseline characteristics (age, sex, side, indication, length, and duration of stent) were comparable for all groups. Total USSQ score was 61 in solifenacin group, 76 in tamsulosin group, and 83 in control group (P < 0.001). The total USSQ scores and all domains, except sexual index, were significantly better in solifenacin than in tamsulosin group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The use of tamsulosin alone or solifenacin alone in patients with ureteral stents can improve the quality of life by decreasing ureteral stent-related symptoms. Solifenacin was better than tamsulosin. CLINICALTRIAL. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01880619.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos alfa/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Succinato de Solifenacina/uso terapêutico , Stents/efeitos adversos , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Doenças Ureterais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Ureterais/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tansulosina
14.
Arab J Urol ; 13(4): 277-81, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26609447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify patient and stricture characteristics predicting failure after direct vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU) for single and short (<2 cm) bulbar urethral strictures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the records of adult patients who underwent DVIU between January 2002 and 2013. The patients' demographics and stricture characteristics were analysed. The primary outcome was procedure failure, defined as the need for regular self-dilatation (RSD), redo DVIU or substitution urethroplasty. Predictors of failure were analysed. RESULTS: In all, 430 adult patients with a mean (SD) age of 50 (15) years were included. The main causes of stricture were idiopathic followed by iatrogenic in 51.6% and 26.3% of patients, respectively. Most patients presented with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms (68.9%) and strictures were proximal bulbar, i.e. just close to the external urethral sphincter, in 35.3%. The median (range) follow-up duration was 29 (3-132) months. In all, 250 (58.1%) patients did not require any further instrumentation, while RSD was maintained in 116 (27%) patients, including 28 (6.5%) who required a redo DVIU or urethroplasty. In 64 (6.5%) patients, a redo DVIU or urethroplasty was performed. On multivariate analysis, older age at presentation [odds ratio (OR) 1.017; P = 0.03], obesity (OR 1.664; P = 0.015), and idiopathic strictures (OR 3.107; P = 0.035) were independent predictors of failure after DVIU. CONCLUSION: The failure rate after DVIU accounted for 41.8% of our present cohort with older age at presentation, obesity, and idiopathic strictures independent predictors of failure after DVIU. This information is important in counselling patients before surgery.

15.
Urol Oncol ; 33(3): 111.e1-7, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25477183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the association of fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) expression with pathologic features and clinical outcomes of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary bladder. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry of FGF2 was performed on radical cystectomy specimens with pure SCC from 1997 to 2003. The relationship between FGF2 and pathologic parameters and oncological outcome was assessed. RESULTS: The study included 151 patients with SCC (98 men) with a median age of 52 years (range: 36-74 y). Schistosomal infection was found in 81% of patients. Pathologic category was T2 and T3 in 88% of patients and the grade was low in>50%. Lymph node invasion and lymphovascular invasion were found in 30.5% and 16%. Altered FGF2 was associated with tumor grade (P = 0.014), lymph node invasion, and lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.042). Altered FGF2 was associated with both disease recurrence and cancer-specific mortality (P≤0.001) in Kaplan-Meier analyses and was an independent predictor of cancer recurrence (hazard ratio = 2.561, P = 0. 009) and cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio = 2.679, P = 0. 033) in multivariate Cox regression analyses. Adding FGF2 to a model including standard clinicopathologic prognostics (pathologic T category, lymph node status, and grade) showed a significant improvement (6%) in accuracy of prediction poor oncological outcome. CONCLUSIONS: FGF2 overexpression is associated with aggressive pathologic features and worse outcomes after radical cystectomy for SCC, suggesting a good prognostic and possible therapeutic role.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Cistectomia , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia
16.
BJU Int ; 115(1): 94-100, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24905239

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence, risk factors and causes of hospital readmission in a large series of patients who underwent radical cystectomy (RC) and urinary diversion. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the data of 1000 patients who underwent RC and urinary diversion between January 2004 and September 2009 in our tertiary referral centre. Patients stayed in hospital for 21 and 11 days for orthotopic and ileal conduit diversions, respectively. The primary outcome was the development of a complication requiring hospital readmission at ≤3 months (early) and >3 months (late). Causes of hospital readmissions were categorised according to frequency of readmissions. Predictors were determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: In all, 895 patients were analysed excluding 105 patients because of perioperative mortality and loss to follow-up. Early and late readmissions occurred in 8.6% and 11% patients, respectively. The commonest causes of first readmission were upper urinary tract obstruction (UUO, 13%) and pyelonephritis (12.4%) followed by intestinal obstruction (11.9%) and metabolic acidosis (11.3%). The development of postoperative high-grade complications (odds ratio [OR] 1.955; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.254-3.046; P = 0.003) and orthotopic bladder substitution (OR 1.585; 95% CI 1.095-2.295; P = 0.015) were independent predictors for overall hospital readmission after RC. Postoperative high-grade complications (OR 2.488; 95% CI 1.391-4.450; P = 0.002), orthotopic bladder substitution (OR 2.492; 95% CI 1.423-4.364; P = 0.001) and prolonged hospital stay (OR 1.964; 95% CI:1.166-3.308; P = 0.011) were independent predictors for early readmission while hypertension (OR 1.670; 95% CI 1.007-2.769; P = 0.047) was an independent predictor for late readmission. CONCLUSION: Hospital readmissions are a significant problem after RC. In the present study, UUO, pyelonephritis, metabolic acidosis and intestinal obstruction were the main causes of readmission. Orthotopic bladder substitution and development of postoperative high-grade complications were significant predictors for overall readmission.


Assuntos
Cistectomia/efeitos adversos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Derivação Urinária/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia
17.
J Urol ; 193(2): 451-6, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25200806

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the association of multiple biomarkers with clinical outcomes in patients treated with radical cystectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder to identify the best prognostic panel of markers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for 14 biomarkers was performed on tissue microarray sections of 151 radical cystectomy specimens showing squamous cell carcinoma. Biomarker alterations, pathological features and oncologic outcomes were evaluated. The panel of biomarkers that best predicted the oncologic outcome was determined. Outcomes were stratified based on a prognostic score according to the number of altered biomarkers. The accuracy of oncologic outcome prediction was evaluated by ROC curves. RESULTS: The study included 151 patients. Pathological stage was T2 in 50%, T3 in 38%, T1 in 6% and T4 in 6% of patients. Median followup was 63.2 months. The best prognostic panel of markers included COX-2, FGF-2, p53, Bax and EGFR. On multivariate Cox regression analysis a prognostic score based on marker alterations was an independent predictor of intermediate and high risk of disease recurrence (HR 3.2, p = 0.008 and HR 15.5, p ≤ 0.001) and bladder cancer specific mortality (HR 5.2, p = 0.009 and HR 19.4, p ≤ 0.001, respectively). A multivariate prognostic model incorporating the prognostic score demonstrated significantly better performance to predict the outcome compared to clinicopathological parameters only (0.78 vs 0.64). CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers have significant potential to predict the outcome of radical cystectomy for squamous cell carcinoma. An increased number of altered markers may identify patients at high risk who might benefit from multimodal treatment approaches.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/química , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Cistectomia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/química , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Cistectomia/métodos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
BJU Int ; 114(4): 484-95, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24447517

RESUMO

Renal function (RFn) after orthotopic bladder substitution (OBS) is a critical point to be assessed. We performed a systematic review of MEDLINE for full length peer reviewed English articles from the year 2000 till January 2013. We included only original articles and excluded reviews, editorials and replies and abstracts presented in conferences. The outcome is formulated in research questions; what is the status of RFn after OBS? Which is better, the direct free-refluxing or anti-refluxing ureteroileal anastomosis (UIA) techniques? Studies reporting RFn as secondary outcome were also reported. A total of 129 publications were reviewed for full text and only 41 were included in this review. All studies were of low level of evidence and grade of recommendations. Only 3 randomized controlled trials were included and were of poor quality. Renal function after OBS was poorly described in the literature with no universal definition about RFn deterioration or outcome with no consensus on the best evaluation method. Urinary obstruction, chemotherapy and pyelonephritis appeared significant factors but with insufficient evidence. There is a universal trend to use the free refluxing technique for UIA to avoid complications of anti-refluxing techniques. However, the anti-reflux technique proved acceptable outcome in experienced hands. There is marked heterogeneity and underestimation of RFn evaluation among reported outcomes after OBS with most publications reporting the incidence of UIA and pyelonephritis with paucity reporting absolute figures about RFn measurements. In conclusion, urinary tract obstruction remains the main factor of RFn deterioration after OBS. Methods evaluating RFn, definitions of RFn outcome and factors predicting it are poorly studied in the literature and the current evidence is relatively weak to draw solid conclusions. Further well-designed studies and consensus about method of assessment and definitions of RFn are warranted.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária , Coletores de Urina , Adulto , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia
19.
BJU Int ; 114(2): 202-9, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24128168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term effects of the direct refluxing-type ureteroileal anastomosis technique with those of an antireflux technique on individual renal units, using diuretic scintigraphy in a prospectively randomized study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2002 and 2006, a prospective randomized study was conducted on 102 patients undergoing radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. In every patient, both ureters were randomized to be implanted using a direct refluxing technique or an antireflux, serous-lined extramural tunnel (SLET) technique. Renal function (RF) was evaluated using (99m)Tc-MAG-3 diuretic scintigraphy. The serial changes in corrected glomerular filtration rate (cGFR) for each technique and for each side were compared. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 6 years, the patients in both the direct refluxing and the SLET technique groups were found to have a significant reduction in mean (SD) cGFR between baseline and last follow-up: cGFR decreased from 59.4 (12.4) to 45.6 (15.3) mL/min (P < 0.001) and from 54.3 (11.2) to 46.3 (12.8) mL/min (P = 0.002), respectively. Five patients (4.9%) in the SLET group developed obstruction (four left-sided and one right-sided) compared with one (0.9%) in the direct refluxing group (right-sided). The onset of obstruction was noted 1-7 months after radical cystectomy. There was no significant difference between the groups in reductions in cGFR across the timepoints. Comparison of the two techniques according to the side of ureter implantation showed that the direct refluxing technique trended towards better functional outcomes on the left side. CONCLUSIONS: There was no observed difference in the RF of individual renal units between the SLET and the direct refluxing groups in the long term. The need to incorporate an antireflux technique should be questioned and tailored according to the surgeon's experience and confidence.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Diuréticos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária/métodos , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Íleo/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Cintilografia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureter/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Derivação Urinária/efeitos adversos , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/etiologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/prevenção & controle
20.
Arab J Urol ; 12(4): 290-3, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26019964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To validate the Arabic version of the Ureteral Stent Symptoms Questionnaire (USSQ). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The English version of the USSQ was translated into Arabic using a multi-step process by three urologists and two independent translators. The Arabic version was validated by asking 37 patients with temporary unilateral ureteric stents to complete the questionnaire at 2 weeks after stent insertion. The second group included 53 healthy individuals who agreed to complete the Arabic version of the questionnaire. The reliability of the Arabic version was evaluated for internal consistency using Cronbach's α test. Domain structures were examined by interdomain (section) associations using Spearman's correlation coefficient (r). The discrimination validity was evaluated by comparing the scores of patients with those of healthy individuals, using the Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: Internal consistency was high for the sexual index and intermediate for urinary, pain and general health indices. There were good correlations of urinary symptoms with body pain (r = 0.596) and general health (r = 0.690). There was also a good correlation between body pain and general health (r = 0.681). For discrimination validity, there were significant changes in all domain scores when comparing patients with ureteric stents and healthy individuals (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The Arabic version of the USSQ is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to evaluate symptoms and health-related quality of life in Arabic patients with ureteric stents.

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