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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(10): 105501, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216391

RESUMO

Viscosities η and diffusion coefficients D_{s} of linear and branched alkanes at pressure 0

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971767

RESUMO

A stable passivation of surface dangling bonds underlies the outstanding friction properties of diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings in boundary lubrication. While hydrogen is the simplest termination of a carbon dangling bond, fluorine can also be used as a monoatomic termination, providing an even higher chemical stability. However, whether and under which conditions a substitution of hydrogen with fluorine can be beneficial to friction is still an open question. Moreover, which of the chemical differences between C-H and C-F bonds are responsible for the change in friction has not been unequivocally understood yet. In order to shed light on this problem, we develop a density functional theory-based, nonreactive force field that describes the relevant properties of hydrogen- and fluorine-terminated diamond and DLC tribological interfaces. Molecular dynamics and nudged elastic band simulations reveal that the frictional stress at such interfaces correlates with the corrugation of the contact potential energy, thus ruling out a significant role of the mass of the terminating species on friction. Furthermore, the corrugation of the contact potential energy is almost exclusively determined by steric factors, while electrostatic interactions only play a minor role. In particular, friction between atomically flat diamond surfaces is controlled by the density of terminations, by the C-H and C-F bond lengths, and by the H and F atomic radii. For sliding DLC/DLC interfaces, the intrinsic atomic-scale surface roughness plays an additional role. While surface fluorination decreases the friction of incommensurate diamond contacts, it can negatively affect the friction performance of carbon surfaces that are disordered and not atomically flat. This work provides a general framework to understand the impact of chemical structure of surfaces on friction and to generate design rules for optimally terminated low-friction systems.

3.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 16(1): 576-586, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815473

RESUMO

We analyze how to obtain non-resonant and resonant Raman spectra within the Placzek as well as the Albrecht approximation. Both approximations are derived from the matrix element for light scattering by application of the Kramers, Heisenberg, and Dirac formula. It is shown that the Placzek expression results from a semi-classical approximation of the combined electronic and vibrational transition energies. Molecular hydrogen, water, and butadiene are studied as test cases. It turns out that the Placzek approximation agrees qualitatively with the more accurate Albrecht formulation even in the resonant regime for the excitations of single vibrational quanta. However, multiple vibrational excitations are absent in Placzek but can be of similar intensities to single excitations under resonance conditions. The Albrecht approximation takes multiple vibrational excitations into account, and the resulting simulated spectra also exhibit good agreement with experimental Raman spectra in the resonance region.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(12): 6651-6661, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855620

RESUMO

We present 2p core-level spectra of size-selected aluminum and silicon cluster cations from soft X-ray photoionization efficiency curves and density functional theory. The experimental and theoretical results are in very good quantitative agreement and allow for geometric structure determination. New ground state geometries for Al12+, Si15+, Si16+, and Si19+ are proposed on this basis. The chemical shifts of the 2p electron binding energies reveal a substantial difference for aluminum and silicon clusters: while in aluminum the 2p electron binding energy decreases with increasing coordination number, no such correlation was observed for silicon. The 2p binding energy shifts in clusters of both elements differ strongly from those of the corresponding bulk matter. For aluminum clusters, the core-level shifts between outer shell atoms and the encapsulated atom are of opposite sign and one order of magnitude larger than the corresponding core-level shift between surface and bulk atoms in the solid. For silicon clusters, the core-level shifts are of the same order of magnitude in clusters and in bulk silicon but no obvious correlation of chemical shift and bond length, as present for reconstructed silicon surfaces, are observed.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 151, 2019 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635585

RESUMO

Superlubricity of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) coatings under boundary lubrication with organic friction modifiers is important for industrial applications, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, combined experiments and simulations unveil a universal tribochemical mechanism leading to superlubricity of ta-C/ta-C tribopairs. Pin-on-disc sliding experiments show that ultra- and superlow friction with negligible wear can be achieved by lubrication with unsaturated fatty acids or glycerol, but not with saturated fatty acids and hydrocarbons. Atomistic simulations reveal that, due to the simultaneous presence of two reactive centers (carboxylic group and C=C double bond), unsaturated fatty acids can concurrently chemisorb on both ta-C surfaces and bridge the tribogap. Sliding-induced mechanical strain triggers a cascade of molecular fragmentation reactions releasing passivating hydroxyl, keto, epoxy, hydrogen and olefinic groups. Similarly, glycerol's three hydroxyl groups react simultaneously with both ta-C surfaces, causing the molecule's complete mechano-chemical fragmentation and formation of aromatic passivation layers with superlow friction.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(9): 096101, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949557

RESUMO

Large-scale quantum molecular dynamics of water-lubricated diamond (111) surfaces in sliding contact reveals multiple friction regimes. While water starvation causes amorphization of the tribological interface, small H_{2}O traces are sufficient to preserve crystallinity. This can result in high friction due to cold welding via ether groups or in ultralow friction due to aromatic surface passivation triggered by tribo-induced Pandey reconstruction. At higher water coverage, Grotthuss-type diffusion and H_{2}O dissociation yield dense H/OH surface passivation leading to another ultralow friction regime.

7.
Tribol Lett ; 63: 26, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27445442

RESUMO

The collision of two cylindrical hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) asperities with approximately 60 % sp3 hybridization has been studied using classical molecular dynamics. The severity of the collision can be controlled by the impact parameter b that measures the width of the projected overlap of the two cylinders. For a cylinder radius of R = 23 nm, three collisions with b = 0.5 nm, b = 1 nm and b = 2.0 nm are compared. While for the two small b a single shear band between the collision partners and a strongly localized sp2/sp1 hybridised third-body zone between the asperities is observed, the b = 2 nm collision is accompanied by pronounced plastic deformation in both asperities that destabilize the metastable sp3-rich phase leading to a drastic increase in the amount of rehybridized tribomaterial. In addition, pronounced roughening of the cylinder surfaces, asymmetric material transfer and the generation of wear debris are found in this case. For the b = 0.5 and 1 nm collision, the evolution of third-body volume can be quantitatively described by a simple geometric overlap model that assumes a sliding-induced phase transformation localized between both asperities. For b = 2 nm, this model underestimates the third-body volume by more than 150 % indicating that plasticity has to be taken into account in simple geometric models of severe DLC/DLC asperity collisions.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(12): 8232-8, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26953934

RESUMO

The long-term stability of InGaN photoanodes in liquid environments is an essential requirement for their use in photoelectrochemistry. In this paper, we investigate the relationships between the compositional changes at the surface of n-type In(x)Ga(1-x)N (x ∼ 0.10) and its photoelectrochemical stability in phosphate buffer solutions with pH 7.4 and 11.3. Surface analyses reveal that InGaN undergoes oxidation under photoelectrochemical operation conditions (i.e., under solar light illumination and constant bias of 0.5 VRHE), forming a thin amorphous oxide layer having a pH-dependent chemical composition. We found that the formed oxide is mainly composed of Ga-O bonds at pH 7.4, whereas at pH 11.3 the In-O bonds are dominant. The photoelectrical properties of InGaN photoanodes are intimately related to the chemical composition of their surface oxides. For instance, after the formation of the oxide layer (mainly Ga-O bonds) at pH 7.4, no photocurrent flow was observed, whereas the oxide layer (mainly In-O bonds) at pH 11.3 contributes to enhance the photocurrent, possibly because of its reported high photocatalytic activity. Once a critical oxide thickness was reached, especially at pH 7.4, no significant changes in the photoelectrical properties were observed for the rest of the test duration. This study provides new insights into the oxidation processes occurring at the InGaN/liquid interface, which can be exploited to improve InGaN stability and enhance photoanode performance for biosensing and water-splitting applications.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(12): 4018-28, 2016 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26931527

RESUMO

Despite the pronounced polarity of C-F bonds, many fluorinated carbon compounds are hydrophobic: a controversial phenomenon known as "polar hydrophobicity". Here, its underlying microscopic mechanisms are explored by ab initio calculations of fluorinated and hydrogenated diamond (111) surfaces interacting with single water molecules. Gradient- and van der Waals-corrected density functional theory simulations reveal that "polar hydrophobicity" of the fully fluorinated surfaces is caused by a negligible surface/water electrostatic interaction. The densely packed C-F surface dipoles generate a short-range electric field that decays within the core repulsion zone of the surface and hence vanishes in regions accessible by adsorbates. As a result, water physisorption on fully F-terminated surfaces is weak (adsorption energies Ead < 0.1 eV) and dominated by van der Waals interactions. Conversely, the near-surface electric field generated by loosely packed dipoles on mixed F/H-terminated surfaces has a considerably longer range, resulting in a stronger water physisorption (Ead > 0.2 eV) that is dominated by electrostatic interactions. The suppression of electrostatic interactions also holds for perfluorinated molecular carbon compounds, thus explaining the prevalent hydrophobicity of fluorocarbons. In general, densely packed polar terminations do not always lead to short-range electric fields. For example, surfaces with substantial electron density spill-out give rise to electric fields with a much slower decay. However, electronic spill-out is limited in F/H-terminated carbon materials. Therefore, our ab initio results can be reproduced and rationalized by a simple classical point-charge model. Consequently, classical force fields can be used to study the wetting of F/H-terminated diamond, revealing a pronounced correlation between adsorption energies of single H2O molecules and water contact angles.

10.
Langmuir ; 31(40): 11033-9, 2015 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26267214

RESUMO

Ultralow friction (coefficient of friction µ ≈ 0.005) is observed when two steel surfaces are brought into sliding contact in the presence of a particular 1,3-diketone lubricant (1-(4-ethyl phenyl) nonane-1,3-dione). We investigate the friction process of such a system both experimentally and theoretically and show that the superlubricity is caused by a novel, unique mechanism: The formation of iron-1,3-diketonato complexes during frictional contact leads to a self-limiting, tribochemical polishing process while at the same time a self-assembled monolayer of the diketone is formed on the employed steel surfaces. This polishing process reduces the contact pressure and at the same time leads to formation of a boundary lubricant layer. During sliding the system transits from the original boundary lubrication regime toward hydrodynamic lubrication. Conductivity measurements across the friction gap during sliding show that the lubricant layer present in the gap between the two shearing surfaces is a only few 10 nanometers thick, so that the molecules experience under typical sliding conditions shear rates of a few 10(6) s(-1). Simulations show that under such strong shear the molecules become strongly oriented in the friction gap and the effective viscosity in sliding direction is significantly reduced so that the system is in the thin film lubrication regime and superlubricity is observed. The results of the experiments suggest that such diketones are promising lubricants to achieve a decrease of energy loss and frictional damage in steel based mechanical devices.

11.
J Chem Phys ; 142(12): 124316, 2015 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25833588

RESUMO

The binding in small Cr clusters is re-investigated, where the correct description of the dimer in three charge states is used as criterion to assign the most suitable density functional theory approximation. The difficulty in chromium arises from the subtle interplay between energy gain from hybridization and energetic cost due to exchange between s and d based molecular orbitals. Variations in published bond lengths and binding energies are shown to arise from insufficient numerical representation of electron density and Kohn-Sham wave-functions. The best functional performance is found for gradient corrected (GGA) functionals and meta-GGAs, where we find severe differences between functionals from the same family due to the importance of exchange. Only the "best fit" from Bayesian error estimation is able to predict the correct energetics for all three charge states unambiguously. With this knowledge, we predict small bond-lengths to be exclusively present in Cr2 and Cr2 (-). Already for the dimer cation, solely long bond-lengths appear, similar to what is found in the trimer and in chromium bulk.

12.
ACS Nano ; 9(2): 1478-91, 2015 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25530212

RESUMO

This study investigates the tribolayer properties at the interface of ceramic/metal (i.e., WC/W) sliding contacts using various experimental approaches and classical atomistic simulations. Experimentally, nanoindentation and micropillar compression tests, as well as adhesion mapping by means of atomic force microscopy, are used to evaluate the strength of tungsten-carbon tribolayers. To capture the influence of environmental conditions, a detailed chemical and structural analysis is performed on the worn surfaces by means of XPS mapping and depth profiling along with transmission electron microscopy of the debris particles. Experimentally, the results indicate a decrease in hardness and modulus of the worn surface compared to the unworn one. Atomistic simulations of nanoindentation on deformed and undeformed specimens are used to probe the strength of the WC tribolayer and despite the fact that the simulations do not include oxygen, the simulations correlate well with the experiments on deformed and undeformed surfaces, where the difference in behavior is attributed to the bonding and structural differences of amorphous and crystalline W-C. Adhesion mapping indicates a decrease in surface adhesion, which based on chemical analysis is attributed to surface passivation.

13.
Nano Lett ; 14(12): 7145-52, 2014 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25375666

RESUMO

We study nanoindentation and scratching of graphene-covered Pt(111) surfaces in computer simulations and experiments. We find elastic response at low load, plastic deformation of Pt below the graphene at intermediate load, and eventual rupture of the graphene at high load. Friction remains low in the first two regimes, but jumps to values also found for bare Pt(111) surfaces upon graphene rupture. While graphene substantially enhances the load carrying capacity of the Pt substrate, the substrate's intrinsic hardness and friction are recovered upon graphene rupture.

14.
Adv Mater ; 26(47): 8017-22, 2014 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25355241

RESUMO

Selectivity and low power consumption are major challenges in the development of sophisticated gas sensor devices. A sensor system is presented that unifies selective sensor-gas interactions and energy-harvesting properties, using defined organic-inorganic hybrid materials. Simulations of chemical-binding interactions and the consequent electronic surface modulation give more insight into the complex sensing mechanism of selective gas detection.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 113(3): 036101, 2014 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25083655

RESUMO

Tribological shearing of polycrystalline metals typically leads to grain refinement at the sliding interface. This study, however, shows that nanocrystalline metals exhibit qualitatively different behavior. Using large-scale atomistic simulations, we demonstrate that during sliding, contact interface nanocrystalline grains self-organize through extensive grain coarsening and lattice rotation until the optimal plastic slip orientation is established. Subsequently, plastic deformation is frequently confined to localized nanoshear bands aligned with the shearing direction and emanating from voids and other defects in the vicinity of the sliding interface.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 16(1): 33-7, 2014 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24226810

RESUMO

The interaction of benzene molecules with various defects in graphene is studied using density functional theory enhanced by two different recent dispersion corrections. Both provide the same qualitative picture: the binding strength of benzene to the various defects is governed by steric hindrance. Our first principles calculations in combination with a simple model predict reduced stabilities of polymer-graphene nanocomposites made of reduced graphene oxides depending on the defect density. Above ~15% defect coverage the interaction is lowered to roughly one third as compared to pristine graphene.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 5(13): 6123-35, 2013 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23758519

RESUMO

The unfolding of a sheared mechanically mixed third-body (TB) in tungsten/tungsten carbide sliding systems is studied using a combination of experiments and simulations. Experimentally, the topographical evolution and the friction response, for both dry and lubricated sliding, are investigated using an online tribometer. Ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and cross-sectional focused ion beam analysis of the structural and chemical changes near the surfaces show that dry sliding of tungsten against tungsten carbide results in plastic deformation of the tungsten surface, leading to grain refinement, and the formation of a mechanically mixed layer on the WC counterface. Sliding with hexadecane as a lubricant results in a less pronounced third-body formation due to much lower dissipated frictional power. Molecular dynamics simulations of the sliding couples predict chemical changes near the surface in agreement with the interfacial processes observed experimentally. Finally, online topography measurements demonstrate an excellent correlation between the evolution of the roughness and the frictional resistance during sliding.

18.
Langmuir ; 29(17): 5207-13, 2013 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23545002

RESUMO

The tribological properties of two steel surfaces rubbing against each other are measured while they are in contact with 1,3-diketones of varying structure. Such systems show after a short running-in period ultralow friction properties with a coefficient of friction of as low as µ = 0.005. It is suggested that the extremely favorable friction properties are caused by a tribochemical reaction between the 1,3-diketones and the steel surfaces, leading to formation of a chelated iron-diketo complex. The influence of temperature and the molecular structure of the 1,3 diketo-lubricants onto the friction properties of the system is elucidated under both static and dynamic conditions. With progression of the tribochemical reaction, the sliding surfaces become very conformal and smooth, so that the pressure is greatly reduced and further wear is strongly reduced. All iron particles potentially generated by wear during the initial running-in period are completely dissolved through complex formation. It is proposed that the tribochemical polishing reaction causes a transition from boundary lubrication to fluid lubrication.

19.
J Chem Phys ; 138(10): 104108, 2013 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23514466

RESUMO

We present a linear-scaling method based on self-consistent charge non-orthogonal tight-binding. Linear scaling is achieved using a many-body expansion, which is adjusted dynamically to the instantaneous molecular configuration of a liquid. The method is capable of simulating liquids over large length and time scales, and also handles reactions correctly. Benchmarking on typical carbonate electrolytes used in Li-ion batteries displays excellent agreement with results from full tight-binding calculations. The decomposition slightly breaks the Hellmann-Feynman theorem, which is demonstrated by application to water. However, an additional correction also enables dynamical simulation in this case.

20.
J Phys Chem A ; 117(16): 3369-76, 2013 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23534895

RESUMO

Tribological experiments with 1,3-diketone fluids in contact with iron surfaces show ultralow friction, which was suggested to be connected to the formation of iron complexes. In order to support this assumption, we calculate infrared and optical spectra of various substituted 1,3-diketones and their iron complexes using gradient-corrected density functional theory (DFT). The description of the complexes requires the application of the DFT+U scheme for a correct prediction of the high spin state on the central iron atom. With this approach, we obtain excellent agreement between experiment and simulation in infrared and optical spectra, allowing for the determination of 1,3-diketone tautomeric forms. The match in the spectra of the complex strongly supports the assumption of iron complex formation by these lubricants.

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