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1.
Br J Surg ; 107(3): 218-226, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults undergoing emergency abdominal surgery have significantly poorer outcomes than younger adults. For those who survive, the level of care required on discharge from hospital is unknown and such information could guide decision-making. The ELF (Emergency Laparotomy and Frailty) study aimed to determine whether preoperative frailty in older adults was associated with increased dependence at the time of discharge. METHODS: The ELF study was a UK-wide multicentre prospective cohort study of older patients (65 years or more) undergoing emergency laparotomy during March and June 2017. The objective was to establish whether preoperative frailty was associated with increased care level at discharge compared with preoperative care level. The analysis used a multilevel logistic regression adjusted for preadmission frailty, patient age, sex and care level. RESULTS: A total of 934 patients were included from 49 hospitals. Mean(s.d.) age was 76·2(6·8) years, with 57·6 per cent women; 20·2 per cent were frail. Some 37·4 per cent of older adults had an increased care level at discharge. Increasing frailty was associated with increased discharge care level, with greater predictive power than age. The adjusted odds ratio for an increase in care level was 4·48 (95 per cent c.i. 2·03 to 9·91) for apparently vulnerable patients (Clinical Frailty Score (CFS) 4), 5·94 (2·54 to 13·90) for those mildly frail (CFS 5) and 7·88 (2·97 to 20·79) for those moderately or severely frail (CFS 6 or 7), compared with patients who were fit. CONCLUSION: Over 37 per cent of older adults undergoing emergency laparotomy required increased care at discharge. Frailty scoring was a significant predictor, and should be integrated into all acute surgical units to aid shared decision-making and discharge planning.

2.
Anaesthesia ; 75(1): 54-62, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531978

RESUMO

Patients eligible for emergency laparotomy who do not proceed to surgery are not as well characterised as patients who do proceed to surgery. We studied patients eligible for laparotomy, as defined by National Emergency Laparotomy Audit criteria, from August 2015 to October 2016. We analysed the association of individual variables with survival and two composite scores: P-POSSUM and a general survival model. Out of 314 patients, 214 (68%) underwent laparotomy and 100 (32%) did not. Median (IQR [range]) follow-up was 1.3 (0.1-1.8 [0.0-2.5]) years for the cohort, 1.5 (1.1-2.0 [0.0-2.6]) years after laparotomy and 0.0 (0.0-1.1 [0.0-2.2]) years without laparotomy. There were 126/314 (40%) deaths in the follow-up period, 52/214 (24%) deaths after laparotomy and 74/100 (74%) deaths without surgery. Ninety out of 126 deaths (71%) were within one month of hospital admission. Patient variables were different for the two groups, which when combined in the general survival model generated background median (IQR [range]) life expectancies of 12 (6-21 [0-49]) and 4 (2-6 [0-36]) years, respectively, p < 0.0001. 'Poor fitness' precluded laparotomy in 74/100 (74%) patients. The decision to not operate involved a consultant less often than the decision to operate: 66/100 (66%) vs. 178/214 (83%), p = 0.001. Our study supports the contention that survival beyond 30 postoperative days could be predicted reasonably accurately. Survival in patients who did not have laparotomy was shorter than expected. Emergency laparotomy might have prolonged survival in some patients.


Assuntos
Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Emergências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Reino Unido
3.
Tech Coloproctol ; 23(9): 877-885, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer remains a common cause of cancer death in the UK, with surgery being the mainstay of treatment. An objective measurement of the suitability of each patient for surgery, and their risk-benefit calculation, would be of great utility. We postulate that sarcopenia (low muscle mass) could fulfil this role as a prognostic indicator. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between sarcopenia and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing elective bowel resection for colorectal cancer. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-three consecutive patients who had elective curative colorectal resection for cancer were eligible for inclusion in the study. Psoas muscle mass was assessed on preoperative computed tomography scan at the level of the L3 vertebra and standardised for patient height (total psoas index, TPI). Sarcopenia (low muscle mass) was defined as < 524 mm2/m2 in males and 385 mm2/m2 in females. In addition to clinical-pathological parameters, postoperative complications were recorded and patients were followed up for mortality for 1 year after surgery. RESULTS: Sarcopenia was present in 19.6% of the study participants and was significantly related to body mass index (p = 0.007), 30-day mortality (p = 0.042) and 1-year mortality (p = 0.046). In univariate analysis, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade (p = 0.016), tumour stage (p = 0.018) and sarcopenia (p = 0.043) were found to be significant independent predictors of 1-year mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study has found sarcopenia to be prevalent in patients with colorectal cancer having elective surgery. Independent of age, sarcopenia was associated with poorer 30-day mortality and survival at 1 year. Measurement of muscle mass preoperatively could be used to stratify a patient's risk, allowing targeted strategies such as prehabilitation, to be implemented to modify sarcopenia and improve long-term outcomes for patients.

4.
Age Ageing ; 48(3): 388-394, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: frail patients in any age group are more likely to die than those that are not frail. We aimed to evaluate the impact of frailty on clinical mortality, readmission rate and length of stay for emergency surgical patients of all ages. METHODS: a multi-centre prospective cohort study was conducted on adult admissions to acute surgical units. Every patient presenting as a surgical emergency to secondary care, regardless of whether they ultimately underwent a surgical procedure was included. The study was carried out during 2015 and 2016.Frailty was defined using the 7-point Clinical Frailty Scale. The primary outcome was mortality at Day 90. Secondary outcomes included: mortality at Day 30, length of stay and readmission within a Day 30 period. RESULTS: the cohort included 2,279 patients (median age 54 years [IQR 36-72]; 56% female). Frailty was documented in patients of all ages: 1% in the under 40's to 45% of those aged 80+. We found that each incremental step of worsening frailty was associated with an 80% increase in mortality at Day 90 (OR 1.80, 95% CI: 1.61-2.01) supporting a linear dose-response relationship. In addition, the most frail patients were increasingly likely to stay in hospital longer, be readmitted within 30 days, and die within 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: worsening frailty at any age is associated with significantly poorer patient outcomes, including mortality in unselected acute surgical admissions. Assessment of frailty should be integrated into emergency surgical practice to allow prognostication and implementation of strategies to improve outcomes.

5.
Colorectal Dis ; 21(5): 548-562, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657249

RESUMO

AIM: Rectal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) experience physical deterioration and reductions in their quality of life. This feasibility study assessed prehabilitation (a walking intervention) before, during and after NACRT to inform a definitive multi-centred randomized clinical trial (REx trial). METHODS: Patients planned for NACRT followed by potentially curative surgery were approached (August 2014-March 2016) (www.isrctn.com; 62859294). Prior to NACRT, baseline physical and psycho-social data were recorded using validated tools. Participants were randomized to either the intervention group (exercise counselling session followed by a 13-17 week telephone-guided walking programme) or a control group (standard care). Follow-up testing was undertaken 1-2 weeks before surgery. RESULTS: Of the 296 screened patients, 78 (26%) were eligible and 48 (61%) were recruited. N = 31 (65%) were men with a mean age of 65.9 years (range 33.7-82.6). Mean intervention duration was 14 weeks with 75% adherence. n = 40 (83%) completed follow-up testing. Both groups recorded reductions in daily walking but the reduction was less in the intervention group although not statistically significant. Participants reported high satisfaction and fidelity to trial procedures. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that prehabilitation is feasible in rectal cancer patients undergoing NACRT. Good recruitment, adherence, retention and patient satisfaction rates support the development of a fully powered trial. The effects of the intervention on physical outcomes were promising.

6.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 101(4): 261-267, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644323

RESUMO

AIM: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programmes aim to standardise perioperative care leading to optimal patient outcomes. Despite these programmes, variation in outcomes still persists. This study aimed to assess the influence of lifestyle factors on short-term outcomes after colorectal surgery within this optimal recovery programme. METHODS: Consecutive patients enrolled on an ERAS pathway who underwent elective colorectal surgery (June 2013 to July 2014) at one site were included. We used data routinely collected by ERAS nurse specialists and during preassessment to analyse association between patient and lifestyle factors and likelihood of developing postoperative complications or having an increased length of stay. RESULTS: A total of 199 patients were included: mean age 61.8 years (range 17-90 years) and 53.8% male. Age, sex, deprivation, smoking status, alcohol intake, body mass index or level of comorbidity were not associated with postoperative complications. Patients reporting limited preoperative physical capacity (unable to climb two flights of stairs) were more than four times as likely to have a postoperative complication on univariate analysis and were found to still have increased risk of postoperative complications on multivariate analysis. Patients reporting limited preoperative physical capacity were shown to have significantly longer hospital stay on univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, limited physical capacity was not associated with prolonged length of stay due to confounding factors of age and deprivation. CONCLUSIONS: Limited physical capacity was the only patient and lifestyle factor associated with poorer postoperative complications and prolonged hospital stay after elective colorectal surgery within an ERAS programme. Consideration should be given to individualised prehabilitation that aims to increase physical capacity pre-operatively to improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Colo/cirurgia , Aptidão Física , Reto/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Tempo de Internação , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Perioperatória , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Colorectal Dis ; 20(11): 970-980, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904991

RESUMO

AIM: Colorectal surgeons regularly make the decision to anastomose, defunction or form an end colostomy when performing rectal surgery. This study aimed to define personality traits of colorectal surgeons and explore any influence of such traits on the decision to perform a rectal anastomosis. METHOD: Fifty attendees of The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland 2016 Conference participated. After written consent, all underwent personality testing: alexithymia (inability to understand emotions), type of thinking process (intuitive versus rational) and personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, openness, emotional stability, conscientiousness). Questions were answered regarding anastomotic decisions in various clinical scenarios and results analysed to reveal any influence of the surgeon's personality on anastomotic decision. RESULTS: Participants were: male (86%), consultants (84%) and based in England (68%). Alexithymia was low (4%) with 81% displaying intuitive thinking (reflex, fast). Participants scored higher in emotional stability (ability to remain calm) and conscientiousness (organized, methodical) compared with population norms. Personality traits influenced the next anastomotic decision if: surgeons had recently received criticism at a departmental audit meeting; were operating with an anaesthetist that was not their regular one; or there had been no anastomotic leaks in their patients for over 1 year. CONCLUSION: Colorectal surgeons have speciality relevant personalities that potentially influence the important decision to anastomose and could explain the variation in surgical practice across the UK. Future work should explore these findings in other countries and any link of personality traits to patient-related outcomes.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Cirurgia Colorretal/psicologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/psicologia , Personalidade , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Adulto , Anastomose Cirúrgica/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reto/cirurgia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
8.
Scott Med J ; 62(3): 110-114, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28587518

RESUMO

Background and aim Lifestyle factor modification (alcohol, smoking, obesity, diet, physical activity) has the potential to reduce cancer incidence and cancer survival. This study assessed the knowledge of lifestyle factors and cancer in undergraduate medical students. Methods and results A total of 218 students (7 UK universities) completed an online survey of nine questions in three areas: knowledge (lifestyle factors and cancer); information sources; clinical practice (witnessed clinical counselling). Diet, alcohol, smoking and physical activity were recognised as lifestyle factors by 98% of responders, while only 69% reported weight. The links of lung cancer/smoking and alcohol/liver cancer were recognised by >90%, while only 10% reported weight or physical activity being linked to any cancer. University teaching on lifestyle factors and cancer was reported by 78%: 34% rating it good/very good. GPs were witnessed giving lifestyle advice by 85% of responders. Conclusions Most respondents were aware of a relationship between lifestyle factors and cancer, mainly as a result of undergraduate teaching. Further work may widen the breadth of knowledge, and potentially improve primary and secondary cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
9.
Tech Coloproctol ; 21(3): 185-201, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28243813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise in the preoperative period, or prehabilitation, continues to evolve as an important tool in optimising patients awaiting major intra-abdominal surgery. It has been shown to reduce rates of post-operative morbidity and length of hospital stay. The mechanism by which this is achieved remains poorly understood. Adaptations in mesenteric flow in response to exercise may play a role in improving post-operative recovery by reducing rates of ileus and anastomotic leak. AIMS: To systematically review the existing literature to clarify the impact of exercise on mesenteric arterial blood flow using Doppler ultrasound. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library were systematically searched to identify clinical trials using Doppler ultrasound to investigate the effect of exercise on flow through the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Data were extracted including participant characteristics, frequency, intensity, timing and type of exercise and the effect on SMA flow. The quality of each study was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. RESULTS: Sixteen studies, comprising 305 participants in total, were included. Methodological quality was generally poor. Healthy volunteers were used in twelve studies. SMA flow was found to be reduced in response to exercise in twelve studies, increased in one and unchanged in two studies. Clinical heterogeneity precluded a meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: The weight of evidence suggests that superior mesenteric arterial flow is reduced immediately following exercise. Differences in frequency, intensity, timing and type of exercise make a consensus difficult. Further studies are warranted to provide a definitive understanding of the impact of exercise on mesenteric flow.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/reabilitação , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício/fisiologia , Artérias Mesentéricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Esplâncnica/fisiologia , Abdome/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Fístula Anastomótica/etiologia , Fístula Anastomótica/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Íleus/etiologia , Íleus/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Artérias Mesentéricas/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Colorectal Dis ; 19(6): 544-550, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28027419

RESUMO

AIM: Several modifiable and nonmodifiable health-related behaviours are associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC), but there is little research on their association with survival. This work aimed to investigate possible relationships between modifiable behavioural factors and outcomes on a study cohort of CRC patients undergoing potentially curative surgery. METHOD: A retrospective cohort study was carried out of patients diagnosed with nonmetastatic CRC residing in the NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde area, UK and undergoing elective curative surgery (January 2011 to December 2012). Data were obtained from the Scottish Cancer Registry, National Scottish Death Records. Preoperative assessment of smoking, alcohol consumption, nurse-measured body mass index (BMI) and exercise levels were recorded, and patients were followed until death or censorship. Survival analysis was carried out and proportional hazards assumptions were assessed graphically using plots and were then formally tested using the PHTEST procedure in stata. RESULT: Of the initial 527 patients, 181 (34%) satisfied the inclusion criteria. The total duration of follow-up was 480 person-years. At the preoperative assessment, 75% of patients were overweight or obese, 10.6% were current smokers, 13.1% recorded excess alcohol consumption and 8.5% had physical difficulty climbing stairs. Age, BMI, histopathological stage and physical capacity all independently affected survival (P < 0.05). Overweight patients [hazard ratio (HR) 2.81] and those who had difficulty climbing stairs (HR 3.31) had a significantly poorer survival. CONCLUSION: This study found evidence that preoperative exercise capacity and BMI are important independent prognostic factors of survival in patients undergoing curative surgery for CRC.


Assuntos
Colectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida , Sobrepeso/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Exercício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/complicações , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
11.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 98(3): 165-9, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26890834

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Older patients (>65 years of age) admitted as general surgical emergencies increasingly require improved recognition of their specific needs relative to younger patients. Two such needs are frailty and cognitive impairment. These are evolving research areas that the emergency surgeon increasingly requires knowledge of to improve short- and long-term patient outcomes. METHODS: This paper reviews the evidence for frailty and cognitive impairment in the acute surgical setting by defining frailty and cognitive impairment, introducing methods of diagnosis, discussing the influence on prognosis and proposing strategies to improve older patient outcomes. RESULTS: Frailty is present in 25% of the older surgical population. Using frailty-scoring tools, frailty was associated with a significantly longer hospital stay and higher mortality at 30 and 90 days after admission to an acute surgical unit. Cognitive impairment is present in a high number of older acute surgical patients (approximately 70%), whilst acute onset cognitive impairment, termed delirium, is documented in 18%. However, patients with delirium had significantly longer hospital stays and higher in-hospital mortality than those with cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Improved knowledge of frailty and delirium by the emergency surgeon allows the specialised needs of older surgical patients to be taken into account. Early recognition, and consideration of minimally invasive surgery or radiological intervention alongside potentially transferable successful elective interventions such as comprehensive geriatric assessment, may help to improve short- and long-term patient outcomes in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Idoso Fragilizado , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos
12.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 4(3): 311-8, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26468376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery is being increasingly offered to the older person. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature regarding laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery in older people and compare to younger adult populations. STUDY SELECTION: We included randomized controlled trials that compared open to laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. Older people were defined as being 65 years and above. OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall survival and post-operative morbidity and mortality. Secondary endpoints were length of hospital stay, wound recurrence, disease-free survival and conversion rate. RESULTS: Seven trials included older people, average age of approximately 70 years. Two reported data specific to older patients (over 70 years): The ALCCaS study reported reduced length of stay and short-term complication rates in the laparoscopic group when compared to open surgery (8 versus 10 days, and 36.7% versus 50.6% respectively) and the CLASICC study reported equivalent 5 year survival between arms and a reduction of 2 days length of stay following laparoscopic surgery in older people. In trials which considered data on older and younger participants all five trials reported comparable overall survival and showed comparable or reduced complication rates; two demonstrated significantly shorter length of stay following laparoscopic surgery compared to open surgery. CONCLUSION: Large numbers of older people have been included in well-conducted, multi-centre, randomized controlled trials for laparoscopic and open colorectal cancer surgery. This systematic review suggests that age itself should not be a factor when considering the best surgical option for older patients.

14.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 30(1): 111-8, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25376334

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Colonoscopy detects colorectal cancer and determines lesion localisation that influences surgical planning. However, published work suggests that the accuracy of lesion localisation can be low as 60%, with implications for both the surgeon and the patient. This work aims to identify potential influencing factors at colonoscopy that could lead to improved lesion localisation accuracy. METHODS: A multi-centred, prospective, observational study was performed that identified patients who were undergoing planned curative resection for a colorectal lesion. Localisation of a lesion at colonoscopy was compared to the intra-operative lesion localisation to determine accuracy of colonoscopic localisation. Patient factors and colonoscopic factors were recorded to determine any influencing factors on lesion localisation at colonoscopy. RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients were analysed: mean age 67.4 years (range 27-89); male:female ratio 1.3:1; symptomatic referrals (n = 78, 70.3%); and previous abdominal surgery in 27 patients (24.3%). Complete colonoscopy was recorded in 78 patients (70.3%). In 88 patients (79.3%), colonoscopic lesion localisation matched the intra-operative location. Pre-operative CT imaging was unable to identify the tumour in 24 cases (21.8%). Potential influencing patient and colonoscopic factors on accurate lesion localisation at colonoscopy found complete colonoscopy to be the only significant factor (p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Colonoscopic lesion localisation was found to be inaccurate in 79.3% cases, and with pre-operative CT unable to detect all lesions, this study confirms that accurate lesion localisation in the modern era is increasingly reliant on colonoscopy. Incomplete colonoscopy was the only significant factor that influenced inaccurate lesion localisation at colonoscopy.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Scott Med J ; 59(2): 85-90, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24659380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Colonoscopy is essential for accurate pre-operative colorectal tumour localisation, but its accuracy for localisation remains undetermined due to limitations of previous work. This study aimed to establish the accuracy of colonoscopic localisation and to determine how frequently inaccuracy results in altered surgical management. METHOD: A prospective, multi-centred, powered observational study recruited 79 patients with colorectal tumours that underwent curative surgical resection. Patient and colonoscopic factors were recorded. Pre-operative colonoscopic and radiological lesion localisations were compared to intra-operative localisation using pre-defined anatomical bowel segments to determine accuracy, with changes in planned surgical management documented. RESULTS: Colonoscopy accurately located the colorectal tumour in 64/79 patients (81%). Five out of 15 inaccurately located patients required on-table alteration in planned surgical management. Pre-operative imaging was unable to visualise the primary tumour in 23.1% of cases, a finding that was more prevalent amongst bowel screener patients compared to symptomatic patients (45.8% vs. 13%; p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Colonoscopic lesion localisation is inaccurate in 19.0% of cases and occurred throughout the colon with a change in on-table surgical management in 6.3%. With CT unable to visualise lesions in just under a quarter of cases, particularly in the screening population, preoperative localisation is heavily reliant on colonoscopy.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/instrumentação , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Escócia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
Colorectal Dis ; 15(11): 1375-81, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23927751

RESUMO

AIM: Colorectal cancer screening using the faecal occult blood test (FOBt) detects a disproportionate number of left-sided tumours. This study aims to examine the theoretical impact on neoplasia detection rates of a sigmoidoscopy-first protocol in FOBt-positive patients undergoing colonoscopy. METHOD: From retrieved endoscopy/pathology reports, pathology up to and including the splenic flexure was assumed detectable by sigmoidoscopy. High-risk polyps prompting subsequent colonoscopy were classed as three or more polyps, one polyp of ≥ 1 cm, villous or tubulovillous components or the presence of high-grade dysplasia. RESULTS: Between April 2009 and April 2011, 4631 patients underwent colonoscopy as a result of a positive FOBt in Greater Glasgow and Clyde. Cancer was detected in 398 (9%) and adenomas were detected in 1985 (47%) of which 1323 (67%) were deemed significant according to British Society of Gastroenterology guidelines. Applying the flexible sigmoidoscopy-first model, cancer would have been detected in 329 (8%) patients and adenomas in 1640 (39%), of which 1140 (70%) would have been significant. In total, 1546 (37%) patients would have required subsequent colonoscopy, following which 21 patients would have a new diagnosis of cancer. The positive predictive values (PPVs) for neoplasia (47 vs 57%, P < 0.001), significant neoplasia (35 vs 41%, P < 0.001) and cancer (8 vs 9%, P = 0.007) were all lower in the sigmoidoscopy-first model. CONCLUSION: A significant reduction in the detection of both adenomas and cancers would be seen if the sigmoidoscopy-first protocol were to be used following a positive FOBt. Furthermore, a significant proportion of patients would be subjected to two procedures, with considerable implications for both the patient and cost.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Sangue Oculto , Sigmoidoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
19.
Scott Med J ; 58(2): 95-8, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23728754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Scottish Bowel Screening Programme aims to detect cancer in asymptomatic individuals. We aimed to measure the prevalence of lower gastrointestinal symptoms in faecal occult blood (FOB) screen-positive patients, to correlate the symptoms with neoplasia and to compare the predictive value of FOB screening with urgent symptomatic referrals in Ayrshire and Arran. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively on FOB screen-positive patients undergoing colonoscopy. Patients completed a symptom questionnaire. Positive predictive values (PPVs) for detecting neoplasia were calculated and a chi-square test was performed to determine any influence of symptoms in diagnosing neoplasia. Symptomatic patients undergoing colonoscopy via a general practice fast-track system were compared. RESULTS: A total of 378 FOB screen-positive patients were included. In all, 198 (52%) had colorectal symptoms. Overall, 32 were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 93 had polyps . FOB positivity and symptoms gave a PPV of 34% for neoplasia. FOB positivity without symptoms gave a PPV of 32% for neoplasia. Urgent referral of symptomatic patients had a lower PPV of 21% for neoplasia (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Half the FOB screen-positive patients had bowel symptoms. Symptoms in these patients had no correlation with an increased rate of neoplasia. The PPV for neoplasia is superior in symptomatic and asymptomatic screen-positive patients when compared to conventional urgent symptom-based referral.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Sangue Oculto , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Avaliação de Sintomas
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