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1.
Neurobiol Aging ; 83: 63-72, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585368

RESUMO

Late-life measures of white matter (WM) microstructural integrity may predict cognitive status, cognitive decline, and incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. We considered participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study who underwent cognitive assessment and neuroimaging in 2011-2013 and were followed through 2016-2017 (n = 1775 for analyses of prevalent MCI and dementia, baseline cognitive performance, and longitudinal cognitive change and n = 889 for analyses of incident MCI, dementia, or death). Cross-sectionally, both overall WM fractional anisotropy and overall WM mean diffusivity were strongly associated with baseline cognitive performance and risk of prevalent MCI or dementia. Longitudinally, greater overall WM mean diffusivity was associated with accelerated cognitive decline, as well as incident MCI, incident dementia, and mortality, but WM fractional anisotropy was not robustly associated with cognitive change or incident cognitive impairment. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were attenuated after additionally adjusting for likely downstream pathologic changes. Increased WM mean diffusivity may provide an early indication of dementia pathogenesis.

2.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA119027220, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597548

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Cardiovascular disease is a known risk factor for cognitive decline, although the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesize that Aß (ß-amyloid), a core pathology of Alzheimer's disease, will be associated with subclinical cardiac structure and function echocardiogram indices. Methods- Three hundred six nondemented participants from the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study) underwent florbetapir positron emission tomography and 2D echocardiography (echo). Cross-sectional associations between echo markers of left ventricular structure and function and global cortical Aß (≥1.2 standardized uptake value ratio were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression with interaction terms when appropriate. Results- Participants ranged in age from 67 to 88 years, were 57% female and 42% black. Per 1 cm increase in end-diastolic left ventricular diameter, the odds of elevated florbetapir standardized uptake value ratio doubled (odds ratio, 2.04 [95% CI, 1.10-3.77]), with similar findings when excluding mild cognitive impairment (odds ratio, 2.61 [95% CI, 1.22-5.59]). Conclusions- We have demonstrated a significant association between a marker of left ventricular structure and elevated florbetapir standardized uptake value ratio, identified using positron emission tomography. Ongoing prospective work will help determine if changes in cardiac structure and function either precede, or occur simultaneously with deposition of amyloid.

3.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(10): e007390, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of subclinical atrial fibrillation (AF) in the elderly general population is unclear. We sought to define the prevalence of subclinical AF in a community-based elderly population and to characterize subclinical AF and the incremental diagnostic yield of 4 versus 2 weeks of continuous ECG monitoring. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis within the community-based multicenter observational ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) using visit 6 (2016-2017) data. The 2616 ARIC study participants who wore a leadless, ambulatory ECG monitor (Zio XT Patch) for up to 2 weeks were aged 79±5 years, 42% men, and 26% black. In a subset, 386 participants without clinically recognized AF wore the monitor twice, each time for up to 2 weeks. We characterized the prevalence of subclinical AF (ie, AF detected on the Zio XT Patch without clinically recognized AF) over 2 weeks of monitoring and the diagnostic yield of 4 versus 2 weeks of monitoring. RESULTS: The prevalence of subclinical AF was 2.5%; the prevalence of subclinical AF was 3.3% among white men, 2.5% among white women, 2.1% among black men, and 1.6% among black women. Subclinical AF was mostly intermittent (75%). Among those with intermittent subclinical AF, 91% had AF burden ≤10% during the monitoring period. In a subset of 386 participants without clinical AF, 78% more subclinical AF was detected by 4 weeks versus 2 weeks of ECG monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the prevalence of subclinical AF was lower than previously reported and monitoring beyond 2 weeks provided substantial incremental diagnostic yield. Future studies should focus on individuals with higher risk to increase diagnostic yield and consider continuous monitoring duration longer than 2 weeks.

4.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(1): 141, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic age acceleration, a measure of biological aging based on DNA methylation, is associated with cardiovascular mortality. However, little is known about its relationship with hypertensive target organ damage to the heart, kidneys, brain, and peripheral arteries. METHODS: We investigated associations between intrinsic (IEAA) or extrinsic (EEAA) epigenetic age acceleration, blood pressure, and six types of organ damage in a primarily hypertensive cohort of 1390 African Americans from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study. DNA methylation from peripheral blood leukocytes was collected at baseline (1996-2000), and measures of target organ damage were assessed in a follow-up visit (2000-2004). Linear regression with generalized estimating equations was used to test for associations between epigenetic age acceleration and target organ damage, as well as effect modification of epigenetic age by blood pressure or sex. Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR) was used to test for evidence of shared genetic and/or environmental effects between epigenetic age acceleration and organ damage pairs that were significantly associated. RESULTS: After adjustment for sex, chronological age, and time between methylation and organ damage measures, higher IEAA was associated with higher urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR, p = 0.004), relative wall thickness (RWT, p = 0.022), and left ventricular mass index (LVMI, p = 0.007), and with lower ankle-brachial index (ABI, p = 0.014). EEAA was associated with higher LVMI (p = 0.005). Target organ damage associations for all but IEAA with LVMI remained significant after further adjustment for blood pressure and antihypertensive use (p < 0.05). Further adjustment for diabetes attenuated the IEAA associations with UACR and RWT, and adjustment for smoking attenuated the IEAA association with ABI. No effect modification by age or sex was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Measures of epigenetic age acceleration may help to better characterize the functional mechanisms underlying organ damage from cellular aging and/or hypertension. These measures may act as subclinical biomarkers for damage to the kidney, heart, and peripheral vasculature; however more research is needed to determine whether these relationships remain independent of lifestyle factors and comorbidities.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630168

RESUMO

Methylation levels measured at defined sites across the genome have recently been shown to be correlated with an individual's chronological age. Age acceleration, or the difference between age estimated from DNA methylation status and chronological age, has been proposed as a novel biomarker of aging. In this study, the cross-sectional association between two different measures of age acceleration and cognitive function was investigated using whole blood samples from 2,157 African-American participants 47-70 years of age in the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Cognition was evaluated using three domain-specific tests. A significant inverse association between a one-year increase in age acceleration calculated using a blood-based age predictor and scores on the Word Fluency Test was found using a general linear model adjusted for chronological age, gender, and years of education (ß = -0.140 words; p = 0.001) and after adding other potential confounding variables (ß = -0.104 words, p = 0.023). The results were replicated in 1,670 European participants in the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (fully adjusted model: ß = -0.199 words; p = 0.034). A significant association was also identified in a trans-ethnic meta-analysis across cohorts that included an additional 708 European American ARIC study participants (fully adjusted model: ß = -0.110 words, p = 0.003). There were no associations found using an estimate of age acceleration derived from multiple tissues. These findings provide evidence that age acceleration is a correlate of performance on a test of verbal fluency in middle-aged adults.

6.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 244, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activated Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory properties and adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations may be important for neurocognitive function and protection against neurologic injury. We examined whether mid-life 25(OH) D concentrations were associated with later-life performance on neuropsychological testing, functional ability, depressive symptoms, and incident dementia. METHODS: We studied 13,039 white and black ARIC participants who had serum 25(OH) D measured mid-life at visit 2 (1990-1992). Over the next ~ 20 years through visit 5 (2011-2013), participants underwent 3 additional in-person visits, annual telephone calls, and hospitalization surveillance. An extensive battery of neuropsychological outcomes were assessed at visit 5 using standardized protocols. Incident dementia was ascertained through a formal algorithm that included data from in-person cognitive testing, telephone interviews, hospital discharge codes, and death certificate codes. Diagnoses of dementia were adjudicated by expert clinician committee. For the primary cognitive analyses, we imputed for missing covariates and outcomes and used linear regression to evaluate non-concurrent cross-sectional associations of mid-life 25(OH) D (visit 2) with late-life neuropsychological outcomes (visit 5). We also used Cox regression models to examine associations of mid-life 25(OH) D and incident dementia. RESULTS: In mid-life, the mean (SD) age of participants was 57 (6) years, 57% were women, and 24% black. Mean (SD) 25(OH) D was 24.3 (8.6) ng/mL; 33% had deficient (< 20 ng/mL), 44% intermediate (20- < 30 ng/mL), and 23% sufficient (≥30 ng/mL) 25(OH) D concentrations. Association between mid-life 25(OH) D and late-life performance on neuropsychological testing were mostly null. There was no significant association with functional ability or depressive symptoms. Results were similar in a sensitivity analysis using complete-case data (no imputation). However, after a median follow-up of 20 years, low 25(OH) D concentrations were associated with increased risk for incident dementia (p = 0.01 for trend across categories), with HR of 1.26 (95% CI 1.06, 1.49) for participants with deficient 25(OH) D, compared to sufficient concentrations. CONCLUSION: In this community cohort, mid-life serum 25(OH) D concentrations were associated with incident dementia but not with performance on neuropsychological testing, functional ability, or depressive symptoms, 20 years later. Whether serum 25(OH) D concentrations are causally related to dementia or confounded by poorer health status remains uncertain. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered on clinicaltrials.gov NCT00005131 .

7.
JAMA ; 322(6): 535-545, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408138

RESUMO

Importance: The association between late-life blood pressure (BP) and cognition may depend on the presence and chronicity of past hypertension. Late-life declines in blood pressure following prolonged hypertension may be associated with poor cognitive outcomes. Objective: To examine the association of midlife to late-life BP patterns with subsequent dementia, mild cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities prospective population-based cohort study enrolled 4761 participants during midlife (visit 1, 1987-1989) and followed-up over 6 visits through 2016-2017 (visit 6). BP was examined over 24 years at 5 in-person visits between visits 1 and 5 (2011-2013). During visits 5 and 6, participants underwent detailed neurocognitive evaluation. The setting was 4 US communities: Washington County, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; Jackson, Mississippi; and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Follow-up ended on December 31, 2017. Exposures: Five groups based on longitudinal patterns of normotension, hypertension (>140/90 mm Hg), and hypotension (<90/60 mm Hg) at visits 1 to 5. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was dementia onset after visit 5, based on Ascertain Dementia-8 informant questionnaires, Six-Item Screener telephone assessments, hospital discharge and death certificate codes, and the visit 6 neurocognitive evaluation. Secondary outcome was mild cognitive impairment at visit 6, based on the neurocognitive evaluation. Results: Among 4761 participants (2821 [59%] women; 979 [21%] black race; visit 5 mean [SD] age, 75 [5] years; visit 1 mean age range, 44-66 years; visit 5 mean age range, 66-90 years), there were 516 (11%) incident dementia cases between visits 5 and 6. The dementia incidence rate for participants with normotension in midlife (n = 833) and late life was 1.31 (95% CI, 1.00-1.72 per 100 person-years); for midlife normotension and late-life hypertension (n = 1559), 1.99 (95% CI, 1.69-2.32 per 100 person-years); for midlife and late-life hypertension (n = 1030), 2.83 (95% CI, 2.40-3.35 per 100 person-years); for midlife normotension and late-life hypotension (n = 927), 2.07 (95% CI, 1.68-2.54 per 100 person-years); and for midlife hypertension and late-life hypotension (n = 389), 4.26 (95% CI, 3.40-5.32 per 100 person-years). Participants in the midlife and late-life hypertension group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.49 [95% CI, 1.06-2.08]) and in the midlife hypertension and late-life hypotension group (HR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.11-2.37]) had significantly increased risk of subsequent dementia compared with those who remained normotensive. Irrespective of late-life BP, sustained hypertension in midlife was associated with dementia risk (HR, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.17-1.71]). Compared with those who were normotensive in midlife and late life, only participants with midlife hypertension and late-life hypotension had higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (37 affected individuals (odds ratio, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.01-2.69]). There was no significant association of BP patterns with late-life cognitive change. Conclusions and Relevance: In this community-based cohort with long-term follow-up, sustained hypertension in midlife to late life and a pattern of midlife hypertension and late-life hypotension, compared with midlife and late-life normal BP, were associated with increased risk for subsequent dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Demência/etiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Ann Intern Med ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450238

RESUMO

Background: Smaller (<3-mm) infarctions are associated with stroke and stroke mortality, but relationships with cognitive decline are unknown. Objective: To characterize the relationships of smaller, larger, and both smaller and larger infarctions in middle age with 20-year cognitive decline. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Two ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study sites with magnetic resonance imaging data (1993 to 1995) and up to 5 cognitive assessments over 20 years. Participants: Stroke-free participants aged 50 years or older. Measurements: Infarctions were categorized as none, smaller only, larger only (3 to 20 mm), or both smaller and larger. Global cognitive Z scores were derived from 3 cognitive tests administered up to 5 times. Mixed-effects models estimated adjusted associations between infarctions and cognitive decline. Results are the average difference in standardized cognitive decline associated with infarctions versus no infarctions. Results: Among 1884 participants (mean age, 62 years; 60% women; 50% black), 1611 (86%) had no infarctions, 50 (3%) had smaller infarctions only, 185 (10%) had larger infarctions only, and 35 (2%) had both. Participants with both smaller and larger infarctions had steeper cognitive decline by more than half an SD (difference, -0.57 SD [95% CI, -0.89 to -0.26 SD]) compared with those who had no infarctions. Amounts of cognitive decline associated with only smaller infarctions and only larger infarctions were similar and were not statistically different from that associated with no infarctions. Limitation: Few participants had only smaller infarctions or both smaller and larger infarctions, and the data lacked counts of smaller infarctions and volumes of white matter hyperintensities. Conclusion: The substantial cognitive decline from middle age associated with having both smaller and larger infarctions, but not larger infarctions alone, suggests that the combination of smaller and larger infarctions may escalate risk for cognitive decline later in life in stroke-free persons. Primary Funding Source: National Institutes of Health.

9.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(10): e00788, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy affects up to 43% of African Americans (AAs). Antihypertensive treatment reduces LV mass (LVM). However, interindividual variation in LV traits in response to antihypertensive treatments exists. We hypothesized that genetic variants may modify the association of antihypertensive treatment class with LV traits measured by echocardiography. METHODS: We evaluated the main effects of the three most common antihypertensive treatments for AAs as well as the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-by-drug interaction on LVM and relative wall thickness (RWT) in 2,068 participants across five community-based cohorts. Treatments included thiazide diuretics (TDs), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (dCCBs) and were compared in a pairwise manner. We performed fixed effects inverse variance weighted meta-analyses of main effects of drugs and 2.5 million SNP-by-drug interaction estimates. RESULTS: We observed that dCCBs versus TDs were associated with higher LVM after adjusting for covariates (p = 0.001). We report three SNPs at a single locus on chromosome 20 that modified the association between RWT and treatment when comparing dCCBs to ACE-Is with consistent effects across cohorts (smallest p = 4.7 × 10-8 , minor allele frequency range 0.09-0.12). This locus has been linked to LV hypertrophy in a previous study. A marginally significant locus in BICD1 (rs326641) was validated in an external population. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified one locus having genome-wide significant SNP-by-drug interaction effect on RWT among dCCB users in comparison to ACE-I users. Upon additional validation in future studies, our findings can enhance the precision of medical approaches in hypertension treatment.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466396

RESUMO

DNA methylation (DNAm) clocks are important biomarkers of cellular aging and are associated with a variety of age-related chronic diseases and all-cause mortality. Examining the relationship between education and lifestyle risk factors for age-related diseases and multiple DNAm clocks can increase the understanding of how risk factors contribute to aging at the cellular level. This study explored the association between education or lifestyle risk factors for age-related diseases and the acceleration of four DNAm clocks, including intrinsic (IEAA) and extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (EEAA), PhenoAge acceleration (PhenoAA), and GrimAge acceleration (GrimAA) in the African American participants of the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy. We performed both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. In cross-sectional analyses, gender, education, BMI, smoking, and alcohol consumption were all independently associated with GrimAA, whereas only some of them were associated with other clocks. The effect of smoking and education on GrimAA varied by gender. Longitudinal analyses suggest that age and BMI continued to increase GrimAA, and that age and current smoking continued to increase PhenoAA after controlling DNAm clocks at baseline. In conclusion, education and common lifestyle risk factors were associated with multiple DNAm clocks. However, the association with each risk factor varied by clock, which suggests that different clocks may capture adverse effects from different environmental stimuli.

11.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 194599819868145, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of midlife hypertension with late-life hearing impairment. STUDY DESIGN: Data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, an ongoing prospective longitudinal population-based study (baseline, 1987-1989). SETTING: Washington County, Maryland, research field site. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Subjects included 248 community-dwelling men and women aged 67 to 89 years in 2013. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure were measured at each of 5 study visits from 1987-1989 to 2013. Hypertension was defined by elevated systolic or diastolic blood pressure or antihypertensive medication use. A 4-frequency (0.5-4 kHz) better-hearing ear pure tone average in decibels hearing loss (dB HL) was calculated from pure tone audiometry measured in 2013. A cutoff of 40 dB HL was used to indicate clinically significant moderate to severe hearing impairment. Hearing thresholds at 5 frequencies (0.5-8 kHz) were also considered separately. RESULTS: Forty-seven participants (19%) had hypertension at baseline (1987-1989), as opposed to 183 (74%) in 2013. The SBP association with late-life pure tone average differed by the time of measurement, with SBP measured at earlier visits associated with poorer hearing; the difference in pure tone average per 10-mm Hg SBP measured was 1.43 dB HL (95% CI, 0.32-2.53) at baseline versus -0.43 dB HL (95% CI, -1.41 to 0.55) in 2013. Baseline hypertension was associated with higher thresholds (poorer hearing) at 4 frequencies (1, 2, 4, 8 kHz). CONCLUSION: Midlife SBP was associated with poorer hearing measured 25 years later. Further analysis into the longitudinal relationship between hypertension and hearing impairment is warranted.

12.
Am Heart J ; 216: 1-8, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF), but paradoxically higher burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors, has been observed among African Americans compared to Whites in studies of AF identified by mostly 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) and clinically. METHODS: We performed 48-hour ambulatory electrocardiography (aECG) in a biracial sample of 1,193 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) (mean age = 78 years, 62% African Americans, 64% female). Atrial fibrillation was identified from aECG, study visit ECGs, and discharge codes from cohort hospitalizations. We used covariate-adjusted logistic regression to estimate prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for AF in African Americans versus Whites, with adjustment for sampling and nonresponse. RESULTS: African Americans were more likely than Whites to have hypertension and diabetes but less likely to have coronary heart disease. The prevalence of AF detected by aECG or ARIC study ECG (adjusted for age and coronary heart disease) was lower in African Americans than Whites (2.7% vs 5.0%). White men had a higher (although not significant) AF prevalence of 7.8% compared to the other race and gender groups at 2.3%-2.8%. The adjusted OR for AF was 0.49 (0.24-0.99) comparing African Americans to Whites. Findings were similar when AF was defined to include prior AF hospitalizations (OR = 0.42, 0.25-0.72). There were no significant differences by race for asymptomatic or paroxysmal AF. CONCLUSIONS: Atrial fibrillation was less prevalent in African American than white older adults, regardless of detection method. Although overall detection of new AF cases with aECG was low, future studies should consider longer-term monitoring to characterize AF by race.

13.
Diabetes Care ; 42(7): 1248-1254, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine associations in older adults among diabetes, glycemic control, diabetes duration, and biomarkers of hyperglycemia with incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and incident dementia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of 5,099 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study who attended the fifth (2011-2013) exam. Cognitive status was assessed during follow-up via telephone calls, death certificate codes, surveillance, and a follow-up examination (2016-2017). We defined incident cognitive impairment as incident MCI or incident dementia in persons dementia-free at the index examination; we also examined each outcome separately. Diabetes was defined using self-report, medications, or HbA1c ≥6.5%; poor glycemic control in persons with diabetes was defined as HbA1c ≥7%. We examined the following biomarkers of hyperglycemia: HbA1c, fructosamine, glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol. RESULTS: Mean age at baseline was 76 years, 59% were female, and 21% were black. Diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14 [95% CI 1.00, 1.31]), poor glycemic control in persons with diabetes (HR 1.31 [95% CI 1.05, 1.63]), and longer diabetes duration (≥5 vs. <5 years; HR 1.59 [95% CI 1.23, 2.07]) were significantly associated with incident cognitive impairment. We found a J-shaped association between HbA1c and incident dementia. Glycated albumin and fructosamine were also associated with incident dementia, independently of HbA1c. HbA1c and fructosamine were also associated with incident MCI. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes status, poor glycemic control, and longer diabetes duration were associated with worse cognitive outcomes over a median follow-up of 5 years.

14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(5): e193359, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074810

RESUMO

Importance: Brain atrophy and vascular lesions contribute to dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in clinical referral populations. Prospective evidence in older general populations is limited. Objective: To evaluate which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs are independent risk factors for dementia and MCI. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study included 1553 participants sampled from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who had brain MRI scans and were dementia free during visit 5 (June 2011 to September 2013). Participants' cognitive status was evaluated through visit 6 (June 2016 to December 2017). Exposures: Brain regional volumes, microhemorrhages, white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volumes, and infarcts measured on 3-T MRI. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cognitive status (dementia, MCI, or nonimpaired cognition) was determined from in-person evaluations. Dementia among participants who missed visit 6 was identified via dementia surveillance and hospital discharge or death certificate codes. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the risk of dementia in 3 populations: dementia-free participants (N = 1553), participants with nonimpaired cognition (n = 1014), and participants with MCI (n = 539). Complementary log-log models were used for risk of MCI among participants with nonimpaired cognition who also attended visit 6 (n = 767). Models were adjusted for demographic variables, apolipoprotein E ε4 alleles, vascular risk factors, depressive symptoms, and heart failure. Results: Overall, 212 incident dementia cases were identified among 1553 participants (mean [SD] age at visit 5, 76 [5.2] years; 946 [60.9%] women; 436 [28.1%] African American) with a median (interquartile range) follow-up period of 4.9 (4.3-5.2) years. Significant risk factors of dementia included lower volumes in the Alzheimer disease (AD) signature region, including hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and surrounding structures (hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD decrease, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.89-3.04), lobar microhemorrhages (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.30-2.77), higher volumes of WMH (HR per 1-SD increase, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.23-1.69), and lacunar infarcts (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.20-2.31). The AD signature region volume was also consistently associated with both MCI and progression from MCI to dementia, while subcortical microhemorrhages and infarcts contributed less to the progression from MCI to dementia. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, lower AD signature region volumes, brain microhemorrhages, higher WMH volumes, and infarcts were risk factors associated with dementia in older community-based residents. Vascular changes were more important in the development of MCI than in its progression to dementia, while AD-related signs were important in both stages.

15.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 161: 106-114, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954674

RESUMO

We have previously reported cognitive impairments in both young and old mice, particularly in female mice expressing mouse Arg-61 apoE, with a point mutation to mimic the domain interaction feature of human apoE4, as compared to the wildtype mouse (C57BL/6J) apoE. In this study, we further evaluated water maze performance in the female Arg-61 mice at an additional time point and then investigated related hippocampal cyto-architecture in these young female Arg-61 apoE mice vs. the wildtype mice. The results of behavioral performance consistently support our previous report that the young female Arg-61 apoE showed cognitive impairment versus C57BL/6J at the same age. The cyto-architectural results showed that volume of the granular cell layer (GCL) was significantly larger in both 5- and 10-month old Arg-61 apoE mice versus C57BL/6J mice. While the number of newborn calretinin-positive neurons was greater in the sub-granular zone (SGZ) in 5-month old Arg-61 mice, this number dropped significantly in 10-month old Arg-61 mice to a lower level than in age-matched C57BL/6J mice. In addition, the amyloid ß species was significantly higher in 5-month old Arg-61 mice versus age-matched C57BL/6J mice. In conclusion, impaired cognitive functions in female Arg-61 apoE mice appear correlated with larger GCL volume and higher calretinin-positive cell number and suggest a compensatory cellular response that may be related to amyloid beta perturbations early in life. Therefore this study suggests a novel cyto-architectural mechanism of apoE4-dependent pathologies and increased susceptibility of APOEε4 subjects to Alzheimer's disease.

16.
Neurology ; 92(16): e1890-e1898, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify promising blood-based biomarkers and novel etiologic pathways of disease risk, we applied an untargeted serum metabolomics profiling in a community-based prospective study of ischemic stroke (IS). METHODS: In 3,904 men and women from the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities study, Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association of incident IS with the standardized level of 245 fasting serum metabolites individually, adjusting for age, sex, race, field center, batch, diabetes, hypertension, current smoking status, body mass index, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Validation of results was carried out in an independent sample of 114 IS cases and 112 healthy controls. RESULTS: Serum levels of 2 long-chain dicarboxylic acids, tetradecanedioate and hexadecanedioate, were strongly correlated (r = 0.88) and were associated with incident IS after adjusting for covariates (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.11 [1.06-1.16] and 1.12 [1.07-1.17], respectively; p < 0.0001). Analyses by IS subtypes suggested that these associations were specific to cardioembolic stroke (CES). Associations of tetradecanedioate and hexadecanedioate with IS were independently confirmed (odds ratio [95% CI] 1.76 [1.21; 2.56] and 1.60 [1.11; 2.32], respectively). CONCLUSION: Two serum long-chain dicarboxylic acids, metabolic products of ω-oxidation of fatty acids, were associated with IS and CES independently of known risk factors. Pathways related to intracellular hexadecanedioate synthesis or those involved in its clearance from the circulation may mediate IS risk. These results highlight the potential of metabolomics to discover novel circulating biomarkers for stroke and to unravel novel pathways for IS and its subtypes.

17.
Brain ; 142(4): 1009-1023, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859180

RESUMO

We report a composite extreme phenotype design using distribution of white matter hyperintensities and brain infarcts in a population-based cohort of older persons for gene-mapping of cerebral small vessel disease. We demonstrate its application in the 3C-Dijon whole exome sequencing (WES) study (n = 1924, nWESextremes = 512), with both single variant and gene-based association tests. We used other population-based cohort studies participating in the CHARGE consortium for replication, using whole exome sequencing (nWES = 2,868, nWESextremes = 956) and genome-wide genotypes (nGW = 9924, nGWextremes = 3308). We restricted our study to candidate genes known to harbour mutations for Mendelian small vessel disease: NOTCH3, HTRA1, COL4A1, COL4A2 and TREX1. We identified significant associations of a common intronic variant in HTRA1, rs2293871 using single variant association testing (Pdiscovery = 8.21 × 10-5, Preplication = 5.25 × 10-3, Pcombined = 4.72 × 10-5) and of NOTCH3 using gene-based tests (Pdiscovery = 1.61 × 10-2, Preplication = 3.99 × 10-2, Pcombined = 5.31 × 10-3). Follow-up analysis identified significant association of rs2293871 with small vessel ischaemic stroke, and two blood expression quantitative trait loci of HTRA1 in linkage disequilibrium. Additionally, we identified two participants in the 3C-Dijon cohort (0.4%) carrying heterozygote genotypes at known pathogenic variants for familial small vessel disease within NOTCH3 and HTRA1. In conclusion, our proof-of-concept study provides strong evidence that using a novel composite MRI-derived phenotype for extremes of small vessel disease can facilitate the identification of genetic variants underlying small vessel disease, both common variants and those with rare and low frequency. The findings demonstrate shared mechanisms and a continuum between genes underlying Mendelian small vessel disease and those contributing to the common, multifactorial form of the disease.

18.
Epigenetics ; 14(2): 171-184, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764717

RESUMO

Changes in DNA methylation may be a potential mechanism that mediates the effects of smoking on physiological function and subsequent disease risk. Given the dynamic nature of the epigenome, longitudinal studies are indispensable for investigating smoking-induced methylation changes over time. Using blood samples collected approximately five years apart in 380 African Americans (mean age 60.7 years) from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study, we measured DNA methylation levels using Illumina HumanMethylation BeadChips. We evaluated the association between Phase 1 smoking status and rate of methylation change, using generalized estimating equation models. Among the 6958 CpG sites examined, smoking status was associated with methylation change for 22 CpGs (false discovery rate q < 0.1), with the majority (91%) becoming less methylated over time. Methylation change was greater in ever smokers than never smokers, and the absolute differences in rates of change ranged from 0.18 to 0.77 per decade in M value, equivalent to a ß value change of 0.013 to 0.047 per decade. Significant enrichment was observed for CpG islands, enhancers, and DNAse hypersensitivity sites (p < 0.05). Although biological pathway analyses were not significant, most of the 22 CpGs were within genes known to be associated with cardiovascular disease, cancers, and aging. In conclusion, we identified epigenetic signatures for cigarette smoking that may have been missed in cross-sectional analyses, providing insight into the epigenetic effect of smoking and highlighting the importance of longitudinal analysis in understanding the dynamic human epigenome.

19.
Neurology ; 92(11): e1256-e1267, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between systemic inflammation measured during midlife and 20-year cognitive decline. METHODS: Within the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort study, inflammatory biomarkers were measured during middle adulthood. We created an inflammation composite score using 4 blood biomarkers measured at visit 1 (fibrinogen, white blood cell count, von Willebrand factor, and factor VIII); we measured C-reactive protein (CRP) at visit 2. Cognition was assessed over 3 visits spanning 20 years using measures of memory, executive function, and language. RESULTS: A total of 12,336 participants (baseline age 56.8 [5.7], 21% black, 56% women) were included. After adjusting for demographic variables, vascular risk factors, and comorbidities, each standard deviation (SD) increase in midlife inflammation composite score was associated with an additional 20-year decline of -0.035 SD (95% confidence interval: -0.062 to -0.007) on the cognitive composite score. We found a similar association between each SD increase in midlife CRP level and additional 20-year cognitive decline (-0.038 SD, 95% confidence interval: -0.057 to -0.019). Participants with a midlife inflammation composite score in the top quartile had a 7.8% steeper cognitive decline, compared to participants in the lowest quartile; CRP in the top quartile was associated with an 11.6% steeper cognitive decline. In cognitive domain-specific analyses, elevated midlife inflammatory markers were most consistently associated with declines in memory. Results were similar after adjusting for attrition using inverse probability weighting. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight what may be an early pathogenic role for systemic inflammation as a driver of cognitive decline in the decades leading up to older adulthood.

20.
Neurology ; 92(10): e1051-e1063, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728308

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of cognitive declines in the domains of memory, language, and executive function with brain gray matter (GM) volume in old age. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 1,846 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study who underwent 3T brain MRI scans in 2011 to 2013. Participants were categorized by cognitive domain performance trajectory over the prior 20 years (cut point to define decline: 20th percentile). Associations between GM volume and cognitive declines were assessed at the voxel level with voxel-based morphometry and at the regional level with atlas-defined GM volumes of specific regions of interest. RESULTS: Participants were an average age of 76 years; 60% were female; and 28% were black. Participants in the top 20th percentile for decline in the memory domain had smaller GM volumes in the medial temporal lobe (-3.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -4.6% to -2.1%), amygdala (-2.7%, 95% CI -4.1% to -1.3%), entorhinal cortex (-4.1%, 95% CI -6.0% to -2.2%), and hippocampus (-3.8%, 95% CI -5.2% to -2.4%) compared to participants who were in the lowest 80th percentile for decline in all domains. In contrast, among participants who were in the top 20th percentile for decline in the language or executive function domains, GM volumes were smaller in more brain regions. CONCLUSIONS: Declines in memory function were associated with brain volume loss in the medial temporal and hippocampal formations. Declines in language and executive function were associated with decreases in brain volumes across more noncontiguous brain regions.

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