Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 28
Filtrar
1.
Cell ; 184(8): 2068-2083.e11, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861964

RESUMO

Understanding population health disparities is an essential component of equitable precision health efforts. Epidemiology research often relies on definitions of race and ethnicity, but these population labels may not adequately capture disease burdens and environmental factors impacting specific sub-populations. Here, we propose a framework for repurposing data from electronic health records (EHRs) in concert with genomic data to explore the demographic ties that can impact disease burdens. Using data from a diverse biobank in New York City, we identified 17 communities sharing recent genetic ancestry. We observed 1,177 health outcomes that were statistically associated with a specific group and demonstrated significant differences in the segregation of genetic variants contributing to Mendelian diseases. We also demonstrated that fine-scale population structure can impact the prediction of complex disease risk within groups. This work reinforces the utility of linking genomic data to EHRs and provides a framework toward fine-scale monitoring of population health.

3.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 17, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based genomic screening has the predicted ability to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with medically actionable conditions. However, much research is needed to develop standards for genomic screening and to understand the perspectives of people offered this new testing modality. This is particularly true for non-European ancestry populations who are vastly underrepresented in genomic medicine research. Therefore, we implemented a pilot genomic screening program in the BioMe Biobank in New York City, where the majority of participants are of non-European ancestry. METHODS: We initiated genomic screening for well-established genes associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC), Lynch syndrome (LS), and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). We evaluated and included an additional gene (TTR) associated with hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (hATTR), which has a common founder variant in African ancestry populations. We evaluated the characteristics of 74 participants who received results associated with these conditions. We also assessed the preferences of 7461 newly enrolled BioMe participants to receive genomic results. RESULTS: In the pilot genomic screening program, 74 consented participants received results related to HBOC (N = 26), LS (N = 6), FH (N = 8), and hATTR (N = 34). Thirty-three of 34 (97.1%) participants who received a result related to hATTR were self-reported African American/African (AA) or Hispanic/Latinx (HL), compared to 14 of 40 (35.0%) participants who received a result related to HBOC, LS, or FH. Among the 7461 participants enrolled after the BioMe protocol modification to allow the return of genomic results, 93.4% indicated that they would want to receive results. Younger participants, women, and HL participants were more likely to opt to receive results. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of TTR to a pilot genomic screening program meant that we returned results to a higher proportion of AA and HL participants, in comparison with genes traditionally included in genomic screening programs in the USA. We found that the majority of participants in a multi-ethnic biobank are interested in receiving genomic results for medically actionable conditions. These findings increase knowledge about the perspectives of diverse research participants on receiving genomic results and inform the broader implementation of genomic medicine in underrepresented patient populations.

4.
Gastroenterology ; 160(5): 1709-1724, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent literature has implicated a key role for mast cells in murine models of colonic inflammation, but their role in human ulcerative colitis (UC) is not well established. A major advance has been the identification of mrgprb2 (human orthologue, MRGPX2) as mediating IgE-independent mast cell activation. We sought to define mechanisms of mast cell activation and MRGPRX2 in human UC. METHODS: Colon tissues were collected from patients with UC for bulk RNA sequencing and lamina propria cells were isolated for MRGPRX2 activation studies and single-cell RNA sequencing. Genetic association of all protein-altering G-protein coupled receptor single-nucleotide polymorphism was performed in an Ashkenazi Jewish UC case-control cohort. Variants of MRGPRX2 were transfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human mast cell (HMC) 1.1 cells to detect genotype-dependent effects on ß-arrestin recruitment, IP-1 accumulation, and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase. RESULTS: Mast cell-specific mediators and adrenomedullin (proteolytic precursor of PAMP-12, an MRGPRX2 agonist) are up-regulated in inflamed compared to uninflamed UC. MRGPRX2 stimulation induces carboxypeptidase secretion from inflamed UC. Of all protein-altering GPCR alleles, a unique variant of MRGPRX2, Asn62Ser, was most associated with and was bioinformatically predicted to alter arrestin recruitment. We validated that the UC protective serine allele enhances ß-arrestin recruitment, decreases IP-1, and increases phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase with MRGPRX2 agonists. Single-cell RNA sequencing defines that adrenomedullin is expressed by activated fibroblasts and epithelial cells and that interferon gamma is a key upstream regulator of mast cell gene expression. CONCLUSION: Inflamed UC regions are distinguished by MRGPRX2-mediated activation of mast cells, with decreased activation observed with a UC-protective genetic variant. These results define cell modules of UC activation and a new therapeutic target.

5.
Gastroenterology ; 160(5): 1546-1557, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) may soon be used to predict inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) risk in prevention efforts. We leveraged exome-sequence and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data from 29,358 individuals in the multiethnic, randomly ascertained health system-based BioMe biobank to define effects of common and rare IBD variants on disease prediction and pathophysiology. METHODS: PRS were calculated from European, African American, and Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) reference case-control studies, and a meta-GWAS run using all three association datasets. PRS were then combined using regression to assess which combination of scores best predicted IBD status in European, AJ, Hispanic, and African American cohorts in BioMe. Additionally, rare variants were assessed in genes associated with very early-onset IBD (VEO-IBD), by estimating genetic penetrance in each BioMe population. RESULTS: Combining risk scores based on association data from distinct ancestral populations improved IBD prediction for every population in BioMe and significantly improved prediction among European ancestry UK Biobank individuals. Lower predictive power for non-Europeans was observed, reflecting in part substantially lower African IBD case-control reference sizes. We replicated associations for two VEO-IBD genes, ADAM17 and LRBA, with high dominant model penetrance in BioMe. Autosomal recessive LRBA risk alleles are associated with severe, early-onset autoimmunity; we show that heterozygous carriage of an African-predominant LRBA protein-altering allele is associated with significantly decreased LRBA and CTLA-4 expression with T-cell activation. CONCLUSIONS: Greater genetic diversity in African populations improves prediction across populations, and generalizes some VEO-IBD genes. Increasing African American IBD case-collections should be prioritized to reduce health disparities and enhance pathophysiological insight.

6.
Nature ; 586(7831): 763-768, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057201

RESUMO

Age is the dominant risk factor for most chronic human diseases, but the mechanisms through which ageing confers this risk are largely unknown1. The age-related acquisition of somatic mutations that lead to clonal expansion in regenerating haematopoietic stem cell populations has recently been associated with both haematological cancer2-4 and coronary heart disease5-this phenomenon is termed clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP)6. Simultaneous analyses of germline and somatic whole-genome sequences provide the opportunity to identify root causes of CHIP. Here we analyse high-coverage whole-genome sequences from 97,691 participants of diverse ancestries in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Trans-omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme, and identify 4,229 individuals with CHIP. We identify associations with blood cell, lipid and inflammatory traits that are specific to different CHIP driver genes. Association of a genome-wide set of germline genetic variants enabled the identification of three genetic loci associated with CHIP status, including one locus at TET2 that was specific to individuals of African ancestry. In silico-informed in vitro evaluation of the TET2 germline locus enabled the identification of a causal variant that disrupts a TET2 distal enhancer, resulting in increased self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells. Overall, we observe that germline genetic variation shapes haematopoietic stem cell function, leading to CHIP through mechanisms that are specific to clonal haematopoiesis as well as shared mechanisms that lead to somatic mutations across tissues.

7.
Cell ; 182(5): 1198-1213.e14, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888493

RESUMO

Most loci identified by GWASs have been found in populations of European ancestry (EUR). In trans-ethnic meta-analyses for 15 hematological traits in 746,667 participants, including 184,535 non-EUR individuals, we identified 5,552 trait-variant associations at p < 5 × 10-9, including 71 novel associations not found in EUR populations. We also identified 28 additional novel variants in ancestry-specific, non-EUR meta-analyses, including an IL7 missense variant in South Asians associated with lymphocyte count in vivo and IL-7 secretion levels in vitro. Fine-mapping prioritized variants annotated as functional and generated 95% credible sets that were 30% smaller when using the trans-ethnic as opposed to the EUR-only results. We explored the clinical significance and predictive value of trans-ethnic variants in multiple populations and compared genetic architecture and the effect of natural selection on these blood phenotypes between populations. Altogether, our results for hematological traits highlight the value of a more global representation of populations in genetic studies.

8.
Cell ; 182(5): 1214-1231.e11, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888494

RESUMO

Blood cells play essential roles in human health, underpinning physiological processes such as immunity, oxygen transport, and clotting, which when perturbed cause a significant global health burden. Here we integrate data from UK Biobank and a large-scale international collaborative effort, including data for 563,085 European ancestry participants, and discover 5,106 new genetic variants independently associated with 29 blood cell phenotypes covering a range of variation impacting hematopoiesis. We holistically characterize the genetic architecture of hematopoiesis, assess the relevance of the omnigenic model to blood cell phenotypes, delineate relevant hematopoietic cell states influenced by regulatory genetic variants and gene networks, identify novel splice-altering variants mediating the associations, and assess the polygenic prediction potential for blood traits and clinical disorders at the interface of complex and Mendelian genetics. These results show the power of large-scale blood cell trait GWAS to interrogate clinically meaningful variants across a wide allelic spectrum of human variation.

9.
Genet Med ; 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989268

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to use a genotype-first approach to explore highly penetrant, autosomal dominant cardiovascular diseases with external features, the RASopathies and Marfan syndrome (MFS), using biobank data. METHODS: This study uses exome sequencing and corresponding phenotypic data from Mount Sinai's BioMe (n = 32,344) and the United Kingdom Biobank (UKBB; n = 49,960). Variant curation identified pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants in RASopathy genes and FBN1. RESULTS: Twenty-one subjects harbored P/LP RASopathy variants; three (14%) were diagnosed, and another 46% had ≥1 classic Noonan syndrome (NS) feature. Major NS features (short stature [9.5% p = 7e-5] and heart anomalies [19%, p < 1e-5]) were less frequent than expected. Prevalence of hypothyroidism/autoimmune disorders was enriched compared with biobank populations (p = 0.007). For subjects with FBN1 P/LP variants, 14/41 (34%) had a MFS diagnosis or highly suggestive features. Five of 15 participants (33%) with echocardiographic data had aortic dilation, fewer than expected (p = 8e-6). Ectopia lentis affected only 15% (p < 1e-5). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial fractions of individuals harboring P/LP variants with partial or full phenotypic matches to a RASopathy or MFS remain undiagnosed, some not meeting diagnostic criteria. Routine population genotyping would enable multidisciplinary care and avoid life-threatening events.

10.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003196, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) deficiency, caused by mutations in MC4R, is the most common cause of monogenic forms of obesity. However, these mutations have often been identified in small-scale, case-focused studies. Here, we assess the penetrance of previously reported MC4R mutations at a population level. Furthermore, we examine why some carriers of pathogenic mutations remain of normal weight, to gain insight into the mechanisms that control body weight. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 59 known obesity-increasing mutations in MC4R from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and Clinvar. We assessed their penetrance and effect on obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2) in >450,000 individuals (age 40-69 years) of the UK Biobank, a population-based cohort study. Of these 59 mutations, only 11 had moderate-to-high penetrance and increased the odds of obesity by more than 2-fold. We subsequently focused on these 11 mutations and examined differences between carriers of normal weight and carriers with obesity. Twenty-eight of the 182 carriers of these 11 mutations were of normal weight. Body composition of carriers of normal weight was similar to noncarriers of normal weight, whereas among individuals with obesity, carriers had a somewhat higher BMI than noncarriers (1.44 ± 0.07 standard deviation scores [SDSs] ± standard error [SE] versus 1.29 ± 0.001, P = 0.03), because of greater lean mass (1.44 ± 0.09 versus 1.15 ± 0.002, P = 0.002). Carriers of normal weight more often reported that, already at age 10 years, their body size was below average or average (72%) compared with carriers with obesity (48%) (P = 0.01). To assess the polygenic contribution to body weight in carriers of normal weight and carriers with obesity, we calculated a genome-wide polygenic risk score for BMI (PRSBMI). The PRSBMI of carriers of normal weight (PRSBMI = -0.64 ± 0.18) was significantly lower than of carriers with obesity (0.40 ± 0.11; P = 1.7 × 10-6), and tended to be lower than that of noncarriers of normal weight (-0.29 ± 0.003; P = 0.05). Among carriers, those with a low PRSBMI (bottom quartile) have an approximately 5-kg/m2 lower BMI (approximately 14 kg of body weight for a 1.7-m-tall person) than those with a high PRS (top quartile). Because the UK Biobank population is healthier than the general population in the United Kingdom, penetrance may have been somewhat underestimated. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that large-scale data are needed to validate the impact of mutations observed in small-scale and case-focused studies. Furthermore, we observed that despite the key role of MC4R in obesity, the effects of pathogenic MC4R mutations may be countered, at least in part, by a low polygenic risk potentially representing other innate mechanisms implicated in body weight regulation.


Assuntos
Mutação , Obesidade/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Composição Corporal/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penetrância , Reino Unido
11.
J Hepatol ; 72(6): 1070-1081, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The Ile138Met variant (rs738409) in the PNPLA3 gene has the largest effect on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), increasing the risk of progression to severe forms of liver disease. It remains unknown if the variant plays a role in age of NAFLD onset. We aimed to determine if rs738409 impacts on the age of NAFLD diagnosis. METHODS: We applied a novel natural language processing (NLP) algorithm to a longitudinal electronic health records (EHR) dataset of >27,000 individuals with genetic data from a multi-ethnic biobank, defining NAFLD cases (n = 1,703) and confirming controls (n = 8,119). We conducted i) a survival analysis to determine if age at diagnosis differed by rs738409 genotype, ii) a receiver operating characteristics analysis to assess the utility of the rs738409 genotype in discriminating NAFLD cases from controls, and iii) a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) between rs738409 and 10,095 EHR-derived disease diagnoses. RESULTS: The PNPLA3 G risk allele was associated with: i) earlier age of NAFLD diagnosis, with the strongest effect in Hispanics (hazard ratio 1.33; 95% CI 1.15-1.53; p <0.0001) among whom a NAFLD diagnosis was 15% more likely in risk allele carriers vs. non-carriers; ii) increased NAFLD risk (odds ratio 1.61; 95% CI 1.349-1.73; p <0.0001), with the strongest effect among Hispanics (odds ratio 1.43; 95% CI 1.28-1.59; p <0.0001); iii) additional liver diseases in a PheWAS (p <4.95 × 10-6) where the risk variant also associated with earlier age of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Given the role of the rs738409 in NAFLD diagnosis age, our results suggest that stratifying risk within populations known to have an enhanced risk of liver disease, such as Hispanic carriers of the rs738409 variant, would be effective in earlier identification of those who would benefit most from early NAFLD prevention and treatment strategies. LAY SUMMARY: Despite clear associations between the PNPLA3 rs738409 variant and elevated risk of progression from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to more severe forms of liver disease, it remains unknown if PNPLA3 rs738409 plays a role in the age of NAFLD onset. Herein, we found that this risk variant is associated with an earlier age of NAFLD and other liver disease diagnoses; an observation most pronounced in Hispanic Americans. We conclude that PNPLA3 rs738409 could be used to better understand liver disease risk within vulnerable populations and identify patients that may benefit from early prevention strategies.

12.
Psychol Med ; 50(5): 793-798, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) has made major advances in the molecular etiology of MDD, confirming that MDD is highly polygenic. Pathway enrichment results from PGC meta-analyses can also be used to help inform molecular drug targets. Prior to any knowledge of molecular biomarkers for MDD, drugs targeting molecular pathways (MPs) proved successful in treating MDD. It is possible that examining polygenicity within specific MPs implicated in MDD can further refine molecular drug targets. METHODS: Using a large case-control GWAS based on low-coverage whole genome sequencing (N = 10 640) in Han Chinese women, we derived polygenic risk scores (PRS) for MDD and for MDD specific to each of over 300 MPs previously shown to be relevant to psychiatric diagnoses. We then identified sets of PRSs, accounting for critical covariates, significantly predictive of case status. RESULTS: Over and above global MDD polygenic risk, polygenic risk within the GO: 0017144 drug metabolism pathway significantly predicted recurrent depression after multiple testing correction. Secondary transcriptomic analysis suggests that among genes in this pathway, CYP2C19 (family of Cytochrome P450) and CBR1 (Carbonyl Reductase 1) might be most relevant to MDD. Within the cases, pathway-based risk was additionally associated with age at onset of MDD. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that pathway-based risk might inform etiology of recurrent major depression. Future research should examine whether polygenicity of the drug metabolism gene pathway has any association with clinical presentation or treatment response. We discuss limitations to the generalizability of these preliminary findings, and urge replication in future research.

13.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 76(11): 836-845, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415690

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate final-year pharmacy students' perceptions toward pharmacogenomics education, their attitudes on its clinical relevance, and their readiness to use such knowledge in practice. METHODS: A 19-question survey was developed and modified from prior studies and was pretested on a small group of pharmacogenomics faculty and pharmacy students. The final survey was administered to 978 final-year pharmacy students in 8 school/colleges of pharmacy in New York and New Jersey between January and May 2017. The survey targeted 3 main themes: perceptions toward pharmacogenomics education, attitudes toward the clinical relevance of this education, and the students' readiness to use knowledge of pharmacogenomics in practice. RESULTS: With a 35% response rate, the majority (81%) of the 339 student participants believed that pharmacogenomics was a useful clinical tool for pharmacists, yet only 40% felt that it had been a relevant part of their training. Almost half (46%) received only 1-3 lectures on pharmacogenomics and the majority were not ready to use it in practice. Survey results pointed toward practice-based trainings such as pharmacogenomics rotations as the most helpful in preparing students for practice. CONCLUSIONS: Final-year student pharmacists reported varying exposure to pharmacogenomics content in their pharmacy training and had positive attitudes toward the clinical relevance of the discipline, yet they expressed low confidence in their readiness to use this information in practice.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Farmacogenética/educação , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Adulto , Currículo , Docentes/psicologia , Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(10): 846-855, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Individuals at high risk for schizophrenia may benefit from early intervention, but few validated risk predictors are available. Genetic profiling is one approach to risk stratification that has been extensively validated in research cohorts. The authors sought to test the utility of this approach in clinical settings and to evaluate the broader health consequences of high genetic risk for schizophrenia. METHODS: The authors used electronic health records for 106,160 patients from four health care systems to evaluate the penetrance and pleiotropy of genetic risk for schizophrenia. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia were calculated from summary statistics and tested for association with 1,359 disease categories, including schizophrenia and psychosis, in phenome-wide association studies. Effects were combined through meta-analysis across sites. RESULTS: PRSs were robustly associated with schizophrenia (odds ratio per standard deviation increase in PRS, 1.55; 95% CI=1.4, 1.7), and patients in the highest risk decile of the PRS distribution had up to 4.6-fold higher odds of schizophrenia compared with those in the bottom decile (95% CI=2.9, 7.3). PRSs were also positively associated with other phenotypes, including anxiety, mood, substance use, neurological, and personality disorders, as well as suicidal behavior, memory loss, and urinary syndromes; they were inversely related to obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates that an available measure of genetic risk for schizophrenia is robustly associated with schizophrenia in health care settings and has pleiotropic effects on related psychiatric disorders as well as other medical syndromes. The results provide an initial indication of the opportunities and limitations that may arise with the future application of PRS testing in health care systems.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pleiotropia Genética/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penetrância , Fatores de Risco
15.
Nat Med ; 25(3): 507-516, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842678

RESUMO

Quantitative changes in leptin concentration lead to alterations in food intake and body weight, but the regulatory mechanisms that control leptin gene expression are poorly understood. Here we report that fat-specific and quantitative leptin expression is controlled by redundant cis elements and trans factors interacting with the proximal promoter together with a long noncoding RNA (lncOb). Diet-induced obese mice lacking lncOb show increased fat mass with reduced plasma leptin levels and lose weight after leptin treatment, whereas control mice do not. Consistent with this finding, large-scale genetic studies of humans reveal a significant association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the region of human lncOb with lower plasma leptin levels and obesity. These results show that reduced leptin gene expression can lead to a hypoleptinemic, leptin-responsive form of obesity and provide a framework for elucidating the pathogenic mechanism in the subset of obese patients with low endogenous leptin levels.


Assuntos
Leptina/genética , Obesidade/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leptina/metabolismo , Leptina/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
Cell Stem Cell ; 24(2): 299-308.e6, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639037

RESUMO

Thiazolidinedione drugs (TZDs) target the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) to reverse insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes, but side effects limit their clinical use. Here, using human adipose stem cell-derived adipocytes, we demonstrate that SNPs were enriched at sites of patient-specific PPARγ binding, which correlated with the individual-specific effects of the TZD rosiglitazone (rosi) on gene expression. Rosi induction of ABCA1, which regulates cholesterol metabolism, was dependent upon SNP rs4743771, which modulated PPARγ binding by influencing the genomic occupancy of its cooperating factor, NFIA. Conversion of rs4743771 from the inactive SNP allele to the active one by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated editing rescued PPARγ binding and rosi induction of ABCA1 expression. Moreover, rs4743771 is a major determinant of undesired serum cholesterol increases in rosi-treated diabetics. These data highlight human genetic variation that impacts PPARγ genomic occupancy and patient responses to antidiabetic drugs, with implications for developing personalized therapies for metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Variação Genética , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Colesterol/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Edição de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Transcrição NFI/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Rosiglitazona/farmacologia , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
17.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 2, 2019 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) lead to increased risk of breast, ovarian, and other cancers, but most variant-positive individuals in the general population are unaware of their risk, and little is known about prevalence in non-European populations. We investigated BRCA1/2 prevalence and impact in the electronic health record (EHR)-linked BioMe Biobank in New York City. METHODS: Exome sequence data from 30,223 adult BioMe participants were evaluated for pathogenic variants in BRCA1/2. Prevalence estimates were made in population groups defined by genetic ancestry and self-report. EHR data were used to evaluate clinical characteristics of variant-positive individuals. RESULTS: There were 218 (0.7%) individuals harboring expected pathogenic variants, resulting in an overall prevalence of 1 in 139. The highest prevalence was in individuals with Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ; 1 in 49), Filipino and other Southeast Asian (1 in 81), and non-AJ European (1 in 103) ancestry. Among 218 variant-positive individuals, 112 (51.4%) harbored known founder variants: 80 had AJ founder variants (BRCA1 c.5266dupC and c.68_69delAG, and BRCA2 c.5946delT), 8 had a Puerto Rican founder variant (BRCA2 c.3922G>T), and 24 had one of 19 other founder variants. Non-European populations were more likely to harbor BRCA1/2 variants that were not classified in ClinVar or that had uncertain or conflicting evidence for pathogenicity (uncertain/conflicting). Within mixed ancestry populations, such as Hispanic/Latinos with genetic ancestry from Africa, Europe, and the Americas, there was a strong correlation between the proportion of African genetic ancestry and the likelihood of harboring an uncertain/conflicting variant. Approximately 28% of variant-positive individuals had a personal history, and 45% had a personal or family history of BRCA1/2-associated cancers. Approximately 27% of variant-positive individuals had prior clinical genetic testing for BRCA1/2. However, individuals with AJ founder variants were twice as likely to have had a clinical test (39%) than those with other pathogenic variants (20%). CONCLUSIONS: These findings deepen our knowledge about BRCA1/2 variants and associated cancer risk in diverse populations, indicate a gap in knowledge about potential cancer-related variants in non-European populations, and suggest that genomic screening in diverse patient populations may be an effective tool to identify at-risk individuals.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etnologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Prevalência
18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(3): 515-523, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307499

RESUMO

E-selectin mediates the rolling of circulating leukocytes during inflammatory processes. Previous genome-wide association studies in European and Asian individuals have identified the ABO locus associated with E-selectin levels. Using Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine whole genome sequencing data in 2249 African Americans (AAs) from the Jackson Heart Study, we examined genome-wide associations with soluble E-selectin levels. In addition to replicating known signals at ABO, we identified a novel association of a common loss-of-function, missense variant in Fucosyltransferase 6 (FUT6; rs17855739,p.Glu274Lys, P = 9.02 × 10-24) with higher soluble E-selectin levels. This variant is considerably more common in populations of African ancestry compared to non-African ancestry populations. We replicated the association of FUT6 p.Glu274Lys with higher soluble E-selectin in an independent population of 748 AAs from the Women's Health Initiative and identified an additional pleiotropic association with vitamin B12 levels. Despite the broad role of both selectins and fucosyltransferases in various inflammatory, immune and cancer-related processes, we were unable to identify any additional disease associations of the FUT6 p.Glu274Lys variant in an electronic medical record-based phenome-wide association scan of over 9000 AAs.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Selectina E/genética , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
20.
Psychol Med ; 48(11): 1814-1823, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29173193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying genetic relationships between complex traits in emerging adulthood can provide useful etiological insights into risk for psychopathology. College-age individuals are under-represented in genomic analyses thus far, and the majority of work has focused on the clinical disorder or cognitive abilities rather than normal-range behavioral outcomes. METHODS: This study examined a sample of emerging adults 18-22 years of age (N = 5947) to construct an atlas of polygenic risk for 33 traits predicting relevant phenotypic outcomes. Twenty-eight hypotheses were tested based on the previous literature on samples of European ancestry, and the availability of rich assessment data allowed for polygenic predictions across 55 psychological and medical phenotypes. RESULTS: Polygenic risk for schizophrenia (SZ) in emerging adults predicted anxiety, depression, nicotine use, trauma, and family history of psychological disorders. Polygenic risk for neuroticism predicted anxiety, depression, phobia, panic, neuroticism, and was correlated with polygenic risk for cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the extensive impact of genetic risk for SZ, neuroticism, and major depression on a range of health outcomes in early adulthood. Minimal cross-ancestry replication of these phenomic patterns of polygenic influence underscores the need for more genome-wide association studies of non-European populations.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Neuroticismo , Fenótipo , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mid-Atlantic Region , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...