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1.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e11, 2022 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139948

RESUMO

Emphasizing the predictive success and practical utility of psychological science is an admirable goal but it will require a substantive shift in how we design research. Applied research often assumes that findings are transferable to all practices, insensitive to variation between implementations. We describe efforts to quantify and close this practice-to-practice gap in education research.


Assuntos
Lacunas da Prática Profissional , Humanos
2.
Vision (Basel) ; 5(3)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564340

RESUMO

In visual search tasks, physically large target stimuli are more easily identified among small distractors than are small targets among large distractors. The present study extends this finding by presenting preliminary evidence of a new search asymmetry: stimuli that symbolically represent larger magnitude are identified more easily among featurally equivalent distractors that represent smaller magnitude. Participants performed a visual search task using line-segment digits representing the numbers 2 and 5, and the numbers 6 and 9, as well as comparable non-numeric control stimuli. In three experiments, we found that search times are faster when the target is a digit that represents a larger magnitude than the distractor, although this pattern was not evident in one additional experiment. The results provide suggestive evidence that the magnitude of a number symbol can affect perceptual comparisons between number symbols, and that the semantic meaning of a target stimulus can systematically affect visual search.

3.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0181775, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28732087

RESUMO

Despite widespread assertions that enthusiasm is an important quality of effective teaching, empirical research on the effect of enthusiasm on learning and memory is mixed and largely inconclusive. To help resolve these inconsistencies, we conducted a carefully-controlled laboratory experiment, investigating whether enthusiastic instructions for a memory task would improve recall accuracy. Scripted videos, either enthusiastic or neutral, were used to manipulate the delivery of task instructions. We also manipulated the sequence of learning items, replicating the spacing effect, a known cognitive technique for memory improvement. Although spaced study reliably improved test performance, we found no reliable effect of enthusiasm on memory performance across two experiments. We did, however, find that enthusiastic instructions caused participants to respond to more item prompts, leaving fewer test questions blank, an outcome typically associated with increased task motivation. We find no support for the popular claim that enthusiastic instruction will improve learning, although it may still improve engagement. This dissociation between motivation and learning is discussed, as well as its implications for education and future research on student learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0152115, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27003164

RESUMO

Study sequence can have a profound influence on learning. In this study we investigated how students decide to sequence their study in a naturalistic context and whether their choices result in improved learning. In the study reported here, 2061 undergraduate students enrolled in an Introductory Psychology course completed an online homework tutorial on measures of central tendency, a topic relevant to an exam that counted towards their grades. One group of students was enabled to choose their own study sequence during the tutorial (Self-Regulated group), while the other group of students studied the same materials in sequences chosen by other students (Yoked group). Students who chose their sequence of study showed a clear tendency to block their study by concept, and this tendency was positively associated with subsequent exam performance. In the Yoked group, study sequence had no effect on exam performance. These results suggest that despite findings that blocked study is maladaptive when assigned by an experimenter, it may actually be adaptive when chosen by the learner in a naturalistic context.


Assuntos
Currículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Behav Res Methods ; 48(1): 1-12, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25761390

RESUMO

Behavioral researchers are increasingly using Web-based software such as JavaScript to conduct response time experiments. Although there has been some research on the accuracy and reliability of response time measurements collected using JavaScript, it remains unclear how well this method performs relative to standard laboratory software in psychologically relevant experimental manipulations. Here we present results from a visual search experiment in which we measured response time distributions with both Psychophysics Toolbox (PTB) and JavaScript. We developed a methodology that allowed us to simultaneously run the visual search experiment with both systems, interleaving trials between two independent computers, thus minimizing the effects of factors other than the experimental software. The response times measured by JavaScript were approximately 25 ms longer than those measured by PTB. However, we found no reliable difference in the variability of the distributions related to the software, and both software packages were equally sensitive to changes in the response times as a result of the experimental manipulations. We concluded that JavaScript is a suitable tool for measuring response times in behavioral research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental/métodos , Psicofísica/métodos , Tempo de Reação , Navegador , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pesquisa , Software , Percepção Visual , Adulto Jovem
6.
Front Psychol ; 6: 1876, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26648905

RESUMO

Prior research has established that while the use of concrete, familiar examples can provide many important benefits for learning, it is also associated with some serious disadvantages, particularly in learners' ability to recognize and transfer their knowledge to new analogous situations. However, it is not immediately clear whether this pattern would hold in real world educational contexts, in which the role of such examples in student engagement and ease of processing might be of enough importance to overshadow any potential negative impact. We conducted two experiments in which curriculum-relevant material was presented in natural classroom environments, first with college undergraduates and then with middle-school students. All students in each study received the same relevant content, but the degree of contextualization in these materials was varied between students. In both studies, we found that greater contextualization was associated with poorer transfer performance. We interpret these results as reflecting a greater degree of embeddedness for the knowledge acquired from richer, more concrete materials, such that the underlying principles are represented in a less abstract and generalizable form.

7.
Brain Cogn ; 81(3): 329-36, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23434916

RESUMO

Humans perceive a wide range of temporal patterns, including those rhythms that occur in music, speech, and movement; however, there are constraints on the rhythmic patterns that we can represent. Past research has shown that sequences in which sounds occur regularly at non-metrical locations in a repeating beat period (non-integer ratio subdivisions of the beat, e.g. sounds at 430ms in a 1000ms beat) are represented less accurately than sequences with metrical relationships, where events occur at even subdivisions of the beat (integer ratios, e.g. sounds at 500ms in a 1000ms beat). Why do non-integer ratio rhythms present cognitive challenges? An emerging theory is that non-integer ratio sequences are represented incorrectly, "regularized" in the direction of the nearest metrical pattern, and the present study sought evidence of such perceptual regularization toward integer ratio relationships. Participants listened to metrical and non-metrical rhythmic auditory sequences during electroencephalogram recording, and sounds were pseudorandomly omitted from the stimulus sequence. Cortical responses to these omissions (omission elicited potentials; OEPs) were used to estimate the timing of expectations for omitted sounds in integer ratio and non-integer ratio locations. OEP amplitude and onset latency measures indicated that expectations for non-integer ratio sequences are distorted toward the nearest metrical location in the rhythmic period. These top-down effects demonstrate metrical regularization in a purely perceptual context, and provide support for dynamical accounts of rhythm perception.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva , Eletroencefalografia/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Periodicidade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 36(3): 220-5, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22952261

RESUMO

Despite a profusion of popular misinformation about the left brain and right brain, there are functional differences between the left and right cerebral hemispheres in humans. Evidence from split-brain patients, individuals with unilateral brain damage, and neuroimaging studies suggest that each hemisphere may be specialized for certain cognitive processes. One way to easily explore these hemispheric asymmetries is with the divided visual field technique, where visual stimuli are presented on either the left or right side of the visual field and task performance is compared between these two conditions; any behavioral differences between the left and right visual fields may be interpreted as evidence for functional asymmetries between the left and right cerebral hemispheres. We developed a simple software package that implements the divided visual field technique, called the Lateralizer, and introduced this experimental approach as a problem-based learning module in a lower-division research methods course. Second-year undergraduate students used the Lateralizer to experimentally challenge and explore theories of the differences between the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Measured learning outcomes after active exploration with the Lateralizer, including new knowledge of brain anatomy and connectivity, were on par with those observed in an upper-division lecture course. Moreover, the project added to the students' research skill sets and seemed to foster an appreciation of the link between brain anatomy and function.


Assuntos
Cérebro/fisiologia , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos
9.
Neurotoxicol Teratol ; 27(4): 529-33, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16040231

RESUMO

Negative geotaxis, an automatic, reliable, stimulus-bound, orientation and movement directionally against gravitational cues, is often used for behavioral assessments of infant rodents. We summarize historical and contemporary analyses and conclude that negative geotaxis does not exist in infant rats. Infant rodents placed on inclined surfaces (ranging from 15 degrees to 70 degrees in most tests) are posturally unstable and their compensatory responses have been misinterpreted as negative geotaxis. In fact, recent findings suggest that if infant rats display a geotaxis, they show positive geotaxis on shallow angles of inclination (e.g., 4 degrees and 8 degrees ). There may be utility in assessing postures and motoric responses of infant rats on relatively robust angles of inclination, but these are not tests of negative geotaxis.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Sensação Gravitacional/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Roedores
10.
J Comp Psychol ; 118(2): 123-32, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15250799

RESUMO

Infant rats (Rattus norvegicus) placed on a shallow incline (2 degrees, 4 degrees, or 8 degrees) oriented and moved downhill within 1 min; that is, they displayed positive geotaxis. Their downhill translocation increased with angle of inclination. A variety of possible behavioral elements (e.g., initial orientation, rotational movements, ambulatory velocities) were eliminated as explanations of the geotaxis. Wall contact was recognized as a determinative event: Pups on the inclines showed no orientation with respect to the geogravitational stimulus before contacting a wall. The event of wall contact, however, evoked reliable downhill orientation and more linear movements. Positive geotaxis was created by pups' orientation against walls and an associated increase in movement velocity. This is a distinct perspective on a behavioral response that replaces a traditionally misinterpreted phenomenon. The authors discuss the ecological validity and historical context of these findings.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Movimento/fisiologia , Comportamento Espacial/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Gravitação , Masculino , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Psicologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Gravação de Videoteipe
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