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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14285, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582759

RESUMO

Stacked atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) exhibit fundamentally new physical properties compared to those of the individual layers. The twist angle between the layers plays a crucial role in tuning these properties. Having a tool that provides high-resolution, large area mapping of the twist angle, would be of great importance in the characterization of such 2D structures. Here we use polarization-resolved second harmonic generation (P-SHG) imaging microscopy to rapidly map the twist angle in large areas of overlapping WS2 stacked layers. The robustness of our methodology lies in the combination of both intensity and polarization measurements of SHG in the overlapping region. This allows the accurate measurement and consequent pixel-by-pixel mapping of the twist angle in this area. For the specific case of 30° twist angle, P-SHG enables imaging of individual layers.

2.
Light Sci Appl ; 7: 18005, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839517

RESUMO

We used nonlinear laser scanning optical microscopy to study atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and revealed, with unprecedented resolution, the orientational distribution of armchair directions and their degree of organization in the two-dimensional (2D) crystal lattice. In particular, we carried out polarization-resolved second-harmonic generation (PSHG) imaging for monolayer WS2 and obtained, with high-precision, the orientation of the main crystallographic axis (armchair orientation) for each individual 120 × 120 nm2 pixel of the 2D crystal area. Such nanoscale resolution was realized by fitting the experimental PSHG images, obtained with sub-micron precision, to a new generalized theoretical model that accounts for the nonlinear optical properties of TMDs. This enabled us to distinguish between different crystallographic domains, locate boundaries and reveal fine structure. As a consequence, we can calculate the mean orientational average of armchair angle distributions in specific regions of interest and define the corresponding standard deviation as a figure-of-merit for the 2D crystal quality.

3.
Nature ; 496(7443): 69-73, 2013 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23552945

RESUMO

The technological demand to push the gigahertz (10(9) hertz) switching speed limit of today's magnetic memory and logic devices into the terahertz (10(12) hertz) regime underlies the entire field of spin-electronics and integrated multi-functional devices. This challenge is met by all-optical magnetic switching based on coherent spin manipulation. By analogy to femtosecond chemistry and photosynthetic dynamics--in which photoproducts of chemical and biochemical reactions can be influenced by creating suitable superpositions of molecular states--femtosecond-laser-excited coherence between electronic states can switch magnetic order by 'suddenly' breaking the delicate balance between competing phases of correlated materials: for example, manganites exhibiting colossal magneto-resistance suitable for applications. Here we show femtosecond (10(-15) seconds) photo-induced switching from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic ordering in Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3, by observing the establishment (within about 120 femtoseconds) of a huge temperature-dependent magnetization with photo-excitation threshold behaviour absent in the optical reflectivity. The development of ferromagnetic correlations during the femtosecond laser pulse reveals an initial quantum coherent regime of magnetism, distinguished from the picosecond (10(-12) seconds) lattice-heating regime characterized by phase separation without threshold behaviour. Our simulations reproduce the nonlinear femtosecond spin generation and underpin fast quantum spin-flip fluctuations correlated with coherent superpositions of electronic states to initiate local ferromagnetic correlations. These results merge two fields, femtosecond magnetism in metals and band insulators, and non-equilibrium phase transitions of strongly correlated electrons, in which local interactions exceeding the kinetic energy produce a complex balance of competing orders.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Magnéticos , Teoria Quântica , Biologia , Química , Dicroísmo Circular , Eletrônica , Ferro/química , Magnetismo , Óptica e Fotônica , Fotossíntese , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
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