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Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4713-4737, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267519


Background: Amiodarone (AMD) is a widely used anti-arrhythmic drug, but its administration could be associated with varying degrees of pulmonary toxicity. In attempting to circumvent this issue, AMD-loaded polymeric nanoparticles (AMD-loaded NPs) had been designed. Materials and Methods: AMD was loaded in NPs by the nanoprecipitation method using two stabilizers: bovine serum albumin and Kolliphor® P 188. The physicochemical properties of the AMD-loaded NPs were determined. Among the prepared NPs, two ones were selected for further investigation of spectral and thermal analysis as well as morphological properties. Additionally, in vitro release patterns were studied and kinetically analyzed at different pH values. In vitro cytotoxicity of an optimized formula (NP4) was quantified using A549 and Hep-2 cell lines. In vivo assessment of the pulmonary toxicity on Sprague Dawley rats via histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluations was applied. Results: The developed NPs achieved a size not more than 190 nm with an encapsulation efficiency of more than 88%. Satisfactory values of loading capacity and yield were also attained. The spectral and thermal analysis demonstrated homogeneous entrapment of AMD inside the polymeric matrix of NPs. Morphology revealed uniform, core-shell structured, and sphere-shaped particles with a smooth surface. Furthermore, the AMD-loaded NPs exhibited a pH-dependent and diffusion-controlled release over a significant period without an initial burst effect. NP4 demonstrated a superior cytoprotective efficiency by diminishing cell death and significantly increasing the IC50 by more than threefold above the pure AMD. Also, NP4 ameliorated AMD-induced pulmonary damage in rats. Significant downregulation of inflammatory mediators and free radicle production were noticed in the NP4-treated rats. Conclusion: The AMD-loaded NPs could ameliorate the pulmonary injury induced by the pure drug moieties. Cytoprotective, anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties were presented by the optimized NPs (NP4). Future studies may be built on these findings for diminishing AMD-induced off-target toxicities.

Amiodarona/química , Amiodarona/toxicidade , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Células A549 , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Difusão , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Nanotechnology ; 32(25): 255602, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797397


We describe new method for preparing DNA nanospheres for a self-assembled atenolol@DNA (core/shell) drug delivery system. In this paper, we propose the electrochemical transformation of an alkaline polyelectrolyte solution of DNA into DNA nanospheres. We successfully electrosynthesized DNA nanospheres that were stable for at least 2 months at 4 °C. UV-visible spectra of the prepared nanospheres revealed a peak ranging from 372 to 392 nm depending on the DNA concentration and from 361 to 398.3 nm depending on the electrospherization time. This result, confirmed with size distribution curves worked out from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, showed that increasing electrospherization time (6, 12 and 24 h) induces an increase in the average size of DNA nanospheres (48, 65.5 and 117 nm, respectively). In addition, the average size of DNA nanospheres becomes larger (37.8, 48 and 76.5 nm) with increasing DNA concentration (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 wt%, respectively). Also, the affinity of DNA chains for the surrounding solvent molecules changed from favorable to bad with concomitant extreme reduction in the zeta potential from -31 mV to -17 mV. Principally, the attractive and hydrophobic interactions tend to compact the DNA chain into a globule, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and TEM. To advance possible applications, we successfully electro self-assembled an atenolol@DNA drug delivery system. Our findings showed that electrospherization as a cost-benefit technique could be effectively employed for sustained drug release. This delivery system achieved a high entrapment efficiency of 68.03 ± 2.7% and a moderate drug-loading efficiency of 3.73%. The FTIR spectra verified the absence of any chemical interaction between the drug and the DNA during the electrospherization process. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated noteworthy lessening in atenolol crystallinity. The present findings could aid the effectiveness of electrospherized DNA for use in various other pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

Life Sci ; 274: 119344, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716062


AIMS: Amiodarone (AM) is a highly efficient drug for arrhythmias treatment, but its extra-cardiac adverse effects offset its therapeutic efficacy. Nanoparticles (NPs)-based delivery system could provide a strategy to allow sustained delivery of AM to the myocardium and reduction of adverse effects. The primary purpose was to develop AM-loaded NPs and explore their ameliorative effects versus off-target toxicities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polymeric NPs were prepared using poly lactic-co-glycolic acid and their physicochemical properties were characterized. Animal studies were conducted using a rat model to compare exposure to AM versus that of the AM-loaded NPs. Biochemical evaluation of liver enzymes, lipid profile, and thyroid hormones was achieved. Besides, histopathological changes in liver and lung were studied. KEY FINDINGS: Under optimal experimental conditions, the AM-loaded NPs had a size of 186.90 nm and a negative zeta potential (-14.67 mV). Biochemical evaluation of AM-treated animal group showed a significant increase in cholesterol, TG, LDL, T4, and TSH levels (ρ < 0.05). Remarkably, the AM-treated group exhibited a significant increase of liver enzymes (ρ < 0.05) coupled with an obvious change in liver architecture. The AM-loaded NPs displayed a reduction of liver damage and enzyme levels. Lung sections of the AM-treated group demonstrated thickening of interalveolar septa, mononuclear cellular infiltration with congested blood vessels, and heavy collagenous fibers deposition. Conversely, less cellular infiltration and septal thickening were observed in the animal lungs treated with the AM-loaded NPs-treated. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate the competence of the AM-loaded NPs to open several exciting avenues for evading the AM-induced off-target toxicities.

Amiodarona/química , Amiodarona/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Fígado/patologia , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Amiodarona/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/administração & dosagem , Antiarrítmicos/química , Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade
Foot (Edinb) ; 40: 14-21, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999080


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop, and characterize nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) of phenytoin (PHT) in order to improve its entrapment efficiency and sustained release to improve the healing process. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) were enrolled in this study. Patients were comparable regarding size, grading of ulcer and control of diabetes with no major deformity. All patients were managed by weekly sharp debridement if indicated and offloaded with cast shoes. They were equally divided into three groups: PHT-NLC-hydrogel (0.5%w/v), phenytoin hydrogel (0.5%w/v) and blank hydrogel groups. Changes in wound area were monitored over 2 months. RESULTS: Baseline wound area of PHT-NLC, PHT and blank hydrogels were 5.50 ± 3.66, 3.94 ± 1.86 and 5.36 ± 2.14 cm2, respectively. Ulcers treated with PHT-NLC hydrogel showed smaller wound area compared to control groups (ρ < 0.05). The overall reduction in ulcer size were 95.82 ± 2.22% for PHT-NLC-hydrogel in comparison to 47.10 ± 4.23% and -34.91 ± 28.33% for PHT and blank-hydrogel (ρ < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSION: PHT-NLC hydrogel speeds up the healing process of the DFU without adverse effects when compared to the positive and negative control hydrogels. Moreover, the study can open a window for topical application of NLCs loaded with PHT in the treatment of numerous dermatological disorders that resist conventional treatment. KEY MESSAGE: The delivery of drug molecules and their localization into the skin is the main purpose of the topical dosage forms. In this manuscript, the impact of topical phenytoin loaded nanostructured lipid carrier in improving wound healing in patients with neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration was investigated. Phenytoin loaded nanostructured lipid carrier dressing was found to be more effective than phenytoin hydrogel at the same concentration in healing of neuropathic diabetic foot ulcer.

Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Fenitoína/administração & dosagem , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Desbridamento , Método Duplo-Cego , Portadores de Fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nanoestruturas , Estudos Prospectivos , Higiene da Pele/métodos
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 44(1): 144-157, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28956451


Phenytoin (PHT) is an antiepileptic drug that was reported to exhibit high wound healing activity. Nevertheless, its limited solubility, bioavailability, and inefficient distribution during topical administration limit its use. Therefore, this study aims to develop, characterize nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), and evaluate their potential in topical delivery of PHT to improve the drug entrapment efficiency and sustained release. The NLCs were prepared by hot homogenization followed by ultra sonication method using 23 factorial design. NLC formulations were characterized regarding their particle size (PS), zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency percent (%EE), surface morphology, physicochemical stability, and in vitro release studies. The optimized NLC (F7) was further incorporated in 1%w/v carbopol gel and then characterized for appearance, pH, viscosity, stability, and in vitro drug release. The prepared NLCs were spherical in shape and possessed an average PS of 121.4-258.2 nm, ZP of (-15.4)-(-32.2) mV, and 55.24-88.80 %EE. Solid-state characterization revealed that the drug is dispersed in an amorphous state with hydrogen bond interaction between the drug and the NLC components. NLC formulations were found to be stable at 25 °C for six months. The stored F7-hydrogel showed insignificant changes in viscosity and drug content (p>.05) up to six months at 25 °C that pave a way for industrial fabrication of efficient PHT products. In vitro release studies showed a sustained release from NLC up to 48 h at pH 7.4 following non-Fickian Higuchi kinetics model. These promising findings encourage the potential use of phenytoin loaded lipid nanoparticles for future topical application.

Hidrogel de Polietilenoglicol-Dimetacrilato/química , Lipídeos/farmacocinética , Nanopartículas/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Fenitoína/farmacocinética , Administração Tópica , Química Farmacêutica , Portadores de Fármacos , Lipídeos/química , Fenitoína/química , Fenitoína/metabolismo , Absorção Cutânea , Solubilidade
Pharm Dev Technol ; 22(3): 445-456, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27583581


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop and characterize self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of piroxicam in liquid and solid forms to improve its dissolution, absorption and therapeutic efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The generation of liquid SNEDDS (L-SNEDDS) was composed of soybean or coconut oil/Tween 80/Transcutol HP (12/80/8%w/w) and it was selected as the optimized formulation based on the solubility study and pseudo-ternary phase diagram. Optimized L-SNEDDS and liquid supersaturatable SNEDDS (L-sSNEDDS) preparations were then adsorbed onto adsorbents and formulated as directly compressed tablets. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The improved drug dissolution rate in the solid supersaturatable preparation (S-sSNEDDS) may be due to the formation of a nanoemulsion and the presence of drug in an amorphous state with hydrogen bond interaction between the drug and SNEDDS components. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies on eight healthy human volunteers showed a significant improvement in the oral bioavailability of piroxicam from S-sSNEDDS (F12) compared with both the pure drug (PP) and its commercial product (Feldene®) (commercial dosage form (CD)). The relative bioavailability of S-sSNEDDS (F12) relative to PP or CD was about 151.01 and 98.96%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The obtained results ratify that S-sSNEDDS is a promising drug delivery system to enhance the oral bioavailability of piroxicam.

Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Piroxicam/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/sangue , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Área Sob a Curva , Disponibilidade Biológica , Óleo de Coco , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Emulsões , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Tamanho da Partícula , Piroxicam/sangue , Piroxicam/farmacocinética , Óleos Vegetais/química , Solubilidade , Óleo de Soja/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Tensoativos/química , Comprimidos