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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473687

RESUMO

Background To investigate the associations between adiposity and attained height over a 2-year period in healthy adolescents. Methods One thousand and seventeen adolescents aged 12-18 years participated in this cohort study; 893 (87.8%) were reevaluated 1 year later (T2) and 734 (72.2%) subjects 2 years later (T3). Body fat and anthropometry were measured according to standardized procedures. Socioeconomic status, pubertal stage and lifestyles determinants were gathered and used as confounders. Prospective associations between adiposity and height were examined using generalized linear models. Results Greater adiposity at T1 was significantly associated with a lower attained height over time, when adjusting for confounders, which varied between 0.03 and 1 cm in T2 and 0.1 and 1 cm in T3. Conclusions Excess of adiposity in early adolescence may exert an effect on attained height in late adolescence. This study supports future lifestyles intervention studies aiming at preventing overweight and obesity and improving attained height.

2.
Am J Hum Biol ; : e23304, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a sample of adolescents, and to determine whether changes in cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with HRQoL over a 2-year follow-up. METHODS: This is a longitudinal analysis with 571 Portuguese adolescents (274 boys and 297 girls) aged 12-18 years. HRQoL was measured with the Kidscreen-10 questionnaire; the 20 m shuttle-run was used to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness; socioeconomic status was assessed with the Family Affluence Scale; and pubertal stage was assessed with Tanner stages. Linear regression and analysis of covariance (ancovas) were used to examine the associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and HRQoL. RESULTS: HRQoL decreased over a 2-year period both in boys and girls (P < .05). Moreover, girls at baseline and at follow-up reported significantly lower HRQoL values than boys (between subjects P < .001). After adjustments for potential confounders, regression analyses showed significant cross-sectional associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and HRQoL both at baseline (B = 0.095; P = .023) and at follow-up (B = 0.090; P = .012). ancova showed that adolescents whose cardiorespiratory fitness decreased over time exhibited lower scores of HRQoL at follow-up, compared to those with persistent high cardiorespiratory fitness; this held after adjustments for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and pubertal stage. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness during adolescence were associated with HRQoL over a 2-year period. This study suggests that improving cardiorespiratory fitness could be an important strategy in improving the HRQoL of adolescents.

3.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 25(4): 322-327, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1013656

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Studies of association between obesity and genetic factors have demonstrated a significant contribution of polymorphisms related to body fat distribution and subclinical inflammatory process. Objective: To investigate the association between genotypes of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the ADRB2 gene and indicators of adiposity, inflammatory markers, metabolic parameters and parameters of physical fitness in overweight adolescents. Methods: A total of 44 male and female adolescents, aged between 13 and 17 years, with positive clinical diagnosis of overweight, were divided into two groups according to the Gln27Glu polymorphism genotypes of the ADRB2 gene: a) Group of carriers of the 27Glu allele (Gln27Glu/Glu27Glu) (n = 22); b) Group of non-carriers of the 27Glu allele (Gln27Gln) (n = 22). Both groups were evaluated for body composition, sexual maturation, cardiorespiratory fitness variables and indicators of muscle strength. Basal glycemia and insulin, lipid profile and inflammatory profile were measured. Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposities were evaluated by ultrasonography. Genotyping of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the ADRB2 gene was performed by the Taqman allelic discrimination assay. Results: The genotype frequency found was: Gln/Gln (n = 22) (50.0%), Gln/Glu (n = 18) (41.0%) and Glu/Glu (n = 4) %). The frequency of the 27Glu allele was 29.5%. The group of adolescent carriers of the 27Glu allele of the ADRB2 gene presented higher mean adiposity indicators (abdominal circumference, trunk fat mass and visceral fat), as well as lower IL-10 concentrations when compared to non-carriers. Conclusions: The 27Glu allele was associated with adiposity indicators in overweight adolescents, while subcutaneous abdominal fat exhibited an inverse relationship with inflammatory variables and maximum oxygen uptake, which may result in more damage to health. Level of evidence III; Case-control study.


RESUMO Introdução: Estudos de associação entre a obesidade e fatores genéticos têm demonstrado a significativa contribuição de polimorfismos relacionados à distribuição de gordura corporal e processo inflamatório subclínico. Objetivo: Investigar a associação entre os genótipos do polimorfismo Gln27Glu do gene ADRB2 e indicadores de adiposidade, marcadores inflamatórios, parâmetros metabólicos e de aptidão física em adolescentes com excesso de peso. Métodos: Participaram 44 adolescentes, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 13 e 17 anos, com diagnóstico clínico positivo de excesso de peso, divididos em dois grupos conforme os genótipos do polimorfismo Gln27Glu do gene ADRB2: a) Grupo de portadores do alelo 27Glu (Gln27Glu/Glu27Glu) (n=22); b) Grupo de não portadores do alelo 27Glu (Gln27Gln) (n=22). Ambos os grupos foram avaliados quanto à composição corporal, maturação sexual, variáveis de aptidão cardiorrespiratória e indicadores de força muscular. Foram dosados glicemia e insulina basais, perfil lipídico e perfil inflamatório. As adiposidades abdominais subcutânea e visceral foram avaliadas através de ultrassonografia. A genotipagem do polimorfismo Gln27Glu do gene ADRB2 foi realizada através do ensaio de discriminação alélica Taqman. Resultados: A frequência genotípica encontrada foi: Gln/Gln (n=22) (50,0%), Gln/Glu (n=18) (41,0%) e Glu/Glu (n=4) (9,0%). A frequência do alelo do 27Glu foi de 29,5%. O grupo de adolescentes portadores do alelo 27Glu do gene ADRB2 apresentou maiores médias de indicadores de adiposidade (circunferência abdominal, massa gorda troncular e gordura visceral), assim como menores concentrações de IL-10 quando comparados aos não portadores. Conclusões: O alelo 27Glu apresentou associação com os indicadores de adiposidade em adolescentes com excesso de peso, assim como a gordura abdominal subcutânea demonstrou relação inversa com as variáveis inflamatórias e o consumo máximo de oxigênio, podendo resultar em maiores prejuízos à saúde. Nível de evidência III; Estudo de caso-controle.


RESUMEN Introducción: Estudios de asociación entre la obesidad y factores genéticos han demostrado la significativa contribución de polimorfismos relacionados a la distribución de grasa corporal y proceso inflamatorio subclínico. Objetivo: Investigar la asociación entre los genotipos del polimorfismo Gln27Glu del gen ADRB2 e indicadores de adiposidad, marcadores inflamatorios, parámetros metabólicos y de aptitud física en adolescentes con exceso de peso. Métodos: Participaron 44 adolescentes, de ambos sexos, con edad entre 13 y 17 años, con diagnóstico clínico positivo de exceso de peso, divididos en dos grupos según los genotipos del polimorfismo Gln27Glu del gen ADRB2: a) Grupo de portadores del alelo 27Glu (Gln27Glu/Glu27Glu) (n = 22); b) Grupo de no portadores del alelo 27Glu (Gln27Gln) (n = 22). Ambos grupos fueron evaluados cuanto a la composición corporal, madurez sexual, variables de aptitud cardiorrespiratoria e indicadores de fuerza muscular. Fueron dosificadas glucemia e insulina basales, perfil lipídico y perfil inflamatorio. Las adiposidades abdominales subcutánea y visceral fueron evaluadas a través de ultrasonografía. El genotipado del polimorfismo Gln27Glu del gen ADRB2 fue realizado a través del ensayo de discriminación alélica Taqman. Resultados: La frecuencia genotípica encontrada fue: Gln/Gln (n = 22) (50,0%), Gln/Glu (n = 18) (41,0%) y Glu/Glu (n = 4) (9,0%). La frecuencia del alelo del 27Glu fue del 29,5%. El grupo de adolescentes portadores del alelo 27Glu del gen ADRB2 presentó mayores promedios de indicadores de adiposidad (circunferencia abdominal, masa grasa troncular y grasa visceral), así como menores concentraciones de IL-10, en comparación con los no portadores. Conclusiones: El alelo 27Glu presentó asociación con los indicadores de adiposidad en adolescentes con exceso de peso, así como la grasa abdominal subcutánea demostró relación inversa con las variables inflamatorias y el consumo máximo de oxígeno, lo que puede resultar en mayores perjuicios a la salud. Nivel de Evidencia III; Estudio de caso-control.

4.
Braz J Phys Ther ; 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of interval training and resistance training has showed interesting results in chronic heart failure patients, corroborating the benefits of physiological adaptations of both protocols. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the combination of interval training and resistance training program when compared to interval training alone and/or without intervention group on cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with chronic heart failure. METHODS: We search MEDLINE via PubMed, ScienceDirect, Sportdiscus, BIREME and Scielo, from their inception to December 2018. Were included both randomized and non-randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of combined training, interval training alone and/or WI group on VO2peak (expressed in ml/kg/min), in people with chronic heart failure patients. The meta-analysis was conducted via Review Manager v 5.3 software, using random effect model. RESULTS: Ten articles were selected (nine randomized controlled trial), involving 401 participants. Six studies compared combined training with interval training and six studies compared combined training with the without intervention group. Eighty percent of the trials presented moderate risk of bias and twenty percent low risk of bias. Data showed significant difference and major increase in VO2peak in favor to combined training group compared to interval training group (SMD=0.25; CI=0.04-0.46) and without intervention group (SMD=0.46; CI=0.29-0.64), respectively. CONCLUSION: The combination of interval training and resistance training showed more effective in increasing cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with heart failure than interval training alone and non-exercise therapy. However, further studies should be conducted to increase the understanding of this combined training method.

5.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190017, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictive power of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and their respective cut-off points for high blood pressure (BP) screening in Brazilian children and adolescents. METHOD: Cross-sectional study conducted with 1,139 students aged 6 to 17years. Body weight, height, WC, and BP were measured. High BP was classified as systolic or diastolic ≥ 95th percentile. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed, and the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of high BP was 27.0%. Anthropometric indices showed a significant association with high BP (accuracy ranging from 0.62 - 0.81), except for WHtR among male adolescents.Sensitivity was low, regardless of the anthropometric index, gender, and age group. CONCLUSION: BMI, WC, and WHtR were associated with high BP, but the cut-off points tested showed low sensitivity. Determining specific cut-off points for each population can enable the use of anthropometric indices in high BP screening.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Circunferência da Cintura , Razão Cintura-Estatura
6.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 32(3): 239-246, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844760

RESUMO

Background Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and pubertal stages have been related to many health outcomes, including obesity and adipocytokines. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the moderator role of CRF and pubertal stage in the relationship between adiposity and adipocytokines in girls. Method This cross-sectional study was performed with 42 pre-pubertal girls aged from 7 to 11 years and 54 post-pubertal girls aged from 13 to 17 years. Blood samples were collected to determine the serum levels of leptin and adiponectin, and then the leptin/adiponectin ratio (L/A ratio) was calculated. CRF, anthropometric and body composition indicators were assessed. For statistical analysis, descriptive statistics and several linear regression models were used. The moderation analysis was tested using the PROCESS macro. Results An interaction between body mass index (BMI) and CRF (ß: -0.70; confidence interval [CI]: -1.29, -0.12), as well as between BMI and pubertal stage (ß: 0.79; CI: 0.28, 1.30) with leptin, was found. Regarding the L/A ratio, an interaction was found only in BMI × CRF (ß: -0.56; CI: -1.06, -0.06). Using a combined interaction (CRF and pubertal stage), the results showed a positive association between BMI with leptin and L/A ratio only in low CRF, pre-pubertal and post-pubertal stages. Conclusion This study suggests a protective role of high levels of CRF in the relationship between BMI and adipocytokines. Despite the effect of pubertal stage, the results suggest that youth should be engaged in physical activity in order to improve CRF levels and consequently improve cardiometabolic health.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Leptina/sangue , Puberdade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Puberdade/sangue
7.
J Phys Act Health ; 16(4): 251-258, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study describes levels of self-reported physical activity, frequency of selected opportunistic nonsedentary behaviors, and preferences of leisure-time activities in a representative sample of Portuguese adults, using data from a national survey on diet and activity behaviors (National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, IAN-AF, 2015-2016). METHODS: Participants were 3873 Portuguese adults (1827 men). They were interviewed face to face, and the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used. Regular leisure-time programmed activities, and 6 additional items, forming the activity choice index questionnaire, were used to assess 6 discrete nonsedentary behaviors. RESULTS: Using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire categories, 42.3% of the sample were classified as low active, 30.6% as moderately active, and 27.1% as highly active. Walking, health/fitness activities, running, group gymnastics classes, swimming/pool activities, football/futsal, and cycling were the most popular leisure-time activities. Between 15% (parking further away from destinations) and 48% (using the stairs instead of elevators) of participants reported that they frequently adopted commonly recommended nonsedentary activities. CONCLUSIONS: This study updates self-reported physical activity prevalence for Portugal adults, including older adults. In addition, it uniquely describes leisure-time activity preferences in the population and also the relative frequency of several nonsedentary activities of daily living.

8.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 75(4): 451-466, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610276

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The importance of rational drug therapy is increasing with the aging of the population. Since one of the main reasons for inappropriate drug prescribing is also the "age-blind" approach, which results in ageist practices, this narrative literature review focuses on the description of the main barriers related to insufficient individualization of drug regimens associated with such age-blind approaches. METHODOLOGY: A narrative literature review using the PubMed, WoS, Embase, and Scopus databases was conducted by the EU COST Action IS1402. Experts in different scientific fields from six countries (the Czech Republic, Spain, Portugal, Hungary, Serbia, and Turkey) worked in four specific areas: (1) underrepresentation of older adults in clinical trials and clinical and ethical consequences; (2) insufficient consideration of age-related changes and geriatric frailty in the evaluation of the therapeutic value of drugs; (3) frequent prescribing of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs); and (4) frequent underuse of highly beneficial nonpharmacological strategies (e.g., exercise). RESULTS: Older patients are underrepresented in clinical trials. Therefore, rigorous observational geriatric research is needed in order to obtain evidence on the real efficacy and safety of frequently used drugs, and e.g. developed geriatric scales and frailty indexes for claims databases should help to stimulate such research. The use of PIMs, unfortunately, is still highly prevalent in Europe: 22.6% in community-dwelling older patients and 49.0% in institutionalized older adults. Specific tests to detect the majority of age-related pharmacological changes are usually not available in everyday clinical practice, which limits the estimation of drug risks and possibilities to individualize drug therapy in geriatric patients before drug prescription. Moreover, the role of some nonpharmacological  strategies is highly underestimated in older adults in contrast to frequent use of polypharmacy. Among nonpharmacological strategies, particularly physical exercise was highly effective in reducing functional decline, frailty, and the risk of falls in the majority of clinical studies. CONCLUSION: Several regulatory and clinical barriers contribute to insufficient knowledge on the therapeutic value of drugs in older patients, age-blind approach, and inappropriate prescribing. New clinical and observational research is needed, including data on comprehensive geriatric assessment and frailty, to document the real efficacy and safety of frequently used medications.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Polimedicação , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Turquia
10.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22: e190017, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-990728

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Determinar o poder preditivo do índice de massa corporal (IMC), perímetro da cintura (PC) e razão da cintura pela estatura (RCEst) e de seus respectivos pontos de corte para triagem de pressão arterial (PA) elevada em crianças e adolescentes brasileiros. Método: Estudo transversal realizado com1.139 escolares de 6 a 17 anos de idade. A massa corporal, a estatura, o PC e a PA foram mensurados. A PA elevada foi classificada como sistólica ou diastólica≥ percentil 95. Curvas Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) foram construídas e a área sob a curva, a sensibilidade e a especificidade foram calculadas. Resultados: A prevalência de PA elevada foi de 27,0%. Os indicadores antropométricos apresentaram associação significativa com PA elevada (acurácia variando de 0,62 - 0,81), exceto RCEst entre adolescentes do sexo masculino.Observou-se baixa sensibilidade, independentemente do indicador antropométrico, do sexo e da faixa etária. Conclusão: OIMC, o PC e a RCEst estiveram associados a PA elevada, porém os pontos de corte testados apresentaram baixa sensibilidade. A determinação de pontos de corte específicos para cada população pode viabilizar a triagem de PA elevada por meio de indicadores antropométricos.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the predictive power of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and their respective cut-off points for high blood pressure (BP) screening in Brazilian children and adolescents. Method: Cross-sectional study conducted with 1,139 students aged 6 to 17years. Body weight, height, WC, and BP were measured. High BP was classified as systolic or diastolic ≥ 95th percentile. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed, and the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. Results: The prevalence of high BP was 27.0%. Anthropometric indices showed a significant association with high BP (accuracy ranging from 0.62 - 0.81), except for WHtR among male adolescents.Sensitivity was low, regardless of the anthropometric index, gender, and age group. Conclusion: BMI, WC, and WHtR were associated with high BP, but the cut-off points tested showed low sensitivity. Determining specific cut-off points for each population can enable the use of anthropometric indices in high BP screening.

11.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 32(1): 49-55, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530900

RESUMO

Background Anthropometric indicators are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF), but there is no consensus as to which indicator is the most suitable to screen for clustered CMRF. This study aimed to evaluate the utility of five anthropometric indicators to screen for clustered CMRF in children and adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1139 schoolchildren aged 6-17 years from Northeastern Brazil. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and subscapular (SSF) and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. The following CMRF were evaluated: elevated total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high triglyceride concentration, hyperglycemia and high blood pressure. The participants were categorized into no CMRF, 1 CMRF, 2 CMRF and ≥3 CMRF. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the accuracy of the anthropometric indicators in predicting CMRF for age group and sex. Results Poor associations were observed between the anthropometric indicators and 1 CMRF (accuracy of 0.49-0.64). The indicators showed moderate associations with 2 CMRF (accuracy of 0.57-0.75) and ≥3 CMRF (accuracy of 0.59-0.79). In general, TSF exhibited the worst performance in predicting CMRF, followed by WHtR. The highest accuracies were observed for BMI, WC and SSF, with no significant difference between these indicators. Conclusions The routine use of BMI, WC and SSF as epidemiological screening tools for clustered CMRF in childhood and adolescence should be encouraged.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Prognóstico
13.
J Phys Act Health ; 15(S2): S251-S273, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating sufficient moderate to vigorous physical activity is recognized as a key determinant of physical, physiological, developmental, mental, cognitive, and social health among children and youth (aged 5-17 y). The Global Matrix 3.0 of Report Card grades on physical activity was developed to achieve a better understanding of the global variation in child and youth physical activity and associated supports. METHODS: Work groups from 49 countries followed harmonized procedures to develop their Report Cards by grading 10 common indicators using the best available data. The participating countries were divided into 3 categories using the United Nations' human development index (HDI) classification (low or medium, high, and very high HDI). RESULTS: A total of 490 grades, including 369 letter grades and 121 incomplete grades, were assigned by the 49 work groups. Overall, an average grade of "C-," "D+," and "C-" was obtained for the low and medium HDI countries, high HDI countries, and very high HDI countries, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides rich new evidence showing that the situation regarding the physical activity of children and youth is a concern worldwide. Strategic public investments to implement effective interventions to increase physical activity opportunities are needed.

14.
J Phys Act Health ; 15(S2): S298-S314, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To better understand the childhood physical inactivity crisis, Report Cards on physical activity of children and youth were prepared concurrently in 30 very high Human Development Index countries. The aim of this article was to present, describe, and compare the findings from these Report Cards. METHODS: The Report Cards were developed using a harmonized process for data gathering, assessing, and assigning grades to 10 common physical activity indicators. Descriptive statistics were calculated after converting letter grades to interval variables, and correlational analyses between the 10 common indicators were performed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. RESULTS: A matrix of 300 grades was obtained with substantial variations within and between countries. Low grades were observed for behavioral indicators, and higher grades were observed for sources of influence indicators, indicating a disconnect between supports and desired behaviors. CONCLUSION: This analysis summarizes the level and context of the physical activity of children and youth among very high Human Development Index countries, and provides additional evidence that the situation regarding physical activity in children and youth is very concerning. Unless a major shift to a more active lifestyle happens soon, a high rate of noncommunicable diseases can be anticipated when this generation of children reaches adulthood.

15.
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(9): e00105317, 2018 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30208174

RESUMO

The goals of this study were to develop reference values for waist circumference (WC) in Brazilian children between 6-10 years old and to evaluate the WC performance in predicting cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children. This is a population-based epidemiological cross-sectional study, in which 1,397 children participated, with a 6-10 years old probability sampling and from public and private schools in the city of Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. WC was measured at the waist narrowest point (WC1) and at the umbilicus level (WC2). Blood samples and blood pressure were collected to determine the MetS diagnosis. There was a significant effect of age (p = 0.001), anatomical point (WC1 vs. WC2, p = 0.001) and sex-anatomical point interaction (p = 0.016) for WC. Smoothed sex- and age-specific 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th percentile curves of WC1 and WC2 were designed by the LMS method. WC was accurate to predict MetS, for all ages [area under the ROC curve (AUC) > 0.79 and p < 0.05], regardless of sex. This study presented percentile curves for WC at two anatomical points in a representative sample of Brazilian children. Furthermore, WC was shown to be a strong predictor of cardiovascular risk factors and MetS in children.

16.
Eur J Nutr ; 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178141

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Low-grade inflammation leads to several metabolic disorders, and adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and muscular fitness (MF) has been considered important markers of metabolic healthy in youth. We investigated the combined association of adherence to Mediterranean diet, and muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in adolescents. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis with 1462 adolescents (625 girls) aged 9-18 years from Colombia and Portugal. MedDiet was assessed by Kidmed questionnaire. Shuttle run test was used to assess CRF. MF was assessed by the standing long-jump and handgrip tests. High-sensitivity assays were used to obtain the hs-CRP level. RESULTS: Logistic regression shows that subjects with a low adherence to MedDiet and LowMF/LowCRF had a similar odds (OR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.2-4.0) as those with an optimal adherence to MedDiet and LowMF/LowCRF (OR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.2-5.0) of expressing high inflammatory profile when compared to those with an optimal adherence to MedDiet and HighMF/HighCRF. In addition, ANCOVA showed that subjects classified as high adherence to MedDiet and HighMF/HighCRF had, on average, the lowest levels of hs-CRP (F(7,1454) = 2.051 p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The combination of optimal levels of CRF and MF and adherence to MedDiet is associated with lower hs-CRP. However, high MF and CRF seems to counteract the deleterious effect of having a low adherence to the MedDiet on hs-CRP levels.

17.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 26(3): 23-32, jul.-set.2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-965554

RESUMO

Este estudo objetivou determinar a prevalência do comportamento sedentário (CS) e analisar os fatores sociodemográfi cos, comportamentais, de hábitos alimentares e de saúde associados em adolescentes. Este é um estudo transversal de base populacional escolar com participação de 1.009 adolescentes (55,0% do sexo feminino) de 14 a 19 anos das escolas públicas e privadas do município de Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O CS foi estimado pelo tempo sedentário de tela (assistir TV + jogar videogame + uso de computador) ≥ 2 h/dia. Empregou-se a regressão logística hierárquica para analisar os fatores sociodemográfi cos (sexo, idade, situação de estágio/trabalho, renda familiar, turno e série de estudo), comportamentais e de hábitos alimentares (atividade física no lazer, participação nas aulas de Educação Física, consumo de frutas, frituras e refrigerantes) e de saúde (IMC, autopercepção do sono e da saúde) associados ao CS. A prevalência do CS foi de 81,6% (IC95%: 78,8 - 84,4) sendo maior entre o sexo masculino (84,9%; IC95%: 82,6 - 87,2) do que no feminino (78,6%; IC95%: 75,9 - 81,3, p = 0,018). Na análise ajustada, apresentaram maiores chances de CS: o sexo masculino (OR = 1,78; IC95%: 1,23 - 2,56), aqueles do 1º ano (OR = 1,89; IC95%: 1,22 -2,94) e 2º ano de estudo (OR = 1,97; IC95%: 1,22 -3,17), não ter vínculo de estágio/trabalho (OR = 2,23; IC95%: 1,54 -3,23) e menor consumo de frutas (OR = 1,43; IC95%: 1,01 - 2,14). A prevalência do CS foi alta e o sexo, a série de estudo, a situação de estágio/trabalho e o hábito alimentar foram fatores associados. Os adolescentes aqui identificados com maiores chances de apresentarem CS representam potenciais grupos para intervenções que objetivem a redução do entretenimento sedentário baseado em tela, seja em casa, na escola e no ambiente de estágio/trabalho....(AU)


The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of sedentary behavior (SB) and to analyze the sociodemographic, behavioral, eating habits and health associated factors in adolescents. This is a cross-sectional population-based study involving 1,009 adolescents (55.0% females) aged 14 to 19 from public and private schools in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil. SB was estimated by sedentary screen time (watch TV + play videogame + computer use) ≥ 2 h/day. The hierarchical logistic regression was used to analyze sociodemographic factors (sex, age, internship/work status, family income, shifts and study series), behavioral and eating habits (physical activity in leisure, participation in Physical Education classes, consumption of fruits, fried foods and soft drinks) and health (BMI, self-perception of sleep and health) associated with SB. The prevalence of SB was 81.6% (95%CI: 78.8 - 84.4), higher among males (84.9%; 95%CI: 82.6 - 87.2) than females (78.6%, 95% CI: 75.9-81.3, p = 0.018). Adjusted regression analyses showed SB higher to male (OR = 1.78, 95%CI: 1.23 - 2.56), in the 1st class (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.22 - (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.22 -3.17), not have internship/work (OR = 2.23, 95%CI: 1.54 -3.23) and lower fruit intake (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01 - 2.14). The prevalence of SB was high. The sex, study series, internship/ work status and eating habits were associated factors. The adolescents here identifi ed as being more likely to SB represent potential groups for interventions that aim to reduce screen-based sedentary entertainment, whether at home, at school or in the work / internship environment....(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Educação Física e Treinamento , Epidemiologia , Saúde do Adolescente , Comportamento Sedentário , Atividade Motora
18.
Public Health Nutr ; 21(17): 3253-3257, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The main aim of the present study was to examine the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and academic performance in children. DESIGN: School-based cross-sectional study. The DII was calculated based on dietary information obtained from a single 24h dietary recall. Academic performance was assessed by school records provided by the administrative services (i.e. Maths and Language). SETTING: Porto area (Portugal). SUBJECTS: A total of 524 children (277 girls) aged 11·56 (sd 0·86) years. RESULTS: The DII was associated with academic indicators (standardized ß values ranging from -0·121 to -0·087; all P<0·05). Significant differences were found between quartiles of the DII (P<0·05); children in the fourth quartile had significantly lower scores in all academic indicators compared with children in the first quartile (score differences ranging from -0·377 to -0·292) after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The inflammatory potential of diet may negatively influence academic performance. Children should avoid the consumption of a pro-inflammatory diet and adhere to a more anti-inflammatory diet to achieve academic benefits.

19.
J Sports Sci ; : 1-6, 2018 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996715

RESUMO

An appropriated level of motor competence is essential for children´s healthy growth and development and a key factor in the promotion of lifelong active lifestyles and health. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between motor competence and different physical activity intensities (light, moderate, moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous physical activity), as well as total physical activity, over a two-year period, in adolescents. The sample comprised of 103 adolescents (13.49 ± 0.87 years, 53 girls), from the north of Portugal. Motor competence was evaluated with the body coordination test, Körperkoordination-Test-für-Kinder. Physical activity was objectively assessed with GT1M accelerometers (ActiGraph, Pensacola, FL, USA). Physical activity variables were expressed as proportions of accelerometer wear time. Regression analyses showed positive longitudinal associations between motor competence at baseline and moderate physical activity (B = 0.0033, p = 0.018), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (B = 0.0052, p = 0.024) and total physical activity (B = 0.067, p = 0.040) at follow up, after adjustments for age, sex, the corresponding physical activity intensity at baseline, body mass index, pubertal stage and socioeconomic status. Our findings highlight the importance of motor competence development to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during adolescence.

20.
Am J Case Rep ; 19: 844-848, 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30022021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Classical pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, inflammatory, neutrophilic dermatosis that commonly presents with severe ulcerations on the lower extremities and is often misdiagnosed and mistreated. Delay in treatments can lead to worsening of the ulcerations and allows for multiple comorbid factors. Pyoderma gangrenosum is most commonly treated with immunosuppressants or anti-inflammatory agents and is often worsened by surgical procedures due to the presence of pathergy. In acute cases, a course of anti-inflammatory treatments works well in alleviating symptoms and reducing ulcerations and residual scarring. However, in chronic cases with the presence of severe scarring and necrotic ulcerations, the simple implementation of systemic immunosuppressants is frequently ineffective alone. Although not mentioned in most case reports on pyoderma gangrenosum, the chronicity of its inflammatory component can lead to necrosis and scarring and subsequent vascular insufficiency. CASE REPORT We present a severe case of chronic ulcerative pyoderma gangrenosum in a patient who had treatment-resistant ulcerations and cribriform edematous scarring with subsequent vascular insufficiency of the right lower extremity. This patient, while receiving topical clobetasol, had marked improvement in the healing of his ulcerations only after starting a novel course of cadexomer iodine, compression stockings, and pentoxifylline. CONCLUSIONS The efficacy of non-anti-inflammatory treatments indicates that chronic pyoderma gangrenosum with extensive scarring is commonly associated with the comorbid factors of vascular insufficiency, necrotic debris, and extensive wound fluid. In cases of ulcerations in chronic pyoderma gangrenosum that are resistant to anti-inflammatory treatments alone, one should identify and address other compounding factors that may inhibit wound healing.


Assuntos
Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/terapia , Pioderma Gangrenoso/terapia , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Doença Crônica , Cicatriz/terapia , Clobetasol/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Comorbidade , Humanos , Iodóforos/administração & dosagem , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Úlcera da Perna/terapia , Masculino , Pentoxifilina/administração & dosagem , Meias de Compressão , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem
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