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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459416

RESUMO

AIMS: During calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) progression, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction mark the initial pathogenic steps with a parallel dysregulation of the antioxidant systems. Here, we tested whether oxidation-induced protein S-glutathionylation (P-SSG) accounts for a phenotypic switch in human aortic valvular tissue, eventually leading to calcium deposition. Next, we tested whether countering this reactive oxygen species (ROS) surge would prevent these perturbations. RESULTS: We employed state-of-the-art technologies, such as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, imaging flow-cytometry, and live-cell imaging on human excised aortic valves and primary valve endothelial cells. We observed that a net rise in EPR-detected ROS emission marked the transition from fibrotic to calcific in human CAVS specimens, coupled to a progressive increment in P-SSG deposition. In human VECs, treatment with 2-acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylthiocarbonylamino)phenylthiocarbamoylsulfanyl]propionic acid triggered highly oxidizing conditions prompting P-SSG accumulation, damaging mitochondria, and inducing endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling. All the events conjured up in morphing these cells from their native endothelial phenotype into a damaged calcification-inducing one. As proof of principle, the use of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevented these alterations. INNOVATION: Borne as a compensatory system to face excessive oxidative burden, with time, P-SSG contributes to the morphing of human valve endothelial cells from their innate phenotype into a damaged one, paving the way to calcium deposition. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that, in the human aortic valve, unremitted ROS emission along with a P-SSG build-up occurs and accounts, at least in part, for the morphological/functional changes leading to calcific aortic valve stenosis.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 747714, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35280999

RESUMO

Background: Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common valve disorder characterized by fibro-calcific remodeling of leaflets. Recent evidence indicated that there is a sex-related difference in AS development and progression. Fibrotic remodeling is peculiar in women's aortic valves, while men's leaflets are more calcified. Our study aimed to assess aortic valve fibrosis (AVF) in a severe AS cohort using non-invasive diagnostic tools and determine whether sex-specific pathological pathways and cell types are associated with severe AS. Materials and Methods: We have included 28 men and 28 women matched for age with severe AS who underwent echocardiography and cardiac contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) before intervention. The calcium and fibrosis volumes were assessed and quantified using the ImageJ thresholding method, indexed calcium and fibrosis volume were calculated by dividing the volume by the aortic annular area. For a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms characterizing AS disorder, differentially expressed genes and functional inferences between women and men's aortic valves were carried out on a publicly available microarray-based gene expression dataset (GSE102249). Cell types enrichment analysis in stenotic aortic valve tissues was used to reconstruct the sex-specific cellular composition of stenotic aortic valves. Results: In agreement with the literature, our CT quantifications showed that women had significantly lower aortic valve calcium content compared to men, while fibrotic tissue composition was significantly higher in women than men. The expression profiles of human stenotic aortic valves confirm sex-dependent processes. Pro-fibrotic processes were prevalent in women, while pro-inflammatory ones, linked to the immune response system, were enhanced in men. Cell-type enrichment analysis showed that mesenchymal cells were over-represented in AS valves of women, whereas signatures for monocytes, macrophages, T and B cells were enriched men ones. Conclusions: Our data provide the basis that the fibro-calcific process of the aortic valve is sex-specific, both at gene expression and cell type level. The quantification of aortic valve fibrosis by CT could make it possible to perform population-based studies and non-invasive assessment of novel therapies to reduce or halt sex-related calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) progression, acting in an optimal window of opportunity early in the course of the disease.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Fibromialgia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/metabolismo , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/metabolismo , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Calcinose , Cálcio/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 858281, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35355593

RESUMO

Background: Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) has been recently recognized as a condition frequently associated with aortic stenosis (AS). The aim of this study was to evaluate: the main characteristics of patients with AS with and without CA, the impact of CA on patients with AS mortality, and the effect of different treatment strategies on outcomes of patients with AS with concomitant CA. Materials and Methods: A detailed search related to CA in patients with AS and outcomes was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Seventeen studies enrolling 1,988 subjects (1,658 AS alone and 330 AS with CA) were included in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of main patients with AS characteristics with and without CA, difference in mortality, and treatment strategy. Results: The prevalence of CA resulted in a mean of 15.4% and it was even higher in patients with AS over 80 years old (18.2%). Patients with the dual diagnosis were more often males, had lower body mass index (BMI), were more prone to have low flow, low gradient with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction AS phenotype, had higher E/A and E/e', and greater interventricular septum hypertrophy. Lower Sokolow-Lyon index, higher QRS duration, higher prevalence of right bundle branch block, higher levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and high-sensitivity troponin T were significantly associated with CA in patients with AS. Higher overall mortality in the 178 patients with AS + CA in comparison to 1,220 patients with AS alone was observed [odds ratio (OR) 2.25, p = 0.004]. Meta-regression analysis showed that younger age and diabetes were associated with overall mortality in patients with CS with CA (Z-value -3.0, p = 0.003 and Z-value 2.5, p = 0.013, respectively). Finally, patients who underwent surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) had a similar overall mortality risk, but lower than medication-treated only patients. Conclusion: Results from our meta-analysis suggest that several specific clinical, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic features can be considered "red flags" of CA in patients with AS. CA negatively affects the outcome of patients with AS. Patients with concomitant CA and AS benefit from SAVR or TAVI.

4.
Biomedicines ; 10(2)2022 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35203666

RESUMO

Rationale-Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is a pathological condition of the aortic valve with a prevalence of 3% in the general population. It is characterized by massive rearrangement of the extracellular matrix, mostly due to the accumulation of fibro-calcific deposits driven by valve interstitial cells (VIC), and no pharmacological treatment is currently available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of P2Y2 receptor (P2RY2) activation on fibro-calcific remodeling of CAVS. Methods-We employed human primary VICs isolated from CAVS leaflets treated with 2-thiouridine-5'-triphosphate (2ThioUTP, 10 µM), an agonist of P2RY2. The calcification was induced by inorganic phosphate (2 mM) and ascorbic acid (50 µg/mL) for 7 or 14 days, while the 2ThioUTP was administered starting from the seventh day. 2ThioUTP was chronically administered for 5 days to evaluate myofibroblastic activation. Results-P2RY2 activation, under continuous or interrupted pro-calcific stimuli, led to a significant inhibition of VIC calcification potential (p < 0.01). Moreover, 2ThioUTP treatment was able to significantly reduce pro-fibrotic gene expression (p < 0.05), as well as that of protein α-smooth muscle actin (p = 0.004). Conclusions-Our data suggest that P2RY2 activation should be further investigated as a pharmacological target for the prevention of CAVS progression, acting on both calcification and myofibroblastic activation.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445099

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common and costly disorders that affect humans around the world. Recently, clinicians and scientists have focused their studies on the effects of glycemic variability (GV), which is especially associated with cardiovascular diseases. In healthy subjects, glycemia is a very stable parameter, while in poorly controlled DM patients, it oscillates greatly throughout the day and between days. Clinically, GV could be measured by different parameters, but there are no guidelines on standardized assessment. Nonetheless, DM patients with high GV experience worse cardiovascular disease outcomes. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that high GV causes several detrimental effects, such as increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis linked to endothelial dysfunction. However, the evidence that treating GV is beneficial is still scanty. Clinical trials aiming to improve the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of GV measurements correlated with cardiovascular outcomes are needed. The present review aims to evaluate the clinical link between high GV and cardiovascular diseases, taking into account the underlined biological mechanisms. A clear view of this challenge may be useful to standardize the clinical evaluation and to better identify treatments and strategies to counteract this DM aspect.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/complicações , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204756

RESUMO

Transcript sequencing is a crucial tool for gaining a deep understanding of biological processes in diagnostic and clinical medicine. Given their potential to study novel complex eukaryotic transcriptomes, long-read sequencing technologies are able to overcome some limitations of short-read RNA-Seq approaches. Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) offers the ability to generate long-read sequencing data in real time via portable protein nanopore USB devices. This work aimed to provide the user with the number of reads that should be sequenced, through the ONT MinION platform, to reach the desired accuracy level for a human cell RNA study. We sequenced three cDNA libraries prepared from poly-adenosine RNA of human primary cardiac fibroblasts. Since the runs were comparable, they were combined in a total dataset of 48 million reads. Synthetic datasets with different sizes were generated starting from the total and analyzed in terms of the number of identified genes and their expression levels. As expected, an improved sensitivity was obtained, increasing the sequencing depth, particularly for the non-coding genes. The reliability of expression levels was assayed by (i) comparison with PCR quantifications of selected genes and (ii) by the implementation of a user-friendly multiplexing method in a single run.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento por Nanoporos , Células Cultivadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , RNA-Seq
7.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 653991, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124193

RESUMO

Background: A strong association between aortic valve sclerosis (AVSc), the earliest manifestation of calcific aortic valve disease, and atherosclerosis exists. The aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive capabilities of AVSc on long-term all-cause mortality, in patients requiring carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Methods and Results: 806 consecutive CEA patients were enrolled. Preoperative echocardiography was used to assess AVSc. Computed tomography angiography was applied for plaque characterization. Kaplan-Meier curves, Cox linear regression, and area under the receiving operator characteristic (AUC) curve analyses were used to evaluate the predictive capability of AVSc. Overall, 348 of 541 patients had AVSc (64%). Age, diabetes, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were associated with AVSc. In the 5-year follow-up, AVSc group had a mortality rate of 16.7% while in no-AVSc group was 7.8%. Independent predictors of all-cause mortality were age, sex, eGFR, left ventricular ejection fraction, and AVSc. After adjustments, AVSc was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality risk (hazard ratio, HR = 1.9; 95%CI: 1.04-3.54; p = 0.038). We stratify our cohort based on carotid atheromatous plaque-type: soft, calcified, and mixed-fibrotic. In patients with mixed-fibrotic plaques, the mortality rate of AVSc patients was 15.5% compared to 2.4% in no-AVSc patients. In this group, AVSc was associated with an increased long-term all-cause mortality risk with an adjusted HR of 12.8 (95%CI: 1.71-96.35; p = 0.013), and the AUC, combing eGFR and AVSc was 0.77 (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that AVSc together with eGFR may be used to improve long-term risk stratification of patients undergoing CEA surgery.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672625

RESUMO

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) associated with severe mitral regurgitation is a debilitating disease with no pharmacological therapies available. MicroRNAs (miRNA) represent an emerging class of circulating biomarkers that have never been evaluated in MVP human plasma. Our aim was to identify a possible miRNA signature that is able to discriminate MVP patients from healthy subjects (CTRL) and to shed light on the putative altered molecular pathways in MVP. We evaluated a plasma miRNA profile using Human MicroRNA Card A followed by real-time PCR validations. In addition, to assess the discriminative power of selected miRNAs, we implemented a machine learning analysis. MiRNA profiling and validations revealed that miR-140-3p, 150-5p, 210-3p, 451a, and 487a-3p were significantly upregulated in MVP, while miR-223-3p, 323a-3p, 340-5p, and 361-5p were significantly downregulated in MVP compared to CTRL (p ≤ 0.01). Functional analysis identified several biological processes possible linked to MVP. In addition, machine learning analysis correctly classified MVP patients from CTRL with high accuracy (0.93) and an area under the receiving operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.97. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study performed on human plasma, showing a strong association between miRNAs and MVP. Thus, a circulating molecular signature could be used as a first-line, fast, and cheap screening tool for MVP identification.


Assuntos
MicroRNA Circulante/sangue , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/sangue , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/complicações , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/sangue , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/genética , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Regulação para Cima/genética
9.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 5(7): 649-661, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760854

RESUMO

The authors investigated whether PCSK9 inhibition could represent a therapeutic strategy in calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). A meta-analysis of 10 studies was performed to determine the impact of the PCSK9 R46L variant on CAVS, and the authors found that CAVS was less prevalent in carriers of this variant (odds ratio: 0.80 [95% confidence interval: 0.70 to 0.91]; p = 0.0011) compared with noncarriers. PCSK9 expression was higher in the aortic valves of patients CAVS compared with control patients. In human valve interstitials cells submitted to a pro-osteogenic medium, PCSK9 levels increased and a PCSK9 neutralizing antibody significantly reduced calcium accumulation.

10.
Front Physiol ; 11: 982, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848891

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Osteopontin (OPN) is involved in ectopic calcification. Its circulating form is upregulated in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Circulating OPN levels positively correlate with oxidative stress, one of the major triggers of endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is, in turn, associated with reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability due to the impaired arginine pathway. The aim of this study was to better understand the correlations between OPN, oxidative stress markers, and the arginine pathway metabolites. METHODS AND RESULTS: ELISA and mass spectrometry techniques have been used to evaluate circulating OPN and arginine pathway/oxidative stress metabolites, respectively, in twenty-five control subjects and thirty-three patients with overt atherosclerosis. OPN positively correlates with 2,3-dinor-8isoPGF2a levels (p = 0.02), ornithine (p = 0.01), ADMA (p = 0.001), SDMA (p = 0.03), and citrulline (p = 0.008) levels only in CAD patients. In addition, citrulline positively correlated with ADMA (p = 0.02) levels, possibly as result of other sources of citrulline biosynthetic pathways. CONCLUSION: The association between OPN and impaired arginine/NO pathway could play a role in the inhibition of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and/or in the arginase activation in the context of CAD patients. However, further studies are needed to verify the cause-effect relationship between OPN, oxidative stress, and arginine/NO pathway dysregulation.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781508

RESUMO

Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common valvular heart disease in developed countries predominantly affecting the elderly population therefore posing a large economic burden. It is a gradually progressive condition ranging from mild valve calcification and thickening, without the hemodynamic obstruction, to severe calcification impairing leaflet motion, known as aortic stenosis (AS). The progression of CAVD occurs over many years, and it is extremely variable among individuals. It is also associated with an increased risk of coronary events and mortality. The recent insights into the CAVD pathophysiology included an important role of sex. Accumulating evidence suggests that, in patients with CAVD, sex can determine important differences in the relationship between valvular calcification process, fibrosis, and aortic stenosis hemodynamic severity between men and women. Consequently, it has implications on the development of different valvular phenotypes, left ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiovascular outcomes in men and women. Along these lines, taking into account the sex-related differences in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment outcomes is of profound importance. In this review, the sex-related differences in patients with CAVD, in terms of pathobiology, clinical phenotypes, and outcomes were discussed.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Calcinose/epidemiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Calcinose/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Masculino , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104888, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434054

RESUMO

Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a pathological condition that affects about 3% of the population, representing the most common valve disease. The main clinical feature of AS is represented by the impaired leaflet motility, due to calcification, which leads to the left ventricular outflow tract obstruction during systole. The formation and accumulation of calcium nodules are driven by valve interstitial cells (VICs). Unfortunately, to date, the in vitro and in vivo studies were not sufficient to fully recapitulate all the pathological pathways involved in AS development, as well as to define a specific and effective pharmacological treatment for AS patients. Cyclophilin A (CyPA), the most important immunophilin and endogenous ligand of cyclosporine A (CsA), is strongly involved in several detrimental cardiovascular processes, such as calcification. To date, there are no data on the CyPA role in VIC-mediated calcification process of AS. Here, we aimed to identify the role of CyPA in AS by studying VIC calcification, in vitro. In this study, we found that (i) CyPA is up-regulated in stenotic valves of AS patients, (ii) pro-calcifying medium promotes CyPA secretion by VICs, (iii) in vitro treatment of VICs with exogenous CyPA strongly stimulates calcium deposition, and (iv) exogenous CyPA inhibition mediated by CsA analogue MM284 abolished in vitro calcium potential. Thus, CyPA represents a biological target that may act as a novel candidate in the detrimental AS development and its inhibition may provide a novel pharmacological approach for AS treatment.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/tratamento farmacológico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Calcinose/tratamento farmacológico , Calcinose/cirurgia , Ciclofilina A/antagonistas & inibidores , Ciclosporinas/farmacologia , Ciclosporinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/metabolismo , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/metabolismo , Calcinose/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Ciclofilina A/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Ageing Res Rev ; 61: 101077, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334093

RESUMO

Aging of the aortic valve, characterized by leaflet thickening and loss of extensibility, leads to progressive changes in valve function. These age-related mechanisms have not been evaluated yet in sex-specific calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) onset and progression. Recent studies reported the association between high aortic valve calcification (AVC) load and male gender in patients with CAVS while women present faster progression than men. To evaluate these age- and sex-specific differences, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis with meta-regression. A systematic search related to AVC measured by computed tomography and gender-specific differences was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Seven studies, enrolling 1859 men and 1055 women, were included in the quantitative synthesis. We found a significant difference between men and women both in AVC load and density. AVC load mean difference (MD), between men and women, was 1131 ± 243 AU (p < 0.0001; I2: 96.5 %, p < 0.001), while AVC density MD was 159 ± 20 AU/cm2 (p < 0.0001) without heterogeneity among the studies (I2: 23.5, p = 0.3). Meta-regression analyses showed that AVC load MD positively correlated with age and other cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease presence. Our meta-analysis shows a significant association of incremental AVC load with male gender, regardless of the individual anatomical characteristics and the cardiovascular risk factors. Further studies are needed: i) to clarify if there are different sex-related pathophysiological processes driving the development and the progression of age-related CAVS, and ii) to determine if a sex-specific therapeutic strategy should be applied for CAVS treatment and/or prevention.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Calcinose , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/epidemiologia , Cálcio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Cells ; 9(1)2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936351

RESUMO

: Background: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a genetic disease, characterized by thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA), which treatment is to date purely surgical. Understanding of novel molecular targets is mandatory to unveil effective pharmacological approaches. Cyclophilin A (CyPA) and its receptor EMMPRIN are associated with several cardiovascular diseases, including abdominal aortic aneurysm. Here, we envisioned the contribution of CyPA/EMMPRIN axis in MFS-related TAA. METHODS: We obtained thoracic aortic samples from healthy controls (HC) and MFS patients' aortas and then isolated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from the aortic wall. RESULTS: our findings revealed that MFS aortic tissue samples isolated from the dilated zone of aorta showed higher expression levels of EMMPRIN vs. MFS non-dilated aorta and HC. Interestingly, angiotensin II significantly stimulated CyPA secretion in MFS-derived VSMC (MFS-VSMC). CyPA treatment on MFS-VSMC led to increased levels of EMMPRIN and other MFS-associated pro-fibrotic mediators, such as TGF-ß1 and collagen I. These molecules were downregulated by in vitro treatment with CyPA inhibitor MM284. Our results suggest that CyPA/EMMPRIN axis is involved in MFS-related TAA development, since EMMPRIN is upregulated in the dilated zone of MFS patients' TAA and the inhibition of its ligand, CyPA, downregulated EMMPRIN and MFS-related markers in MFS-VSMC. CONCLUSIONS: these insights suggest both a novel detrimental role for CyPA/EMMPRIN axis and its inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy for MFS-related TAA treatment.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/patologia , Basigina/metabolismo , Ciclofilina A/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Síndrome de Marfan/fisiopatologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fibrose/metabolismo , Humanos
15.
J Clin Med ; 8(6)2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212807

RESUMO

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most common cause of severe mitral regurgitation. It has been reported that MVP patients-candidates for mitral valve repair (MVRep)-showed an alteration in the antioxidant defense systems as well as in the L-arginine metabolic pathway. In this study, we investigate if oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are an MVP consequence or driving factors. Forty-five patients undergoing MVRep were evaluated before and 6 months post surgery and compared to 29 controls. Oxidized (GSSG) and reduced (GSH) forms of glutathione, and L-arginine metabolic pathway were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods while osteoprotegerin (OPG) through the ELISA kit and circulating endothelial microparticles (EMP) by flow cytometry. Six-month post surgery, in MVP patients, the GSSG/GSH ratio decreased while symmetric and asymmetric dimethylarginines levels remained comparable to the baseline. Conversely, OPG levels significantly increased when compared to their baseline. Finally, pre-MVRep EMP levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls and did not change post surgery. Overall, these results highlight that MVRep completely restores the increased oxidative stress levels, as evidenced in MVP patients. Conversely, no amelioration of endothelial dysfunction was evidenced after surgery. Thus, therapies aimed to restore a proper endothelial function before and after surgical repair could benefit MVP patients.

16.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr ; 13(4): 190-195, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is an active process that involves inflammation, disorganization of matrix disposition, lipid accumulation and lamellar bone formation. AVC without hemodynamic changes has been associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and increased risk of coronary and CV events. Nowadays, echocardiography is the standard imaging technique to evaluate aortic valve pathologies. However, cardiac computed tomography (CT) allows high accuracy and reproducible measurement of AVC, without exposing the patients to excessive radiation or contrast administration. AIMS: To better understand if AVC assessment may improve CV risk-prediction, we performed a systematic search and meta-analysis of literature studies, evaluating the relationship among AVC, coronary artery disease (CAD), and overall mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: A detailed search, according to PRISMA guidelines, was performed to identify all available studies investigating AVC, measured by CT scan, and CV events. Thirteen studies on 3,782 AVC patients and 32,890 controls were included in the final analysis. Patients with AVC have a higher risk of CAD (OR 1.7, 95%CI: 1.04-2.87; p = 0.04) when compared to controls. We also found an association between AVC and coronary artery calcification (OR 3.8; 95%CI: 2.4-6.0; p < 0.001.) Finally, AVC had 93.2% specificity for overall mortality (95%CI: 92.8-93.6) with a negative predictive value of 98.8% (95%CI: 98.7-98.8). CONCLUSION: AVC is associated with coronary artery calcification and overall mortality. The present data cannot support the use of cardiac CT over echocardiography for AVC assessment in all patients, but when cardiac CT is performed for suspected CAD, AVC evaluation may contribute to risk stratification and patient management. Ad hoc designed studies should address this issue in the next future.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Calcinose/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Calcificação Vascular/mortalidade , Idoso , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Causas de Morte , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Theranostics ; 9(8): 2224-2234, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149040

RESUMO

Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a rare genetic disease characterized by a matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) dysregulation that leads to extracellular matrix degradation. Consequently, MFS patients are prone to develop progressive thoracic aortic enlargement and detrimental aneurysm. Since MMPs are activated by the extracellular MMP inducer (EMMPRIN) protein, we determined whether its plasmatic soluble form (sEMMPRIN) may be considered a marker of thoracic aortic ectasia (AE). Methods: We compared plasma sEMMPRIN levels of 42 adult Caucasian MFS patients not previously subjected to aortic surgery with those of matched healthy controls (HC) by ELISA. In the MFS cohort we prospectively evaluated the relationship between plasma sEMMPRIN levels and the main MFS-related manifestations. Results: MFS patients had lower plasma sEMMPRIN levels (mean±SD: 2071±637 pg/ml) than HC (2441±642 pg/ml, p=0.009). Amongst all considered MFS-related clinical features, we found that only aortic root dilatation associated with circulating sEMMPRIN levels. Specifically, plasma sEMMPRIN levels negatively correlated with aortic Z-score (r=-0.431, p=0.004), and were significantly lower in patients with AE (Z-score≥2, 1788±510 pg/ml) compared to those without AE (Z-score<2, 2355±634 pg/ml; p=0.003). ROC curve analysis revealed that plasma sEMMPRIN levels discriminated patients with AE (AUC [95%CI]: 0.763 [0.610-0.916], p=0.003) with 85.7% sensitivity, 76.2% specificity, and 81% accuracy. We defined plasma sEMMPRIN levels ≤2246 pg/ml as the best threshold discriminating the presence of AE in MFS patients with an odds ratio [95%CI] of 19.2 [3.947-93.389] (p<0.001). Conclusions: MFS patients are characterized by lower sEMMPRIN levels than HC. Notably, plasma sEMMPRIN levels are strongly associated with thoracic AE.


Assuntos
Aorta/patologia , Basigina/sangue , Síndrome de Marfan/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dilatação Patológica/sangue , Dilatação Patológica/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Marfan/sangue , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(10)2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096574

RESUMO

Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a genetic disorder characterized by the progressive substitution of functional myocardium with noncontractile fibro-fatty tissue contributing to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Cyclophilin A (CyPA) is a ubiquitous protein involved in several pathological mechanisms, which also characterize ACM (i.e., fibrosis, inflammation, and adipogenesis). Nevertheless, the involvement of CyPA in ACM cardiac remodeling has not been investigated yet. Thus, we first evaluated CyPA expression levels in the right ventricle (RV) tissue specimens obtained from ACM patients and healthy controls (HC) by immunohistochemistry. Then, we took advantage of ACM- and HC-derived cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells (C-MSC) to assess CyPA modulation during adipogenic differentiation. Interestingly, CyPA was more expressed in the RV sections obtained from ACM vs. HC subjects and positively correlated with the adipose replacement extent. Moreover, CyPA was upregulated at early stages of C-MSC adipogenic differentiation and was secreted at higher level over time in ACM- derived C-MSC. Our study provides novel ex vivo and in vitro information on CyPA expression in ACM remodeling paving the way for future C-MSC-based mechanistic and therapeutic investigations.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Ciclofilina A/metabolismo , Remodelação Ventricular , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/patologia , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Ciclofilina A/genética , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/patologia , Fibrose , Expressão Gênica , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Miocárdio
19.
J Clin Med ; 8(4)2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022838

RESUMO

Aortic valve sclerosis (AVSc) is characterized by non-uniform thickening of the leaflets without hemodynamic changes. Endothelial dysfunction, also caused by dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis expressed as ratio between its reduced (GSH) and its oxidised form (GSSG), could represent one of the pathogenic triggers of AVSc. We prospectively enrolled 58 patients with overt atherosclerosis and requiring coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The incidence of AVSc in the studied population was 50%. The two groups (No-AVSc and AVSc) had similar clinical characteristics. Pre-operatively, AVSc group showed significantly lower GSH/GSSG ratio than No-AVSc group (p = 0.02). Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentration was significantly higher in AVSc patients compared to No-AVSc patients (p < 0.0001). Explanted sclerotic aortic valves presented a significantly increased protein glutathionylation (Pr-SSG) than No-AVSc ones (p = 0.01). In vitro, inhibition of glutathione reductase caused ß-actin glutathionylation, activation of histone 2AX, upregulation of α2 smooth muscle actin (ACTA2), downregulation of platelet and endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM1) and cadherin 5 (CDH5). In this study, we showed for the first time that the dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis is associated with AVSc. We found that Pr-SSG is increased in AVSc leaflets and it could lead to EndMT via DNA damage. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the causal role of Pr-SSG in aortic valve degeneration.

20.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 131: 146-154, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026425

RESUMO

AIMS: Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is the most frequent manifestation of aortic valve disease and the third leading cause of cardiovascular disease in the Western countries associated with significant morbidity and mortality. An active biological progression involving inflammation and oxidation leading to valve endothelial damage is considered a hallmark of the early stages of valve degeneration. However, tricuspid (TAV) and bicuspid (BAV) aortic valve deterioration are considered to differ only by shear stress. We hypothesized that endothelial cells (EC) derived from BAV and TAV patients have different miRNA expression patterns and thus distinct pathways could lead to endothelial damage in BAV than TAV patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We isolated ECs from patients with bicuspid or tricuspid aortic valve, which underwent surgery due to CAVS. MiRNA expression profile by PCR revealed eight upregulated miRNAs between BAV and TAV ECs. Functional analysis identified that BAV ECs presented altered cellular response to oxidative stress and DNA damage stimulus via p53 and alteration in the intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. GPX3 and SRXN1 mRNA were express at lower levels in BAV compared to TAV ECs, leading to an increment of DNA double-strand breaks. BAV ECs had a sustained apoptosis activation when compared to TAV ECs. This difference was exacerbated by oxidative stress stimulus leading to a reduced survival rate but completely reverted by miR-328-3p inhibition. CONCLUSION: The present data showed molecular differences in oxidative stress susceptibility, DNA damage magnitude, and apoptosis induction between ECs derived from BAV and TAV patients.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Valva Tricúspide/citologia , Idoso , Valva Aórtica/citologia , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide , Western Blotting , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
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