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1.
Global Health ; 17(1): 26, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750391

RESUMO

A key component of any health system is the capacity to accurately diagnose individuals. One of the six building blocks of a health system as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) includes diagnostic tools. The WHO's Noncommunicable Disease Global Action Plan includes addressing the lack of diagnostics for noncommunicable diseases, through multi-stakeholder collaborations to develop new technologies that are affordable, safe, effective and quality controlled, and improving laboratory and diagnostic capacity and human resources. Many challenges exist beyond price and availability for the current tools included in the Package of Essential Noncommunicable Disease Interventions (PEN) for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases. These include temperature stability, adaptability to various settings (e.g. at high altitude), need for training in order to perform and interpret the test, the need for maintenance and calibration, and for Blood Glucose Meters non-compatible meters and test strips. To date the issues surrounding access to diagnostic and monitoring tools for noncommunicable diseases have not been addressed in much detail. The aim of this Commentary is to present the current landscape and challenges with regards to guidance from the WHO on diagnostic tools using the WHO REASSURED criteria, which define a set of key characteristics for diagnostic tests and tools. These criteria have been used for communicable diseases, but so far have not been used for noncommunicable diseases. Diagnostic tools have played an important role in addressing many communicable diseases, such as HIV, TB and neglected tropical diseases. Clearly more attention with regards to diagnostics for noncommunicable diseases as a key component of the health system is needed.

2.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739222

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare attitudes, lifestyle behaviors, and cardiometabolic risk factors between individuals with and without a relative with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) living in the same household. METHODS: A secondary analysis of baseline data from an implementation study in Peru was conducted. The outcomes were attitudes towards changing lifestyle behaviors (e.g. intentions towards losing weight, increasing physical activity, reducing salt consumption, etc), profiles of health lifestyle behaviors (e.g. daily smoking, heavy drinking, and physical activity), and cardiometabolic risk factors (e.g., overweight [body mass index ≥25 kg/m2] and hypertension); whereas the exposure was the presence of at least one relative with known diagnosis of T2DM living in the same household. Multilevel logistic mixed effect regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: A total of 2298 records, 1134 (49.4%) males, mean age 43.3 (SD: 17.2) years, were analyzed. There was no evidence of a difference in lifestyle-changing attitudes, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity levels, and hypertension between individuals with and without relatives with T2DM. Overweight was 63% more common among individuals having a relative with a T2DM in multivariable model (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.03-2.61). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with relatives with T2DM have higher probabilities of being overweight compared to those who did not have relatives with T2DM in the same household. The absence of differences on lifestyle-related attitudes and behaviors highlight the need of involving relatives of patients with T2DM on intervention strategies to further enhance diabetes prevention and management efforts.

3.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(12): e00050417, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800781

RESUMO

People with disabilities (PWD) face several challenges accessing medical services. However, the extent to which architectural and transportation barriers impede access to healthcare is unknown. In Peru, despite laws requiring that buildings be accessible for PWD, no report confirms that medical facilities comply with such regulations. Thus, we aim to provide an association between these barriers and access to medical facilities. Data from a Peruvian disability survey were analyzed. Participants were 18 years of age and older people who reported having a physical disability. Accessibility was defined by reported struggles accessing medical facilities (health or rehabilitation centers). Absence of ramps, handrails, elevators, adapted bathrooms, and information counters in medical facilities were reported as architectural barriers. The transportation barriers analyzed included struggles using buses or trains. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and to control for confounding variables. 20,663 participants were included, their mean age was 66.5 years and 57.5% were females. Architectural and transportation barriers reported were 40% and 61%, respectively. All barriers reported were more prevalent in rural compared to urban areas (p < 0.001). Inadequacy of ramps, handrails, and adapted elevators and bathrooms were associated with limited use of rehabilitation centers (p < 0.001) but not of health centers (p > 0.05). Architectural and transportation barriers represent a hindrance to seeking treatment at rehabilitation centers. Actions to improve this situation are needed.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Acessibilidade Arquitetônica , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transportes
5.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(12): e00050417, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055606

RESUMO

Abstract: People with disabilities (PWD) face several challenges accessing medical services. However, the extent to which architectural and transportation barriers impede access to healthcare is unknown. In Peru, despite laws requiring that buildings be accessible for PWD, no report confirms that medical facilities comply with such regulations. Thus, we aim to provide an association between these barriers and access to medical facilities. Data from a Peruvian disability survey were analyzed. Participants were 18 years of age and older people who reported having a physical disability. Accessibility was defined by reported struggles accessing medical facilities (health or rehabilitation centers). Absence of ramps, handrails, elevators, adapted bathrooms, and information counters in medical facilities were reported as architectural barriers. The transportation barriers analyzed included struggles using buses or trains. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and to control for confounding variables. 20,663 participants were included, their mean age was 66.5 years and 57.5% were females. Architectural and transportation barriers reported were 40% and 61%, respectively. All barriers reported were more prevalent in rural compared to urban areas (p < 0.001). Inadequacy of ramps, handrails, and adapted elevators and bathrooms were associated with limited use of rehabilitation centers (p < 0.001) but not of health centers (p > 0.05). Architectural and transportation barriers represent a hindrance to seeking treatment at rehabilitation centers. Actions to improve this situation are needed.


Resumen: Las personas con discapacidades (PWD por sus siglas en inglés) se enfrentan a diversos desafíos, en lo que se refiere a servicios de salud. Pese a ello, se desconoce hasta qué punto se extienden las barreras arquitectónicas y de transporte que impiden el acceso al sistema de salud. En Perú, a pesar de que las leyes requieren que los edificios sean accesibles para PWD, no existe ningún informe que muestre que los establecimientos médicos cumplan con esta normativa. Por lo tanto, nos proponemos determinar la asociación entre tales barreras y el acceso a centros médicos. Se analizaron datos procedentes de una encuesta nacional sobre discapacidad. Los participantes eran personas de 18 años y más que informaron de una discapacidad física. La accesibilidad se definió mediante las dificultades de acceder a centros de salud (centros de salud o rehabilitación). Las barreras arquitectónicas consideradas, y que fueron informadas, son: ausencia de rampas, barandillas, ascensores, baños adaptados para discapacitados, así como mostradores de información en centros médicos. Las barreras de transporte examinadas incluyeron las dificultades usando autobuses o trenes. Los modelos de regresión Poisson con variancia robusta se usaron para estimar la ratio de prevalencia (PR) y para controlar las variables de confusión. Se incluyeron a 20.663 participantes. La edad media fue 66,5 años y un 57,5% eran mujeres. Las barreras arquitectónicas de las que se informó representaron un 40% y las de transporte un 61%. Los informes de todas las barreras fueron mayores en áreas rurales, en comparación con las áreas urbanas (p < 0,001). Las deficiencias en rampas, barandillas, ascensores y baños adaptados estuvieron asociadas con una baja utilización de los centros de rehabilitación (p < 0,001), pero no en el caso de los centros de salud (p > 0,05). Las barreras arquitectónicas y de transporte representan un impedimento para la búsqueda de centros de salud y rehabilitación. Se necesitan más iniciativas para mejorar esta situación.


Resumo: As pessoas portadoras de deficiência (PPD) enfrentam diversos desafios no acesso aos serviços de saúde. Entretanto, não se sabe até que ponto as barreiras arquitetônicas e de transporte impedem o acesso à assistência. No Peru, apesar de leis que exigem a acessibilidade dos prédios para PPD, não há relato de que os serviços de saúde cumpram com tais regras. O estudo teve como objetivo determinar a associação entre esse tipo de barreira e o acesso aos serviços de saúde. Foram analisados os dados de um inquérito nacional sobre deficiência. Os participantes eram pessoas com 18 anos ou mais que relatavam ser portadoras de deficiência física. A acessibilidade era definida pelo relato de dificuldades em acesso aos serviços de saúde (centros de saúde ou de reabilitação). As barreiras arquitetônicas consistiam na ausência de rampas, corrimões, elevadores e banheiros adaptados e balcões de informação nos serviços de saúde. As barreiras de transporte incluíam dificuldades no uso de ônibus ou trens. Foram utilizados modelos de regressão Poisson com variância robusta para estimar razões de prevalência (RP) e controlar por fatores de confusão. Foram incluídos 20.663 participantes, com média de idade de 66,5 anos, sendo 57,5% do sexo feminino. Houve relato de barreiras arquitetônicas e de transporte por 40% e 61% dos participantes, respectivamente. O relato de barreiras era mais frequente em áreas rurais comparado com áreas urbanas (p < 0,001). A ausência de rampas, corrimões e elevadores e banheiros adaptados estava associada com menor utilização de centros de reabilitação (p < 0,001), mas não de centros de saúde (p > 0,05). As barreiras arquitetônicas e de transporte representam um impedimento à busca de assistência em centros de reabilitação. São necessárias medidas para melhorar essa situação.

6.
Disabil Health J ; 11(1): 93-98, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28420592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experiences of discrimination lead people from vulnerable groups to avoid medical healthcare. It is yet to be known if such experiences affect people with disabilities (PWD) in the same manner. OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between perceived discrimination and healthcare-seeking behavior in people with disabilities and to explore differences of this association across disability types. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study with data from a national survey of people with disabilities. Perceived discrimination and care-seeking behavior were measured as self-reports from the survey. Dependence for daily life activities, possession of health insurance, and other disability-related variables were included and considered as confounders. We used Poisson regression models and techniques for multistage sampling in the analyses. A stratified analysis was used to explore effects of discrimination across types of disability. RESULTS: Most of PWD were 65 years or older (67.1%). Prevalence of healthcare seeking was 78.8% in those who perceived discrimination, and 86.1% in those who did not. After adjusting for potential confounders, the probability of not seeking care was higher in people who reported perceived discrimination (adjusted PR = 1.15; 95%CI: 1.04-1.28). In a stratified analysis, significant effects of discrimination were found in people with communication disability (adjusted PR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.07-1.67) and with physical disability (adjusted PR = 1.17, 95%CI: 1.03-1.34). CONCLUSIONS: People with disabilities who perceive discrimination are less likely to seek healthcare. This association was higher for people with communication and physical disabilities. These results provide evidence to institutions who attempt to tackle discrimination.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Discriminação Social , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição de Poisson , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
7.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 99(6): 1116-1123, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess rehabilitation infrastructure in Peru in terms of the World Health Organization (WHO) health systems building blocks. DESIGN: Anonymous quantitative survey; questions were based on the WHO's Guidelines for Essential Trauma Care and rehabilitation professionals' input. SETTING: Large public hospitals and referral centers and an online survey platform. PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of hospital personnel working in rehabilitation and neurology (N=239), recruited through existing contacts and professional societies. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcome measures were for 4 WHO domains: health workforce, health service delivery, essential medical products and technologies, and health information systems. RESULTS: Regarding the domain of health workforce, 47% of physical therapists, 50% of occupational therapists, and 22% of physiatrists never see inpatients. Few reported rehabilitative nurses (15%) or prosthetist/orthotists (14%) at their hospitals. Even at the largest hospitals, most reported ≤3 occupational therapists (54%) and speech-language pathologists (70%). At hospitals without speech-language pathologists, physical therapists (49%) or nobody (34%) perform speech-language pathology roles. At hospitals without occupational therapists, physical therapists most commonly (59%) perform occupational therapy tasks. Alternate prosthetist/orthotist task performers are occupational therapists (26%), physical therapists (19%), and physicians (16%). Forty-four percent reported interdisciplinary collaboration. Regarding the domain of health services, the most frequent inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation barriers were referral delays (50%) and distance/transportation (39%), respectively. Regarding the domain of health information systems, 28% reported rehabilitation service data collection. Regarding the domain of essential medical products and technologies, electrophysical agents (88%), gyms (81%), and electromyography (76%) were most common; thickened liquids (19%), swallow studies (24%), and cognitive training tools (28%) were least frequent. CONCLUSIONS: Rehabilitation emphasis is on outpatient services, and there are comparatively adequate numbers of physical therapists and physiatrists relative to rehabilitation personnel. Financial barriers seem low for accessing existing services. There appear to be shortages of inpatient rehabilitation, specialized services, and interdisciplinary collaboration. These may be addressed by redistributing personnel and investing in education and equipment for specialized services. Further examination of task sharing's role in Peru's rehabilitation services is necessary to evaluate its potential to address deficiencies.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/organização & administração , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Reabilitação/organização & administração , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/normas , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamentos e Provisões/normas , Equipamentos e Provisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Peru , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Reabilitação/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
8.
Horiz. méd. (Impresa) ; 18(3): 30-36, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012242

RESUMO

Objetivo: Conocer las experiencias y percepciones de donantes de sangre en un hospital público. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio cualitativo con orientación fenomenológica en un hospital público de Lima. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a profundidad y notas de campo basadas en observaciones a los participantes. Resultados: Se entrevistó a doce donantes, los cuales manifestaron no haber tenido mucha información sobre la donación y el banco de sangre. Sin embargo, luego de su experiencia de donar se identificó aspectos positivos como la atención de calidad, rápida y minuciosa. Los participantes valoran el trato cordial del personal a la hora de brindar información, el reducido tiempo de espera y la compañía durante el proceso de extracción de la sangre. Los aspectos negativos fueron la falta de publicidad y difusión de la donación voluntaria de sangre. A pesar de ello la mayoría de entrevistados manifestaron su intención de retornar debido a la calidad del servicio. En resumen, la percepción de los participantes fue favorable a la donación, al recibir una atención de calidad, con información oportuna en el tiempo adecuado. Conclusiones: Los entrevistados no tenían mayor información sobre la posibilidad de hacer donaciones voluntarias de sangre en el hospital. Posterior a su experiencia, la percepción sobre la donación fue favorable, indicando su intención de participar en futuras donaciones.


Objective: To know the experiences and perceptions of blood donors at a public hospital. Materials and methods: A qualitative study with phenomenological orientation was performed at a public hospital in Lima. Semi-structured in-depth interviews and field notes based on participants' observations were conducted. Results: A total of 12 donors who reported not having much information about donation and blood banks were interviewed. However, after their donation experience, they identified positive aspects such as a high-quality, fast and thorough care. Participants appreciated the personnel's cordial treatment when providing information, the short waiting time, and the personnel's company during the process of blood extraction. The negative aspects were the lack of dissemination and publicity of voluntary blood donation. In spite of this, most interviewees expressed their intention to return due to the high-quality service they received. In summary, participants' perception of blood donation was favorable because they received high-quality care, with timely information in the appropriate time. Conclusions: Interviewees had limited information about the possibility of making voluntary blood donations at the hospital. After their experience, participants perceived that donating blood was favorable and indicated their intention to participate in future donations.

9.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 34(2): 183-191, 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between having a medical specialty and the monthly income of Peruvian doctors, and to compare the economic incomes among areas with higher and lower density of medical doctors in Peru. MATERIALS AND METHODS: : We analyzed data of the National Satisfaction Survey of Health Users (in Spanish: ENSUSALUD) carried out in Peru in the year 2015. This survey, with a national level of inference, was performed on physicians working at health facilities in Peru. Monthly income was measured considering all paid activities of the physician. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and aPR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated through Poisson regression models with robust variance, taking into account the complex sampling of the survey. RESULTS: Out of 2 219 Physicians surveyed, 2 154 (97.0%) observations were analyzed. The probability of earning > S/5 000 (1 572.3 USD) per month was 29.1% for general practitioners; 65.6% for specialists; 63.0% for clinical specialists; 70.5% for surgeons, and 55.7% for other specialties. Compared to general practitioners, physicians with clinical, surgical, and other specialties were more likely to earn > S/5 000 per month (aPR = 1.44, 1.49, and 1.26, respectively). The probability of earning > S/5 000 was higher in those working in departments with low medical density. CONCLUSIONS: Monthly incomes were higher for specialist physicians than for non-specialists. Economic incomes were higher in departments with lower density of physicians, which may encourage physicians to work in these departments.


Assuntos
Renda , Medicina , Médicos/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Geriatr ; 17(1): 250, 2017 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29073885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that hypertension is a risk factor for cognitive impairment, but whether this association is also present in extremely poor populations in Low Middle Income Countries settings remains to be studied. Understanding other drivers of cognitive impairment in this unique population also merits attention. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis using data from the "Encuesta de Salud y Bienestar del Adulto Mayor", a regional survey conducted in an extremely poor population of people older than 65 years old from 12 Peruvian cities in 2012. The outcome variable was cognitive impairment, determined by a score of ≤7 in the modified Mini-Mental State Examination. The exposure was self-reported hypertension status. Variables such as age, gender, controlled hypertension, education level, occupation, depression and area of living (rural/urban) were included in the adjusted analysis. We used Poisson regression with robust variance to calculate prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: Data from 3842 participants was analyzed, 51.8% were older than 70 years, and 45.6% were females. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 1.7% (95% CI 1.3%-2.1%). There was no significant difference on the prevalence of cognitive impairment between the group of individuals with hypertension in comparison with those without hypertension (PR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.33-1.23). CONCLUSIONS: The association described between hypertension and cognitive impairment was not found in a sample of extremely poor Peruvian older adults.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Pobreza , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Peru , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
11.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 34(2): 183-191, abr.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-902920

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivos Evaluar la asociación entre tener una especialidad médica y el ingreso económico mensual en médicos peruanos, y comparar los ingresos económicos entre áreas con mayor y menor densidad de médicos en Perú. Materiales y métodos Se analizaron los datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Satisfacción de Usuarios de Salud realizada en Perú el año 2015. Esta encuesta con nivel de inferencia nacional fue realizada a médicos que laboran en establecimientos de salud de Perú. Se evaluó el ingreso económico considerando todas las actividades remuneradas del médico. Se calcularon las razones de prevalencia crudas y ajustadas (RP y RPa) y sus intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC95%) mediante regresiones de Poisson con varianza robusta, tomando en cuenta el muestreo complejo de la encuesta. Resultados De 2219 médicos encuestados, se analizaron 2154 (97,0%) observaciones. La frecuencia de ganar >S/ 5000 (1572,3 USD) mensuales fue de 29,1% en médicos generales; 65,6% en especialistas; 63,0% en especialidades clínicas; 70,5% en especialidades quirúrgicas, y 55,7% en otras especialidades. En comparación a los médicos generales, los médicos con especialidades clínicas, quirúrgicas, y otras especialidades, tuvieron más probabilidades de ganar >S/ 5000 mensuales (RPa = 1,44, 1,49, y 1,26, respectivamente). La probabilidad de ganar >S/ 5000 fue mayor en quienes laboraban en departamentos con baja densidad de médicos. Conclusiones Los ingresos económicos fueron mayores en médicos especialistas que en no especialistas. Los ingresos económicos fueron mayores en departamentos con menor densidad de médicos, lo cual puede animar a que los médicos laboren en dichos departamentos.


ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate the relationship between having a medical specialty and the monthly income of Peruvian doctors, and to compare the economic incomes among areas with higher and lower density of medical doctors in Peru. Materials and methods : We analyzed data of the National Satisfaction Survey of Health Users (in Spanish: ENSUSALUD) carried out in Peru in the year 2015. This survey, with a national level of inference, was performed on physicians working at health facilities in Peru. Monthly income was measured considering all paid activities of the physician. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and aPR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated through Poisson regression models with robust variance, taking into account the complex sampling of the survey. Results Out of 2 219 Physicians surveyed, 2 154 (97.0%) observations were analyzed. The probability of earning > S/5 000 (1 572.3 USD) per month was 29.1% for general practitioners; 65.6% for specialists; 63.0% for clinical specialists; 70.5% for surgeons, and 55.7% for other specialties. Compared to general practitioners, physicians with clinical, surgical, and other specialties were more likely to earn > S/5 000 per month (aPR = 1.44, 1.49, and 1.26, respectively). The probability of earning > S/5 000 was higher in those working in departments with low medical density. Conclusions Monthly incomes were higher for specialist physicians than for non-specialists. Economic incomes were higher in departments with lower density of physicians, which may encourage physicians to work in these departments.

12.
Global Health ; 12(1): 29, 2016 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27255370

RESUMO

Human capital requires opportunities to develop and capacity to overcome challenges, together with an enabling environment that fosters critical and disruptive innovation. Exploring such features is necessary to establish the foundation of solid long-term partnerships. In this paper we describe the experience of the CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, based at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru, as a case study for fostering meaningful and sustainable partnerships for international collaborative research. The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases was established in 2009 with the following Mission: "We support the development of young researchers and collaboration with national and international institutions. Our motivation is to improve population's health through high quality research." The Centre's identity is embedded in its core values - generosity, innovation, integrity, and quality- and its trajectory is a result of various interactions between multiple individuals, collaborators, teams, and institutions, which together with the challenges confronted, enables us to make an objective assessment of the partnership we would like to pursue, nurture and support. We do not intend to provide a single example of a successful partnership, but in contrast, to highlight what can be translated into opportunities to be faced by research groups based in low- and middle-income countries, and how these encounters can provide a strong platform for fruitful and sustainable partnerships. In defiant contexts, partnerships require to be nurtured and sustained. Acknowledging that all partnerships are not and should not be the same, we also need to learn from the evolution of such relationships, its key successes, hurdles and failures to contribute to the promotion of a culture of global solidarity where mutual goals, mutual gains, as well as mutual responsibilities are the norm. In so doing, we will all contribute to instil a new culture where expectations, roles and interactions among individuals and their teams are horizontal, the true nature of partnerships.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Peru
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