Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 119
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Eur Psychiatry ; 61: 79-84, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing focus on lifestyle as a factor in the pathogenesis of mental health disorders; however, this has been relatively underexplored in child populations. This study aimed to assess the relationships between behavioural lifestyle factors and emotional functioning in a large, population-representative sample of schoolchildren in Greece. METHODS: A representative sample of 2,240 schoolchildren, aged 9-13 years, participated in the Healthy Growth Study during 2007-2010. Emotional functioning was measured using the Dartmouth COOP Functional Health Assessment charts/World Organization of Family Doctors Charts. A score of 3 or higher out of 5 indicated poorer emotional functioning. Participants self-reported dietary intake via three 24-h dietary recalls; fruit, vegetable and soft drink consumption were the dietary variables of interest. Participants' self-reported daily time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity, and watching TV or playing video games were used to assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, females were at a greater risk of experiencing impaired emotional functioning compared to males (OR 1.76, 95%CI 1.44, 2.15, p < 0.01). Overweight/obesity compared to normal body weight (OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.31, 1.77, p < 0.01) was associated with poorer emotional functioning. Three hours or more of daily average physical activity compared to less than one hour (OR 0.59, 95%CI 0.40, 0.86, p < 0.01) was associated with improved emotional functioning. Consuming soft drinks compared to non-consumption (OR 1.24, 95%CI 1.02, 1.51) was associated with poorer emotional functioning; this became non-significant after corrections for multiple comparisons were made. Clustering of municipalities was accounted for in all models. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst findings were cross-sectional and causality cannot be inferred, this study highlights the interdependence of emotional and physical functioning in schoolchildren. This points to the potential for targeting shared risk factors for both physical chronic diseases and emotional and mental health conditions among children. Further longitudinal evidence will identify the potential for such shared intervention targets. Adopting a comprehensive, integrated approach to children's emotional, mental, and physical health is warranted.

2.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382527

RESUMO

Personalised nutrition approaches provide healthy eating advice tailored to the nutritional needs of the individual[...].

4.
Am J Prev Med ; 57(2): 209-219, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248745

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study tested the hypothesis that providing personalized nutritional advice and feedback more frequently would promote larger, more appropriate, and sustained changes in dietary behavior as well as greater reduction in adiposity. STUDY DESIGN: A 6-month RCT (Food4Me) was conducted in seven European countries between 2012 and 2013. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,125 participants were randomized to Lower- (n=562) or Higher- (n=563) Frequency Feedback groups. INTERVENTION: Participants in the Lower-Frequency group received personalized nutritional advice at baseline and at Months 3 and 6 of the intervention, whereas the Higher-Frequency group received personalized nutritional advice at baseline and at Months 1, 2, 3 and 6. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes were change in dietary intake (at food and nutrient levels) and obesity-related traits (body weight, BMI, and waist circumference). Participants completed an online Food Frequency Questionnaire to estimate usual dietary intake at baseline and at Months 3 and 6 of the intervention. Overall diet quality was evaluated using the 2010 Healthy Eating Index. Obesity-related traits were self-measured and reported by participants via the Internet. Statistical analyses were performed during the first quarter of 2018. RESULTS: At 3 months, participants in the Lower- and Higher-Frequency Feedback groups showed improvements in Healthy Eating Index score; this improvement was larger in the Higher-Frequency group than the Lower-Frequency group (Δ=1.84 points, 95% CI=0.79, 2.89, p=0.0001). Similarly, there were greater improvements for the Higher- versus Lower-Frequency group for body weight (Δ= -0.73 kg, 95% CI= -1.07, -0.38, p<0.0001), BMI (Δ= -0.24 kg/m2, 95% CI= -0.36, -0.13, p<0.0001), and waist circumference (Δ= -1.20 cm, 95% CI= -2.36, -0.04, p=0.039). However, only body weight and BMI remained significant at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: At 3 months, higher-frequency feedback produced larger improvements in overall diet quality as well as in body weight and waist circumference than lower-frequency feedback. However, only body weight and BMI remained significant at 6 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01530139.

5.
JAMA ; 321(17): 1702-1715, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063572

RESUMO

Importance: Both low and high gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, but optimal gestational weight gain remains uncertain and not well defined for all prepregnancy weight ranges. Objectives: To examine the association of ranges of gestational weight gain with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes and estimate optimal gestational weight gain ranges across prepregnancy body mass index categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual participant-level meta-analysis using data from 196 670 participants within 25 cohort studies from Europe and North America (main study sample). Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Individual participant-level data from 3505 participants within 4 separate hospital-based cohorts were used as a validation sample. Data were collected between 1989 and 2015. The final date of follow-up was December 2015. Exposures: Gestational weight gain. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome termed any adverse outcome was defined as the presence of 1 or more of the following outcomes: preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and small or large size for gestational age at birth. Results: Of the 196 670 women (median age, 30.0 years [quartile 1 and 3, 27.0 and 33.0 years] and 40 937 were white) included in the main sample, 7809 (4.0%) were categorized at baseline as underweight (BMI <18.5); 133 788 (68.0%), normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9); 38 828 (19.7%), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9); 11 992 (6.1%), obesity grade 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9); 3284 (1.7%), obesity grade 2 (BMI, 35.0-39.9); and 969 (0.5%), obesity grade 3 (BMI, ≥40.0). Overall, any adverse outcome occurred in 37.2% (n = 73 161) of women, ranging from 34.7% (2706 of 7809) among women categorized as underweight to 61.1% (592 of 969) among women categorized as obesity grade 3. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were 14.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for women categorized as underweight; 10.0 kg to less than 18.0 kg for normal weight; 2.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for overweight; 2.0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 1; weight loss or gain of 0 kg to less than 4.0 kg for obesity grade 2; and weight gain of 0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 3. These gestational weight gain ranges were associated with low to moderate discrimination between those with and those without adverse outcomes (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.55-0.76). Results for discriminative performance in the validation sample were similar to the corresponding results in the main study sample (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.51-0.79). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of pooled individual participant data from 25 cohort studies, the risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes varied by gestational weight gain and across the range of prepregnancy weights. The estimates of optimal gestational weight gain may inform prenatal counseling; however, the optimal gestational weight gain ranges had limited predictive value for the outcomes assessed.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
6.
Nutr Diet ; 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous clinical studies have suggested that high polyphenol extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) provides a superior cardioprotective effect compared to low polyphenol olive oil. However, further studies are required to replicate these results in non-Mediterranean populations. AIM: To investigate the effect of high polyphenol EVOO versus low polyphenol olive oil with known polyphenol composition on markers of cardiovascular disease risk in a healthy non-Mediterranean cohort. METHODS: In a double-blind randomised cross-over trial, the present study will examine the effect of high polyphenol EVOO versus low polyphenol olive oil in 50 healthy participants. Each intervention phase will be 3 weeks long with a 2-week washout period between each phase. Outcomes to be assessed include HDL cholesterol efflux, oxidised LDL, blood lipids, C-reactive protein, arterial stiffness, blood pressure and cognitive function. Dietary intake, physical activity levels and anthropometry will also be collected. DISCUSSION: Because of the rigorous trial design, novel and clinically relevant outcomes, the use of a well-characterised EVOO, and, in contrast to the current literature, the non-Mediterranean study population, the present study will provide a significant contribution to the understanding of the clinical importance of polyphenol intake in the Australian sociocultural context.

7.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917561

RESUMO

We examined the effectiveness of a computerised decision-support tool (DST), designed for paediatric healthcare professionals, as a means to tackle childhood obesity. A randomised controlled trial was conducted with 65 families of 6⁻12-year old overweight or obese children. Paediatricians, paediatric endocrinologists and a dietitian in two children's hospitals implemented the intervention. The intervention group (IG) received personalised meal plans and lifestyle optimisation recommendations via the DST, while families in the control group (CG) received general recommendations. After three months of intervention, the IG had a significant change in dietary fibre and sucrose intake by 4.1 and -4.6 g/day, respectively. In addition, the IG significantly reduced consumption of sweets (i.e., chocolates and cakes) and salty snacks (i.e., potato chips) by -0.1 and -0.3 portions/day, respectively. Furthermore, the CG had a significant increase of body weight and waist circumference by 1.4 kg and 2.1 cm, respectively, while Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased only in the IG by -0.4 kg/m². However, the aforementioned findings did not differ significantly between study groups. In conclusion, these findings indicate the dynamics of the DST in supporting paediatric healthcare professionals to improve the effectiveness of care in modifying obesity-related behaviours. Further research is needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Software , Algoritmos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Fatores de Risco , Programas de Redução de Peso
8.
PLoS Med ; 16(2): e1002744, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise de Dados , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
9.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 201, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2 and 3 obese women and to compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies. METHODS: We used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America, and Oceania. Of these women, 9065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3597 (1.6%), and 1095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2, and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape. RESULTS: We observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40 weeks was 14.2 kg (11.4-17.4) for underweight women, 14.5 kg (11.5-17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9 kg (10.1-17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2 kg (7.0-15.7), 8.7 kg (4.3-13.4) and 6.3 kg (1.9-11.1) for grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.

10.
J Am Soc Hypertens ; 12(10): 714-722, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115564

RESUMO

Hypertension phenotypes may represent differential pathophysiologic mechanisms and clinical impact, yet they have been poorly investigated. The study aimed to examine the associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with hypertension phenotypes in a large group of Greek children and to identify thresholds regarding risk of hypertension. This was a cross-sectional study with a regionally representative sample of 2473 schoolchildren aged 9-13 years, with full data on physical activity and sedentary behavior indices, as well as arterial blood pressure measurements, physical examination, and anthropometry. Hypertensive children of both sexes had lower levels of physical activity (steps/d). Hypertensive girls had lower moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), whereas hypertensive boys with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) had more screen time than their normotensive counterparts. Increased levels of physical activity was associated with 33%-54% lower risk of all hypertension phenotypes in both sexes, whereas increased MVPA was associated with 41%-65% lower risk of all phenotypes in girls and with ISH and systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH) in boys. In boys, higher sedentary time was associated with 11%-13% higher risk for SDH and ISH. Cutoff points of 12,378 steps/d, 47.3 min/d of MVPA, and 2.9 h/d of sedentary behavior were determined for identifying children at increased risk of hypertension. Physical activity is inversely associated with all hypertension phenotypes, whereas sedentary behavior is positively associated with ISH and SDH in boys. More studies should confirm the hypertension-specific cutoff values identified to be used in future prevention programs for childhood hypertension.

11.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-14, 2018 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049236

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate differences in macronutrient intake and to investigate the possible association between consumption of vegetable protein and the risk of overweight/obesity, within the Food4Me randomised, online intervention. Differences in macronutrient consumption among the participating countries grouped by EU Regions (Western Europe, British Isles, Eastern Europe and Southern Europe) were assessed. Relation of protein intake, within isoenergetic exchange patterns, from vegetable or animal sources with risk of overweight/obesity was assessed through the multivariate nutrient density model and a multivariate-adjusted logistic regression. A total of 2413 subjects who completed the Food4Me screening were included, with self-reported data on age, weight, height, physical activity and dietary intake. As success rates on reducing overweight/obesity are very low, form a public health perspective, the elaboration of policies for increasing intakes of vegetable protein and reducing animal protein and sugars, may be a method of combating overweight/obesity at a population level.

12.
Nutrients ; 10(4)2018 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29642557

RESUMO

Substantial evidence supports the effect of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) for managing chronic diseases, although trials have been primarily conducted in Mediterranean populations. The efficacy and feasibility of the Mediterranean dietary pattern for the management of chronic diseases has not been extensively evaluated in non-Mediterranean settings. This paper aims to describe the development of a MD model that complies with principles of the traditional MD applied in a multiethnic context. Optimal macronutrient and food-based composition was defined, and a two-week menu was devised incorporating traditional ingredients with evidence based on improvements in chronic disease management. Strategies were developed for the implementation of the diet model in a multiethnic population. Consistent with the principles of a traditional MD, the MD model was plant-based and high in dietary fat, predominantly monounsaturated fatty acids from extra virgin olive oil. Fruits, vegetables and wholegrains were a mainstay, and moderate amounts of nuts and seeds, fish, dairy and red wine were recommended. The diet encompassed key features of the MD including cuisine, biodiversity and sustainability. The MD model preserved traditional dietary components likely to elicit health benefits for individuals with chronic diseases, even with the adaptation to an Australian multiethnic population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Dieta Mediterrânea/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Dieta Saudável/etnologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/dietoterapia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Austrália , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etnologia , Estado Nutricional/etnologia , Valor Nutritivo/etnologia , Fatores de Proteção , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
13.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 19(5): 866-873, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the associations of vitamin D status and obesity with insulin resistance (IR) in children. METHODS: A sample of 2282 schoolchildren (9-13 years old) in Greece was examined. Sociodemographic, anthropometric (weight, height), biochemical (fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin and 25(OH)D), pubertal status and physical activity data were collected, using standard methods. The "Vitamin D Standardization Program" protocol was applied to standardize serum 25(OH)D values. RESULTS: The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) was higher in obese children compared to their over- and normal-weight counterparts (60.5% vs 51.6% and 51%, P = .017). Furthermore, children with IR (both obese and non-obese) had higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency compared to non-obese, non-insulin resistant children (66% and 59.2% vs 49.8%, P < .05), possibly indicating that IR is associated with vitamin D insufficiency, independently of obesity. In line with the above, the results from logistic regression analyses controlled for several potential confounders, showed a 1.48 (95% C.I: 1.2-1.84) higher likelihood for vitamin D insufficiency for insulin resistant children compared to the non-insulin resistant ones, while no significant association was observed with obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among schoolchildren in Greece, particularly among obese and insulin resistant ones. In addition, it highlighted that the significant association of vitamin D insufficiency with IR is possibly independent of obesity. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm this possible independent association but also explore the potential beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation on IR and possibly on weight management too.

14.
Nutrition ; 48: 6-12, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29469021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the associations among perinatal, sociodemographic, and behavioral factors and preschool overweight/obesity. METHODS: Data were collected from 7541 European preschoolers in May/June 2012. Children's anthropometrics were measured, and parents self-reported all other data via questionnaires. Level of statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: Certain perinatal factors (i.e., maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity, maternal excess gestational weight gain, excess birth weight, and "rapid growth velocity"), children's energy balance-related behaviors (i.e., high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, increased screen time, reduced active-play time), family sociodemographic characteristics (i.e., Eastern or Southern Europe, low maternal and paternal education), and parental overweight/obesity were identified as correlates of preschoolers' overweight/obesity. Furthermore, maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity, children's "rapid growth velocity," and increased screen time mediated by 21.2%, 12.5%, and 5.7%, respectively, the association between maternal education and preschoolers' body mass index. CONCLUSION: This study highlighted positive associations of preschooler's overweight/obesity with excess maternal prepregnancy and gestational weight gain, excess birth weight and "rapid growth velocity," Southern or Eastern European region, and parental overweight/obesity. Moreover, maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity, children's "rapid growth velocity," and increased screen time partially mediated the association between maternal education and preschoolers' body mass index. The findings of the present study may support childhood obesity prevention initiatives, because vulnerable population groups and most specifically low-educated families should be prioritized. Among other fields, these intervention initiatives should also focus on the importance of normal prepregnancy maternal weight status, normal growth velocity during infancy, and retaining preschool children's screen time within recommendations.

15.
J Hum Hypertens ; 32(3): 190-196, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29410455

RESUMO

Excess body weight and fat mass levels in children have previously been associated with childhood hypertension. The aim of the current study was to identify anthropometric and body composition indices most strongly associated with hypertension and to propose relevant cut-off values for these indices, above which the likelihood of hypertension in schoolchildren aged 9-13 years old is increased. A sample of 2,665 children participated in a cross-sectional epidemiological study, the Healthy Growth Study. The current study enrolled 1,315 children with full data on blood pressure, anthropometric, and body composition indices. Increased blood pressure in children was associated with body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio (OR) 1.188), waist circumference (OR 1.062), waist-to-height ratio (OR 1.101), total body fat mass (OR 1.063), and trunk fat mass levels (OR 1.083). Also, BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, trunk fat mass, and total body fat mass levels above the age-specific and gender-specific cut-off values identified in the present study were associated with a higher likelihood of hypertension. Anthropometric and body composition indices and the relevant cut-off values proposed by the current study can be used for identifying children with higher likelihood of presence of hypertension, as the available BMI thresholds for identifying overweight and obese children may underestimate those at increased risk of hypertension. It is essential for future studies to confirm these findings.

16.
Nutrients ; 10(1)2018 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316612

RESUMO

Diet-quality scores (DQS), which are developed across the globe, are used to define adherence to specific eating patterns and have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease and type-II diabetes. We explored the association between five diet-quality scores (Healthy Eating Index, HEI; Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI; MedDietScore, MDS; PREDIMED Mediterranean Diet Score, P-MDS; Dutch Healthy Diet-Index, DHDI) and markers of metabolic health (anthropometry, objective physical activity levels (PAL), and dried blood spot total cholesterol (TC), total carotenoids, and omega-3 index) in the Food4Me cohort, using regression analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Participants (n = 1480) were adults recruited from seven European Union (EU) countries. Overall, women had higher HEI and AHEI than men (p < 0.05), and scores varied significantly between countries. For all DQS, higher scores were associated with lower body mass index, lower waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference, and higher total carotenoids and omega-3-index (p trends < 0.05). Higher HEI, AHEI, DHDI, and P-MDS scores were associated with increased daily PAL, moderate and vigorous activity, and reduced sedentary behaviour (p trend < 0.05). We observed no association between DQS and TC. To conclude, higher DQS, which reflect better dietary patterns, were associated with markers of better nutritional status and metabolic health.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Colesterol/sangue , Comportamento Alimentar , Dieta Saudável , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antropometria , Biomarcadores/sangue , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur J Nutr ; 57(6): 2001-2036, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29090332

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite an acknowledged dearth of data on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations from Southern European countries, inter-country comparison is hampered by inconsistent data reporting. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a systematic literature review of available data on serum 25(OH)D concentrations and estimate vitamin D status in Southern European and Eastern Mediterranean countries, both at a population level and within key population subgroups, stratified by age, sex, season and country. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify and retrieve scientific articles reporting data on serum 25(OH)D concentration and/or vitamin D status following standard procedures. RESULTS: Data were extracted from 107 studies, stratified by sex and age group, representing 630,093 individuals. More than one-third of the studies reported mean 25(OH)D concentrations below 50 nmol/L and ~ 10% reported mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations below 25 nmol/L. Overall, females, neonates/ infants and adolescents had the higher prevalence of poor vitamin D status. As expected, there was considerable variability between studies. Specifically, mean 25(OH)D ranged from 6.0 (in Italian centenarians) to 158 nmol/L (in elderly Turkish men); the prevalence of serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L ranged from 6.8 to 97.9% (in Italian neonates). CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to expectations, there was a high prevalence of low vitamin D status in the Southern Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean regions, despite abundant sunshine. These data further emphasize the need for strategies, such as fortification of foods with vitamin D and/or vitamin D supplementation, which will be tailored to the needs of specific population groups with higher risk of insufficiency or deficiency, to efficiently tackle the pandemic of hypovitaminosis D in Europe.

18.
Eur J Nutr ; 57(4): 1357-1368, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28289868

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the vitamin D status in adults from seven European countries and to identify behavioural correlates. METHODS: In total, 1075 eligible adult men and women from Ireland, Netherlands, Spain, Greece, UK, Poland and Germany, were included in the study. RESULTS: Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, defined as 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25-OHD3) concentration of <30 and 30-49.9 nmol/L, respectively, were observed in 3.3 and 30.6% of the participants. The highest prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was found in the UK and the lowest in the Netherlands (8.2 vs. 1.1%, P < 0.05). In addition, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was higher in females compared with males (36.6 vs. 22.6%, P < 0.001), in winter compared with summer months (39.3 vs. 25.0%, P < 0.05) and in younger compared with older participants (36.0 vs. 24.4%, P < 0.05). Positive dose-response associations were also observed between 25-OHD3 concentrations and dietary vitamin D intake from foods and supplements, as well as with physical activity (PA) levels. Vitamin D intakes of ≥5 µg/day from foods and ≥5 µg/day from supplements, as well as engagement in ≥30 min/day of moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA were associated with higher odds (P < 0.05) for maintaining sufficient (≥50 nmol/L) 25-OHD3 concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varied considerably among European adults. Dietary intakes of ≥10 µg/day of vitamin D from foods and/or supplements and at least 30 min/day of moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA were the minimum thresholds associated with vitamin D sufficiency.

19.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 72(2): 207-219, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29242527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of obesity in adults and investigate to what extent these predictors are independent of other major confounding factors. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data collected at baseline from 1441 participants from the Food4Me study conducted in seven European countries were included in this study. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure dietary intake. Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity levels (PA), whereas participants self-reported their body weight, height and waist circumference via the internet. RESULTS: The main factors associated (p < 0.05) with higher BMI per 1-SD increase in the exposure were age (ß:1.11 kg/m2), intakes of processed meat (ß:1.04 kg/m2), red meat (ß:1.02 kg/m2), saturated fat (ß:0.84 kg/m2), monounsaturated fat (ß:0.80 kg/m2), protein (ß:0.74 kg/m2), total energy intake (ß:0.50 kg/m2), olive oil (ß:0.36 kg/m2), sugar sweetened carbonated drinks (ß:0.33 kg/m2) and sedentary time (ß:0.73 kg/m2). In contrast, the main factors associated with lower BMI per 1-SD increase in the exposure were PA (ß:-1.36 kg/m2), intakes of wholegrains (ß:-1.05 kg/m2), fibre (ß:-1.02 kg/m2), fruits and vegetables (ß:-0.52 kg/m2), nuts (ß:-0.52 kg/m2), polyunsaturated fat (ß:-0.50 kg/m2), Healthy Eating Index (ß:-0.42 kg/m2), Mediterranean diet score (ß:-0.40 kg/m2), oily fish (ß:-0.31 kg/m2), dairy (ß:-0.31 kg/m2) and fruit juice (ß:-0.25 kg/m2). CONCLUSIONS: These findings are important for public health and suggest that promotion of increased PA, reducing sedentary behaviours and improving the overall quality of dietary patterns are important strategies for addressing the existing obesity epidemic and associated disease burden.

20.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 14(1): 168, 2017 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National guidelines emphasize healthy eating to promote wellbeing and prevention of non-communicable diseases. The perceived healthiness of food is determined by many factors affecting food intake. A positive perception of healthy eating has been shown to be associated with greater diet quality. Internet-based methodologies allow contact with large populations. Our present study aims to design and evaluate a short nutritional perception questionnaire, to be used as a screening tool for assessing nutritional status, and to predict an optimal level of personalisation in nutritional advice delivered via the Internet. METHODS: Data from all participants who were screened and then enrolled into the Food4Me proof-of-principle study (n = 2369) were used to determine the optimal items for inclusion in a novel screening tool, the Nutritional Perception Screening Questionnaire-9 (NPSQ9). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on anthropometric and biochemical data and on dietary indices acquired from participants who had completed the Food4Me dietary intervention (n = 1153). Baseline and intervention data were analysed using linear regression and linear mixed regression, respectively. RESULTS: A final model with 9 NPSQ items was validated against the dietary intervention data. NPSQ9 scores were inversely associated with BMI (ß = -0.181, p < 0.001) and waist circumference (Β = -0.155, p < 0.001), and positively associated with total carotenoids (ß = 0.198, p < 0.001), omega-3 fatty acid index (ß = 0.155, p < 0.001), Healthy Eating Index (HEI) (ß = 0.299, p < 0.001) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) (ß = 0. 279, p < 0.001). Findings from the longitudinal intervention study showed a greater reduction in BMI and improved dietary indices among participants with lower NPSQ9 scores. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy eating perceptions and dietary habits captured by the NPSQ9 score, based on nine questionnaire items, were associated with reduced body weight and improved diet quality. Likewise, participants with a lower score achieved greater health improvements than those with higher scores, in response to personalised advice, suggesting that NPSQ9 may be used for early evaluation of nutritional status and to tailor nutritional advice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01530139 .


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Comportamento Alimentar , Dieta Saudável , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Antropometria , Peso Corporal , Dieta Mediterrânea , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Circunferência da Cintura
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA