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2.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256318

RESUMO

Anthracyclines are the cornerstone for many oncologic treatments, but their cardiotoxicity has been recognized for several decades. Female subjects, especially before puberty and adolescence, or after menopause, seem to be more at increased risk, with the prognostic impact of this sex issue being less consistent compared to other cardiovascular risk factors. Several studies imply that sex differences could depend on the lack of the protective effect of sex hormones against the anthracycline-initiated damage in cardiac cells, or on differential mitochondria-related oxidative gene expression. This is also reflected by the results obtained with different diagnostic methods, such as cardiovascular biomarkers and imaging techniques (echocardiography, magnetic resonance, and nuclear medicine) in the diagnosis and monitoring of cardiotoxicity, confirming that sex differences exist. The same is true about protective strategies from anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Indeed, first studied to withstand oxidative damage in response to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, cardioprotection has different outcomes in men and women. A number of studies assessed the differences in I/R response between male and female hearts, with oxidative stress and apoptosis being shared mechanisms between the I/R and anthracyclines heart damage. Sex hormones can modulate these mechanisms, thus confirming their importance in the pathophysiology in cardioprotection not only from the ischemia/reperfusion damage, but also from anthracyclines, fueling further cardio-oncologic research on the topic.

3.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(7): 784-794, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319383

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provide screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for consequences of cancer and cancer treatment to aid healthcare professionals who work with survivors of adult-onset cancer. Guidance is also provided to help promote physical activity, weight management, and proper immunizations in survivors and to facilitate care coordination to ensure that all needs are addressed. These NCCN Insights summarize some of the topics discussed by the NCCN Survivorship Panel during the 2019 update of the guidelines, including the survivorship population addressed, ways to improve care coordination, and pain management.

5.
Nat Med ; 25(8): 1243-1250, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332390

RESUMO

Checkpoint inhibitors produce durable responses in numerous metastatic cancers, but immune-related adverse events (irAEs) complicate and limit their benefit. IrAEs can affect organ systems idiosyncratically; presentations range from mild and self-limited to fulminant and fatal. The molecular mechanisms underlying irAEs are poorly understood. Here, we report a fatal case of encephalitis arising during anti-programmed cell death receptor 1 therapy in a patient with metastatic melanoma. Histologic analyses revealed robust T cell infiltration and prominent programmed death ligand 1 expression. We identified 209 reported cases in global pharmacovigilance databases (across multiple cancer types) of encephalitis associated with checkpoint inhibitor regimens, with a 19% fatality rate. We performed further analyses from the index case and two additional cases to shed light on this recurrent and fulminant irAE. Spatial and multi-omic analyses pinpointed activated memory CD4+ T cells as highly enriched in the inflamed, affected region. We identified a highly oligoclonal T cell receptor repertoire, which we localized to activated memory cytotoxic (CD45RO+GZMB+Ki67+) CD4 cells. We also identified Epstein-Barr virus-specific T cell receptors and EBV+ lymphocytes in the affected region, which we speculate contributed to neural inflammation in the index case. Collectively, the three cases studied here identify CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as culprits of checkpoint inhibitor-associated immune encephalitis.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159424

RESUMO

The PI3K/Akt pathway plays a crucial role in the survival, proliferation, and migration of macrophages, which may impact the development of atherosclerosis. Changes in Akt isoforms or modulation of the Akt activity levels in macrophages significantly affect their polarization phenotype and consequently atherosclerosis in mice. Moreover, the activity levels of Akt signaling determine the viability of monocytes/macrophages and their resistance to pro-apoptotic stimuli in atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, elimination of pro-apoptotic factors as well as factors that antagonize or suppress Akt signaling in macrophages increases cell viability, protecting them from apoptosis, and this markedly accelerates atherosclerosis in mice. In contrast, inhibition of Akt signaling by the ablation of Rictor in myeloid cells, which disrupts mTORC2 assembly, significantly decreases the viability and proliferation of blood monocytes and macrophages with the suppression of atherosclerosis. In addition, monocytes and macrophages exhibit a threshold effect for Akt protein levels in their ability to survive. Ablation of two Akt isoforms, preserving only a single Akt isoform in myeloid cells, markedly compromises monocyte and macrophage viability, inducing monocytopenia and diminishing early atherosclerosis. These recent advances in our understanding of Akt signaling in macrophages in atherosclerosis may have significant relevance in the burgeoning field of cardio-oncology, where PI3K/Akt inhibitors being tested in cancer patients can have significant cardiovascular and metabolic ramifications.

9.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 134, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) produce durable antitumor responses but provoke autoimmune toxicities, including uncommon but potentially devastating neurologic toxicities. The clinical features, including the spectrum, timing, and outcomes, of ICI-induced neurologic toxicities are not well characterized. METHODS: We performed disproportionality analysis using Vigibase, the World Health Organization pharmacovigilance database, comparing neurologic adverse event (AE) reporting in patients receiving ICIs vs. the full database. Neurologic AEs were classified by group queries using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities, between database inception to September 28, 2018. Associations between ICIs and neurologic AEs were assessed using reporting odds ratios (ROR) and information component (IC). IC compares observed and expected values to find associations between drugs and AEs using disproportionate Bayesian reporting; IC025 (lower end of the IC 95% credibility interval) > 0 is considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Among the full database, 18,518,994 AEs were reported, including 48,653 with ICIs. ICIs were associated with higher incidence of myasthenia gravis (0.47% of ICI reports vs. 0.04% of the full database, ROR 16.5 [95% CI 14.5-18.9]; IC025 3.31), encephalitis (0.51% vs. 0.05%, ROR 10.4 [95% CI 9.2-11.8]; IC025 3.15), peripheral neuropathy (1.16% vs. 0.67%, IC025 0.68), and meningitis (0.15% vs. 0.06%, ROR 3.1 [95% CI 2.5-3.9]; IC025 1.01). Myasthenia gravis and encephalitis were associated with anti-PD-1 whereas other neurologic AEs were associated with anti-CTLA-4. Myasthenia gravis was characterized by high fatality rates (~ 20%), early onset (median 29 days), and frequent concurrent myocarditis and myositis; whereas other neurologic AEs had lower fatality rates (6-12%), later onset (median 61-80 days), and were non-overlapping. CONCLUSIONS: ICIs produce a spectrum of distinct classes of neurologic AEs that can cause significant morbidity and mortality and tend to occur early and with class-specific associations.

11.
Oncologist ; 24(5): 584-588, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819785

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have improved outcomes for patients with numerous hematological and solid cancers. Hematologic toxicities have been described, but the spectrum, timing, and clinical presentation of these complications are not well understood. We used the World Health Organization's pharmacovigilance database of individual-case-safety-reports (ICSRs) of adverse drug reactions, VigiBase, to identify cases of hematologic toxicities complicating immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. We identified 168 ICSRs of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), hemolytic anemia (HA), hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, aplastic anemia, and pure red cell aplasia in 164 ICSRs. ITP (n = 68) and HA (n = 57) were the most common of these toxicities and occurred concomitantly in four patients. These events occurred early on treatment (median 40 days) and were associated with fatal outcome in 12% of cases. Ipilimumab-based therapy (monotherapy or combination with anti-programmed death-1 [PD-1]) was associated with earlier onset (median 23 vs. 47.5 days, p = .006) than anti-PD-1/programmed death ligand-1 monotherapy. Reporting of hematologic toxicities has increased over the past 2 years (98 cases between January 2017 and March 2018 vs. 70 cases before 2017), possibly because of increased use of checkpoint inhibitors and improved recognition of toxicities. Future studies should evaluate incidence of hematologic toxicities, elucidate risk factors, and determine the most effective treatment algorithms. KEY POINTS: Immune-mediated hematologic toxicities are a potential side effect of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs).Providers should monitor complete blood counts during treatment with ICIs.Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for immune-mediated hematologic toxicities.Further research is needed to define patient-specific risk factors and optimal management strategies for hematologic toxicities.

13.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(4): 380-387, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865214

RESUMO

Importance: Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) has been recently described as a novel driver for cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Clonal hematopoiesis is a common, age-associated disorder marked by expansion of hematopoietic clones carrying recurrent somatic mutations. Current literature suggests that patients with CH have a higher risk of subsequent hematological malignant conditions and mortality attributable to excess CVD. This review discusses the association of cancer with CVD with CH as a potential unifying factor. Observations: The prevalence of CH varies based on the sequencing depth, diagnostic criteria, and patient age and ranges from less than 1% in those younger than 40 years to more than 15% to 20% in those 90 years and older. Clonal hematopoiesis is associated with a 0.5% to 1.0% absolute annual risk of hematological malignant condition and a 2-fold to 4-fold higher risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, and CVD deaths, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. In fact, CH appears to have a relative risk similar to that of traditional cardiovascular risk factors for CVD. Experimental studies suggest that the link between CVD and CH is causal, with inflammation as 1 potential mechanism. There may be also a link between CH and CVD in survivors of cancer; however, data to support this association are currently limited. Conclusions and Relevance: Clonal hematopoiesis represents a premalignant state, with carriers having an increased risk of hematological malignant conditions. Although most carriers will not develop a malignant condition, CH confers an increased risk of CVD, possibly via inflammation. Clonal hematopoiesis may also contribute to CVD in survivors of cancer, although this hypothesis requires validation. Clinically, as advanced sequencing techniques become available, CH may pave the way for precision medicine in the field of cardio-oncology.

14.
Circulation ; 139(13): e579-e602, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786722

RESUMO

Cardio-oncology has organically developed as a new discipline within cardiovascular medicine as a result of the cardiac and vascular adverse sequelae of the major advances in cancer treatment. Patients with cancer and cancer survivors are at increased risk of vascular disease for a number of reasons. First, many new cancer therapies, including several targeted therapies, are associated with vascular and metabolic complications. Second, cancer itself serves as a risk factor for vascular disease, especially by increasing the risk for thromboembolic events. Finally, recent data suggest that common modifiable and genetic risk factors predispose to both malignancies and cardiovascular disease. Vascular complications in patients with cancer represent a new challenge for the clinician and a new frontier for research and investigation. Indeed, vascular sequelae of novel targeted therapies may provide insights into vascular signaling in humans. Clinically, emerging challenges are best addressed by a multidisciplinary approach in which cardiovascular medicine specialists and vascular biologists work closely with oncologists in the care of patients with cancer and cancer survivors. This novel approach realizes the goal of providing superior care through the creation of cardio-oncology consultative services and the training of a new generation of cardiovascular specialists with a broad understanding of cancer treatments.

15.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 53, 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination (FV) is recommended for patients with cancer. Recent data suggested that the administration of the FV was associated with an increase in immune-related adverse events (irAEs) among patients on immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Myocarditis is an uncommon but serious complication of ICIs and may also result from infection with influenza. There are no data testing the relationship between FV and the development of myocarditis on ICIs. METHODS: Patients on ICIs who developed myocarditis (n = 101) (cases) were compared to ICI-treated patients (n = 201) without myocarditis (controls). A patient was defined as having the FV if they were administered the FV from 6 months prior to start of ICI to anytime during ICI therapy. Alternate thresholds for FV status were also tested. The primary comparison of interest was the rate of FV between cases and controls. Patients with myocarditis were followed for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as the composite of cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, hemodynamically significant complete heart block and cardiovascular death. RESULTS: The FV was administered to 25% of the myocarditis cases compared to 40% of the non-myocarditis ICI-treated controls (p = 0.01). Similar findings of lower rates of FV administration were noted among myocarditis cases when alternate thresholds were tested. Among the myocarditis cases, those who were vaccinated had 3-fold lower troponin levels when compared to unvaccinated cases (FV vs. No FV: 0.12 [0.02, 0.47] vs. 0.40 [0.11, 1.26] ng/ml, p = 0.02). Within myocarditis cases, those administered the FV also had a lower rate of other irAEs when compared to unvaccinated cases (36 vs. 55% p = 0.10) including lower rates of pneumonitis (12 vs. 36%, p = 0.03). During follow-up (175 [IQR 89, 363] days), 47% of myocarditis cases experienced a MACE. Myocarditis cases who received the FV were at a lower risk of cumulative MACE when compared to unvaccinated cases (24 vs. 59%, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: The rate of FV among ICI-related myocarditis cases was lower than controls on ICIs who did not develop myocarditis. In those who developed myocarditis related to an ICI, there was less myocardial injury and a lower risk of MACE among those who were administered the FV.

16.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(12): 1579-1589, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have substantially improved clinical outcomes in multiple cancer types and are increasingly being used in early disease settings and in combinations of different immunotherapies. However, ICIs can also cause severe or fatal immune-related adverse-events (irAEs). We aimed to identify and characterise cardiovascular irAEs that are significantly associated with ICIs. METHODS: In this observational, retrospective, pharmacovigilance study, we used VigiBase, WHO's global database of individual case safety reports, to compare cardiovascular adverse event reporting in patients who received ICIs (ICI subgroup) with this reporting in the full database. This study included all cardiovascular irAEs classified by group queries according to the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities, between inception on Nov 14, 1967, and Jan 2, 2018. We evaluated the association between ICIs and cardiovascular adverse events using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) and the information component (IC). IC is an indicator value for disproportionate Bayesian reporting that compares observed and expected values to find associations between drugs and adverse events. IC025 is the lower end of the IC 95% credibility interval, and an IC025 value of more than zero is deemed significant. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03387540. FINDINGS: We identified 31 321 adverse events reported in patients who received ICIs and 16 343 451 adverse events reported in patients treated with any drugs (full database) in VigiBase. Compared with the full database, ICI treatment was associated with higher reporting of myocarditis (5515 reports for the full database vs 122 for ICIs, ROR 11·21 [95% CI 9·36-13·43]; IC025 3·20), pericardial diseases (12 800 vs 95, 3·80 [3·08-4·62]; IC025 1·63), and vasculitis (33 289 vs 82, 1·56 [1·25-1·94]; IC025 0·03), including temporal arteritis (696 vs 18, 12·99 [8·12-20·77]; IC025 2·59) and polymyalgia rheumatica (1709 vs 16, 5·13 [3·13-8·40]; IC025 1·33). Pericardial diseases were reported more often in patients with lung cancer (49 [56%] of 87 patients), whereas myocarditis (42 [41%] of 103 patients) and vasculitis (42 [60%] of 70 patients) were more commonly reported in patients with melanoma (χ2 test for overall subgroup comparison, p<0·0001). Vision was impaired in five (28%) of 18 patients with temporal arteritis. Cardiovascular irAEs were severe in the majority of cases (>80%), with death occurring in 61 (50%) of 122 myocarditis cases, 20 (21%) of 95 pericardial disease cases, and five (6%) of 82 vasculitis cases (χ2 test for overall comparison between pericardial diseases, myocarditis, and vasculitis, p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Treatment with ICIs can lead to severe and disabling inflammatory cardiovascular irAEs soon after commencement of therapy. In addition to life-threatening myocarditis, these toxicities include pericardial diseases and temporal arteritis with a risk of blindness. These events should be considered in patient care and in combination clinical trial designs (ie, combinations of different immunotherapies as well as immunotherapies and chemotherapy). FUNDING: The Cancer Institut Thématique Multi-Organisme of the French National Alliance for Life and Health Sciences (AVIESAN) Plan Cancer 2014-2019; US National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health; the James C. Bradford Jr. Melanoma Fund; and the Melanoma Research Foundation.

18.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 16(10): 1216-1247, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323092

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provide screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for common physical and psychosocial consequences of cancer and cancer treatment to help healthcare professionals who work with survivors of adult-onset cancer in the posttreatment period. This portion of the guidelines describes recommendations regarding the management of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity and lymphedema. In addition, recommendations regarding immunizations and the prevention of infections in cancer survivors are included.

19.
JAMA Oncol ; 2018 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242316

RESUMO

Importance: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are now a mainstay of cancer treatment. Although rare, fulminant and fatal toxic effects may complicate these otherwise transformative therapies; characterizing these events requires integration of global data. Objective: To determine the spectrum, timing, and clinical features of fatal ICI-associated toxic effects. Design, Setting, and Participants: We retrospectively queried a World Health Organization (WHO) pharmacovigilance database (Vigilyze) comprising more than 16 000 000 adverse drug reactions, and records from 7 academic centers. We performed a meta-analysis of published trials of anti-programmed death-1/ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) and anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) to evaluate their incidence using data from large academic medical centers, global WHO pharmacovigilance data, and all published ICI clinical trials of patients with cancer treated with ICIs internationally. Exposures: Anti-CTLA-4 (ipilimumab or tremelimumab), anti-PD-1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab), or anti-PD-L1 (atezolizumab, avelumab, durvalumab). Main Outcomes and Measures: Timing, spectrum, outcomes, and incidence of ICI-associated toxic effects. Results: Internationally, 613 fatal ICI toxic events were reported from 2009 through January 2018 in Vigilyze. The spectrum differed widely between regimens: in a total of 193 anti-CTLA-4 deaths, most were usually from colitis (135 [70%]), whereas anti-PD-1/PD-L1-related fatalities were often from pneumonitis (333 [35%]), hepatitis (115 [22%]), and neurotoxic effects (50 [15%]). Combination PD-1/CTLA-4 deaths were frequently from colitis (32 [37%]) and myocarditis (22 [25%]). Fatal toxic effects typically occurred early after therapy initiation for combination therapy, anti-PD-1, and ipilimumab monotherapy (median 14.5, 40, and 40 days, respectively). Myocarditis had the highest fatality rate (52 [39.7%] of 131 reported cases), whereas endocrine events and colitis had only 2% to 5% reported fatalities; 10% to 17% of other organ-system toxic effects reported had fatal outcomes. Retrospective review of 3545 patients treated with ICIs from 7 academic centers revealed 0.6% fatality rates; cardiac and neurologic events were especially prominent (43%). Median time from symptom onset to death was 32 days. A meta-analysis of 112 trials involving 19 217 patients showed toxicity-related fatality rates of 0.36% (anti-PD-1), 0.38% (anti-PD-L1), 1.08% (anti-CTLA-4), and 1.23% (PD-1/PD-L1 plus CTLA-4). Conclusions and Relevance: In the largest evaluation of fatal ICI-associated toxic effects published to date to our knowledge, we observed early onset of death with varied causes and frequencies depending on therapeutic regimen. Clinicians across disciplines should be aware of these uncommon lethal complications.

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