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1.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22(12): e25436, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860172

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the era of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP), evidence-based interventions that optimize viral suppression among people who use stimulants such as methamphetamine are needed to improve health outcomes and reduce onward transmission risk. We tested the efficacy of positive affect intervention delivered during community-based contingency management (CM) for reducing viral load in sexual minority men living with HIV who use methamphetamine. METHODS: Conducted in San Francisco, this Phase II randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of a positive affect intervention for boosting and extending the effectiveness of community-based CM for stimulant abstinence to achieve more durable reductions in HIV viral load. From 2013 to 2017, 110 sexual minority men living with HIV who had biologically confirmed, recent methamphetamine use were randomized to receive a positive affect intervention (n = 55) or attention-control condition (n = 55). All individual positive affect intervention and attention-control sessions were delivered during three months of community-based CM where participants received financial incentives for stimulant abstinence. The 5-session positive affect intervention was designed to provide skills for managing stimulant withdrawal symptoms as well as sensitize individuals to natural sources of reward. The attention-control condition consisted of neutral writing exercises and self-report measures. RESULTS: Men randomized to the positive affect intervention displayed significantly lower log10 HIV viral load at six, twelve and fifteen months compared to those in the attention-control condition. Men in the positive affect intervention also had significantly lower risk of at least one unsuppressed HIV RNA (≥200 copies/mL) over the 15-month follow-up. There were concurrent, statistically significant intervention-related increases in positive affect as well as decreases in the self-reported frequency of stimulant use at six and twelve months. CONCLUSIONS: Delivering a positive affect intervention during community-based CM with sexual minority men who use methamphetamine achieved durable and clinically meaningful reductions in HIV viral load that were paralleled by increases in positive affect and decreases in stimulant use. Further clinical research is needed to determine the effectiveness of integrative, behavioural interventions for optimizing the clinical and public health benefits of TasP in sexual minority men who use stimulants such as methamphetamine.

3.
J Cancer Surviv ; 13(6): 943-955, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741250

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Positive affect has demonstrated unique benefits in the context of health-related stress and is emerging as an important target for psychosocial interventions. The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to determine whether psychosocial interventions increase positive affect in cancer survivors. METHODS: We coded 28 randomized controlled trials of psychosocial interventions assessing 2082 cancer survivors from six electronic databases. We calculated 76 effect sizes for positive affect and conducted synthesis using random effects models with robust variance estimation. Tests for moderation included demographic, clinical, and intervention characteristics. RESULTS: Interventions had a modest effect on positive affect (g = 0.35, 95% CI [0.16, 0.54]) with substantial heterogeneity of effects across studies ([Formula: see text]; I2 = 78%). Three significant moderators were identified: in-person interventions outperformed remote interventions (P = .046), effects were larger when evaluated against standard of care or wait list control conditions versus attentional, educational, or component controls (P = .009), and trials with survivors of early-stage cancer diagnoses yielded larger effects than those with advanced-stage diagnoses (P = .046). We did not detect differential benefits of psychosocial interventions across samples varying in sex, age, on-treatment versus off-treatment status, or cancer type. Although no conclusive evidence suggested outcome reporting biases (P = .370), effects were smaller in studies with lower risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: In-person interventions with survivors of early-stage cancers hold promise for enhancing positive affect, but more methodological rigor is needed. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Positive affect strategies can be an explicit target in evidence-based medicine and have a role in patient-centered survivorship care, providing tools to uniquely mobilize human strengths.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 381(18): 1741-1752, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physicians, particularly trainees and those in surgical subspecialties, are at risk for burnout. Mistreatment (i.e., discrimination, verbal or physical abuse, and sexual harassment) may contribute to burnout and suicidal thoughts. METHODS: A cross-sectional national survey of general surgery residents administered with the 2018 American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination assessed mistreatment, burnout (evaluated with the use of the modified Maslach Burnout Inventory), and suicidal thoughts during the past year. We used multivariable logistic-regression models to assess the association of mistreatment with burnout and suicidal thoughts. The survey asked residents to report their gender. RESULTS: Among 7409 residents (99.3% of the eligible residents) from all 262 surgical residency programs, 31.9% reported discrimination based on their self-identified gender, 16.6% reported racial discrimination, 30.3% reported verbal or physical abuse (or both), and 10.3% reported sexual harassment. Rates of all mistreatment measures were higher among women; 65.1% of the women reported gender discrimination and 19.9% reported sexual harassment. Patients and patients' families were the most frequent sources of gender discrimination (as reported by 43.6% of residents) and racial discrimination (47.4%), whereas attending surgeons were the most frequent sources of sexual harassment (27.2%) and abuse (51.9%). Proportion of residents reporting mistreatment varied considerably among residency programs (e.g., ranging from 0 to 66.7% for verbal abuse). Weekly burnout symptoms were reported by 38.5% of residents, and 4.5% reported having had suicidal thoughts during the past year. Residents who reported exposure to discrimination, abuse, or harassment at least a few times per month were more likely than residents with no reported mistreatment exposures to have symptoms of burnout (odds ratio, 2.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.58 to 3.36) and suicidal thoughts (odds ratio, 3.07; 95% CI, 2.25 to 4.19). Although models that were not adjusted for mistreatment showed that women were more likely than men to report burnout symptoms (42.4% vs. 35.9%; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.48), the difference was no longer evident after the models were adjusted for mistreatment (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Mistreatment occurs frequently among general surgery residents, especially women, and is associated with burnout and suicidal thoughts.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência , Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Discriminação Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Relações Médico-Paciente , Relações Profissional-Família , Fatores Sexuais , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 61: 96-103, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dysfunction in positive affect is a defining symptom of bipolar I disorder (BD), both during and between mood episodes. We hypothesize that helping people with BD learn skills to create balance in their affective experiences by engaging in strategies that increase low activation positive emotion (LAP; e.g., relaxation) could help to improve well-being during periods of symptom remission. We discuss the development and preliminary outcomes of a positive emotion regulation (PER) group treatment for people with BD, designed as a supplement to pharmacological treatment. METHOD: The Learning Affective Understanding for a Rich Emotional Life (LAUREL) intervention is a group-based intervention covering 10 empirically supported skills designed to increase LAP. Sixteen people with BD enrolled in the LAUREL intervention and twelve completed baseline and post-intervention assessments. RESULTS: Participants who completed the study (n = 12) attended the majority of groups (87.96%) and reported practicing skills, on average, 16 times a week. We were unable to detect significant differences in mania symptoms following engagement in this PER intervention. Finally, participants reported increases in several areas associated with well-being post-intervention, including mindfulness, reappraisal, and self-compassion. CONCLUSION: This study provides a theoretical framework and preliminary support for a PER intervention for BD.

6.
Health Psychol ; 38(11): 960-974, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This review aims to inform research and clinical care on the current state of knowledge on the relationship between positive affect and medication adherence. METHOD: Searches were carried out in PsycINFO, PubMed MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), CINAHL, and Embase. There were no limits on study type, publication date, language, or participant demographics. Studies reporting a relationship between positive affect and medication adherence were eligible for inclusion if positive affect was measured prior to or concurrently with medication adherence. RESULTS: Nine studies met inclusion criteria. All studies were prospective cohort or cross-sectional and examined positive affect and medication adherence in people living with HIV or cardiovascular conditions. The majority of results indicated positive associations between positive affect and medication adherence, with Cohen's d effect sizes ranging from -0.40 to 1.27. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with previous theoretical work, this systematic review provides evidence of a link between positive affect and improved medication adherence. Better measurement of both affect and medication adherence across chronic conditions is an important focus for future research and will inform targeted interventions to improve adherence and, ultimately, decrease the morbidity, mortality, and cost associated with suboptimal adherence in chronic physical conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
J Affect Disord ; 257: 352-364, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This manuscript describes the first two phases of pilot testing MARIGOLD, an online self-guided positive emotion skills intervention for adults with elevated depressive symptoms, along with enhancements to overcome retention and adherence problems reported in previous research. METHODS: Adults with elevated depressive symptoms were recruited online and assessed at baseline, post-intervention, 1- and 3-month follow-up. Phase 1 participants (n = 58) were randomized to MARIGOLD, daily emotion reporting, or waitlist. Phase 2 participants (n = 79) were randomized to MARIGOLD plus one enhancement: online discussion board (ODB), virtual badges (VB), or facilitator contact (FC). Post-intervention interviews assessed acceptability. Intention-to-treat analyses examined retention, adherence, and preliminary efficacy. RESULTS: In both phases, retention and adherence did not differ between groups. MARIGOLD skills were highly acceptable, but qualitative results indicate web-based features (e.g., log-in, ODB, VB) require refinement prior to larger testing. Neither phase demonstrated between-group differences in preliminary efficacy. In Phase 1 within-group analyses, MARIGOLD and emotion reporting control demonstrated a similar pattern of findings (stable depressive symptoms, increased positive emotion, decreased negative emotion and stress), whereas the waitlist group significantly increased in depressive mood. Most Phase 2 within-group analyses demonstrated the expected pattern of results (i.e., decreases in PHQ-8 and negative emotion, increases in positive emotion). However, CES-D scores were stable in FC; perceived stress was stable in FC and ODB. LIMITATIONS: This pilot study is not powered to evaluate efficacy. CONCLUSION: Positive emotion skills, plus enhancements for web-based, self-guided delivery, warrant additional study in people with elevated depressive symptoms.

8.
Health Psychol ; 38(5): 391-402, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of Life Enhancing Activities for Family Caregivers (LEAF), a 6-week positive emotion regulation intervention, on outcomes of positive emotion, depression, anxiety, and physical health as measured by the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®). METHOD: A randomized controlled trial (N = 170) comparing LEAF (N = 86) to an emotion reporting/waitlist condition (N = 84) in dementia caregivers. LEAF was individually delivered online by trained facilitators. Participants in the control condition completed daily online emotion reports and then crossed over into the intervention condition after 6 weeks. The study was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01825681) and funded by R01NR014435. RESULTS: Analyses of difference in change from baseline to 6 weeks demonstrated significantly greater decreases in PROMIS® depression (d = -.25; p = .02) and Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (NeuroQOL) anxiety (d = -.33; p < .01), as well as improvements in PROMIS® physical health (d = .24; p = .02) in the intervention condition compared to the emotion reporting/waitlist control. The intervention also showed greater improvements in positive emotion (d = .58; p < .01) and positive aspects of caregiving (d = .36; p < .01). Increases in positive emotion significantly mediated the effect of LEAF on depression over time. CONCLUSIONS: This randomized controlled trial of the online-facilitated positive emotion regulation intervention in dementia caregivers demonstrated small to medium effect sizes on caregiver well-being and shows promise for remotely delivered programs to improve psychological well-being in caregivers of people with dementia and other chronic illnesses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Demência/enfermagem , Emoções/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Demência/psicologia , Educação a Distância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente
9.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 14: 100348, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984888

RESUMO

Growing evidence links psychological well-being (e.g., optimism) with superior cardiac health, but there remains a critical scientific gap as we do not know whether (or how) interventions to cultivate emotional well-being may reduce cardiac risk. Hispanics/Latinos in the U.S. have high cardiovascular disease risk and poorly controlled blood pressure (BP) compared to peers of European ancestry, and represent a population in need of new and innovative therapeutic approaches. This paper details the "¡Alégrate!" study, a cluster-randomized Phase II trial testing efficacy in improving BP of a culturally tailored positive psychological intervention designed to boost emotional well-being in Hispanics/Latinos with hypertension. A total of 126 Hispanics/Latinos aged ≥18 years, fluent in English or Spanish, and with elevated sitting BP (≥140/90 mmHg) will participate in one of two trial arms: (1) a positive psychological intervention, or (2) a wait-list control condition. The "¡Alégrate!" group-based intervention consists of 8 weekly 90-120-min sessions delivered in-person by a psychologist/social worker. Targeted skills include noting daily positive events, positive reappraisal of stressful events, effective expression of gratitude, performing acts of kindness, and regular practice of mindfulness and meditation, among others. The primary outcome is improvement in BP, both sitting values and 24-h ambulatory readings, as measured at baseline and 8- and 12-weeks post-baseline. Secondary outcomes include emotional well-being, engagement in healthful behaviors, and circulating levels of inflammatory markers. We hypothesize that BP control, psychological well-being, healthful behaviors, and chronic inflammation will be significantly better in the "¡Alégrate!" arm at follow up compared to the wait-list control group.

10.
Annu Rev Psychol ; 70: 627-650, 2019 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260746

RESUMO

Positive affect (PA) is associated with better health across a wide range of physical health outcomes. This review reflects on why the study of PA is an essential component of our understanding of physical health and expands on pathways that connect these two variables. To encourage forward movement in this burgeoning research area, measurement and design issues in the study of PA and health are discussed, as are the connections between PA and a range of different health outcomes. Plausible biological, social, and behavioral pathways that allow for positive feelings to get under the skin and influence physical wellness are detailed and framed in the context of several theoretical models. Finally, new directions for the field and important methodological and interpretative considerations that are essential to moving this important research area forward are explored.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Emoções , Nível de Saúde , Psicoterapia , Estresse Psicológico , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
12.
Soc Work Health Care ; 57(10): 864-879, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a pervasive psychological issue facing hemodialysis (HD) patients. Novel technology-based treatment strategies that deploy psychology-based interventions have not been the focus for therapy and few published studies exist. The aim of the current trial is to determine the feasibility and acceptability of an Internet-based positive psychological intervention in HD patients with comorbid depressive symptoms. METHODS: HD patients (n = 14) with elevated symptoms of depression were enrolled in a single-arm pre-post trial with clinical assessments at baseline and immediately post intervention. Chairside during regularly scheduled HD treatment, patients utilized a web browser to complete online modules promoting skills for increasing positive emotion over a 5-week period using Apple IPads. Targeted skills included noting of daily positive events, gratitude, positive reappraisal, acts of kindness, and mindfulness/meditation. RESULTS: Twelve of 14 patients completed the program for an 85.7% retention rate. Participants felt satisfied with each session and offered consistently positive feedback. On average, participants visited the website 3.5 times per week. Significant improvements were evident for depressive symptoms (15.3 vs. 10.9; p = 0.04), as per the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. CONCLUSIONS: An innovative Internet-based positive psychological intervention represents a feasible and useful therapeutic option for HD patients with depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Internet , Diálise Renal/psicologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica , Masculino , Meditação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Plena , Projetos Piloto
13.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 192: 8-15, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contingency management (CM) is an evidence-based intervention providing rewards in exchange for biomarkers that confirm abstinence from stimulants such as methamphetamine. We tested the efficacy of a positive affect intervention designed to boost the effectiveness of CM with HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using sexual minority men. METHODS: This attention-matched, randomized controlled trial of a positive affect intervention delivered during CM was registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01926184). In total, 110 HIV-positive sexual minority men with biologically confirmed, recent methamphetamine use were enrolled. Five individual sessions of a positive affect intervention (n = 55) or an attention-control condition (n = 55) were delivered during three months of CM. Secondary outcomes examined over the 3-month intervention period included: 1) psychological processes relevant to affect regulation (i.e., positive affect, negative affect, and mindfulness); 2) methamphetamine craving; 3) self-reported stimulant use (past 3 months); and 4) cumulative number of urine samples that were non-reactive for stimulants (i.e., methamphetamine and cocaine) during CM. RESULTS: Those randomized to the positive affect intervention reported significant increases in positive affect during individual sessions and increases in mindfulness over the 3-month intervention period. Intervention-related improvements in these psychological processes relevant to affect regulation were paralleled by concurrent decreases in methamphetamine craving and self-reported stimulant use over the 3-month intervention period. CONCLUSIONS: Delivering a positive affect intervention may improve affect regulation as well as reduce methamphetamine craving and stimulant use during CM with HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using sexual minority men.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/terapia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Metanfetamina , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/urina , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/urina , Seguimentos , Soropositividade para HIV/psicologia , Soropositividade para HIV/terapia , Soropositividade para HIV/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Metanfetamina/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Plena/métodos , Recompensa
14.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 7(6): e10494, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living with elevated symptoms of depression can have debilitating consequences for an individual's psychosocial and physical functioning, quality of life, and health care utilization. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that skills for increasing positive emotion can be helpful to individuals with depression. Although Web-based interventions to reduce negative emotion in individuals with depression are available, these interventions frequently suffer from poor retention and adherence and do not capitalize on the potential benefits of increasing positive emotion. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and test a Web-based positive emotion skills intervention tailored for individuals living with elevated depressive symptoms, as well as to develop and test enhancement strategies for increasing retention and adherence to that intervention. METHODS: This study protocol describes the development and testing for Mobile Affect Regulation Intervention with the Goal of Lowering Depression (MARIGOLD), a Web-based positive emotion skills intervention, adapted for individuals with elevated depressive symptomatology. The intervention development is taking place in three phases. In phase 1, we are tailoring an existing positive emotion skills intervention for individuals with elevated symptoms of depression and are pilot testing the tailored version of the intervention in a randomized controlled trial with two control conditions (N=60). In phase 2, we are developing and testing three enhancements aimed at boosting retention and adherence to the Web-based intervention (N=75): facilitator contact, an online discussion board, and virtual badges. In phase 3, we are conducting a multifactorial, nine-arm pilot trial (N=600) to systematically test these enhancement strategies, individually and in combination. The primary outcome is depressive symptom severity. Secondary outcomes include positive and negative emotion, psychological well-being, and coping resources. RESULTS: The project was funded in August 2014, and data collection was completed in May 2018. Data analysis is currently under way, and the first results are expected to be submitted for publication in 2018. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this investigation will enable us to develop an optimal package of intervention content and enhancement strategies for individuals with elevated symptoms of depression. If this intervention proves to be effective, it will provide a cost-effective, anonymous, appealing, and flexible approach for reducing symptoms of depression and improving psychological adjustment through increasing positive emotion. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01964820 (Phase 1); https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01964820 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6zpmKBcyX). ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02861755 (Phase 2); https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02861755 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6zpmLmy8k). REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER: RR1-10.2196/10494.

16.
Brain Behav Immun ; 73: 331-339, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29842903

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evidence links depression and stress to more rapid progression of HIV-1 disease. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to test whether an intervention aimed at improving stress management and emotion regulation, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), would improve immunological (i.e. CD4+ T-cell counts) and psychological outcomes in persons with HIV-1 infection. METHODS: We randomly assigned participants with HIV-1 infection and CD4 T-cell counts >350 cells/µl who were not on antiretroviral therapy in a 1:1 ratio to either an MBSR group (n = 89) or an HIV disease self-management skills group (n = 88). The study was conducted at the University of California at San Francisco. We assessed immunologic (CD4, c-reactive protein, IL-6, and d-dimer) and psychological measures (Beck Depression Inventory for depression, modified Differential Emotions Scale for positive and negative affect, Perceived stress-scale, and mindfulness) at 3, 6 and 12 months after initiation of the intervention; we used multiple imputation to address missing values. RESULTS: We observed statistically significant improvements from baseline to 3-months within the MBSR group in depression, positive and negative affect, perceived stress, and mindfulness; between group differences in change were significantly greater in the MBSR group only for positive affect (per item difference on DES-positive 0.25, 95% CI 0.049, 0.44, p = .015). By 12 months the between group difference in positive affect was not statistically significant, although both groups had trends toward improvements compared to baseline in several psychological outcomes that were maintained at 12-months; these improvements were only statistically significant for depression and negative affect in the MBSR group and perceived stress for the control group. The groups did not differ significantly on rates of antiretroviral therapy initiation (MBSR = 39%, control = 29%, p = .22). After 12 months, the mean decrease in CD4+ T-cell count was 49.6 cells/µl in participants in the MBSR arm, compared to 54.2 cells/µl in the control group, a difference of 4.6 cells favoring the MBSR group (95% CI, -44.6, 53.7, p = .85). The between group differences in other immunologic-related outcomes (c-reactive protein, IL-6, HIV-1 viral load, and d-dimer) were not statistically significant at any time point. CONCLUSIONS: MBSR improved positive affect more than an active control arm in the 3 months following the start of the intervention. However, this difference was not maintained over the 12-month follow-up and there were no significant differences in immunologic outcomes between intervention groups. These results emphasize the need for further carefully designed research if we are to translate evidence linking psychological states to immunological outcomes into evidence-based clinical practices.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Atenção Plena/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adulto , Ansiedade/terapia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4/métodos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Meditação/métodos , Meditação/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Qualidade de Vida , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Transl Behav Med ; 8(6): 887-897, 2018 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796632

RESUMO

Although increasing emotional well-being has been proposed as a potential pathway to drive cardiac health, emotional well-being interventions for people with cardiac risk are underdeveloped, particularly among Hispanic/Latino adults. Our objective was to pilot a well-being intervention drawing on positive psychology concepts to determine feasibility and acceptability in Hispanics/Latinos at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We developed a Spanish-language positive psychological intervention, with cultural tailoring informed by formative qualitative work, to promote emotional well-being and its antecedents in Hispanics/Latinos. Hispanic/Latino adults (n = 19) self-reporting two or more CVD risk factors were enrolled in our single-arm 8-week pilot trial. The group intervention consisted of 8 weekly 90-min sessions delivered by a bilingual licensed clinical social worker. Mean age was 54.1 years, 68.8% were female, and 50% had ≤eighth-grade education. Eleven of 19 Hispanic/Latino adults completed the 8-week program for a 57.89% retention rate, with a majority of factors leading to dropout unrelated to program content or mode of delivery. Most participants felt satisfied overall with each session (97.1%). Largest increases relative to baseline after receiving the intervention were found in engagement in happiness-inducing behaviors (e.g., meditation), emotional vitality, and subjective happiness using metrics of reliable change and effect sizes. This single-arm trial documented adequate feasibility and acceptability, although strategies to increase retention are warranted. Future studies should test our intervention using a randomized trial design with a larger sample size and inclusion of biomarkers (e.g., C-reactive protein) to document impact of our intervention on cardiac-related health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Psicoterapia/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Assistentes Sociais
18.
J Health Psychol ; : 1359105318769355, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29649914

RESUMO

Non-opioid pain management strategies are critically needed for people with HIV. We therefore conducted a secondary analysis of pain-related outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of a positive affect skills intervention for adults newly diagnosed with HIV ( N = 159). Results suggest that, even if pain prevalence rises, positive affect skills may reduce pain interference and prevent increased use of opioid analgesics by people living with HIV. Future research should replicate and extend these findings by conducting trials that are specifically designed to target pain outcomes.

19.
BMJ Open ; 8(3): e019434, 2018 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29567845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mounting evidence links positive psychological functioning to restorative health processes and favourable medical outcomes. However, very little is known about the relationship between optimism, an indicator of psychological functioning and the American Heart Association (AHA)-defined concept of cardiovascular health (CVH), particularly in Hispanics/Latinos of diverse backgrounds. To address limitations of existing literature, this study investigated the association between dispositional optimism and CVH in a heterogeneous sample of Hispanics/Latinos residing in the USA. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Data were analysed from 4919 adults ages 18-75 of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos parent study and the Sociocultural Ancillary Study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Optimism was assessed using the 6-item Life Orientation Test-Revised (range from 6 to 30). AHA classification standards were used to derive an additive CVH score with operationalisation of indicators as Ideal, Intermediate and Poor. The overall CVH score included indicators of diet, body mass index, physical activity, cholesterol, blood pressure, fasting glucose and smoking status. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to examine associations of optimism with CVH (Life's Simple 7), after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Each increase in the optimism total score was associated with a greater CVH score (ß=0.03 per unit increase, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.05). When modelling tertiles of optimism, participants with moderate (ß=0.24 to 95% CI 0.06 to 0.42) and high (ß=0.12, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.24) levels of optimism displayed greater CVH scores when compared with their least optimistic peers. CONCLUSION: This study offers preliminary evidence for an association between optimism and CVH in a large heterogeneous group of Hispanic/Latino adults. Our study adds scientific knowledge of psychological assets that may promote CVH and suggests a novel therapeutic target for consideration. Future studies are needed to explore causality and potential mechanism underlying the relationship between positive emotion and heart health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/classificação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Otimismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , American Heart Association/organização & administração , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(5): 751-759, 2018 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474546

RESUMO

Background: Text messaging is a promising strategy to support human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care engagement, but little is known about its efficacy in urban safety-net HIV clinics. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a supportive and motivational text messaging intervention, Connect4Care (C4C), among viremic patients who had a history of poor retention or were new to the clinic. Participants were randomized (stratified by new or established HIV diagnosis status) to receive either of the following for 12 months: (1) thrice-weekly intervention messages, plus texted primary care appointment reminders and a monthly text message requesting confirmation of study participation or (2) texted reminders and monthly messages alone. Viral load was assessed at 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome was virologic suppression (<200 copies/mL) at 12 months, estimated via repeated-measures log-binomial regression, adjusted for new-diagnosis status. The secondary outcome was retention in clinic care. Results: Between August 2013 and November 2015, a total of 230 participants were randomized. Virologic suppression at 12 months was similar in intervention and control participants (48.8% vs 45.8%, respectively), yielding a rate ratio of 1.07 (95% confidence interval, .82-1.39). Suppression was higher in those with newly diagnosed infection (78.3% vs 45.3%). There were no intervention effects on the secondary outcome. Exploratory analyses suggested that patients with more responses to study text messages had better outcomes, regardless of arm. Conclusions: The C4C text messaging intervention did not significantly increase virologic suppression or retention in care. Response to text messages may be a useful way for providers to gauge risk for poor HIV outcomes. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01917994.


Assuntos
Agendamento de Consultas , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Retenção nos Cuidados , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Mensagem de Texto , Adulto , Idoso , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Telefone Celular , Intervenção Médica Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Projetos de Pesquisa , São Francisco , População Urbana , Carga Viral , Viremia/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
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