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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444605

RESUMO

At the start of 2020, a new coronavirus (COVID-19) invaded the world leading to the death of 3.92 million people. Sadly, to date, no remedy has been discovered for this virus. Preventive vaccines have been under investigation, but were unavailable until December 2020. Clinical deficiencies of nutrients may increase susceptibility to infections. This knowledge may have provided an incentive for some dietary supplement (DS) manufacturers to advertise their products as COVID-19 preventatives or cures without any substantiation, targeting mainly social media fans. The objective of this research was to assess the usage, knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplementation before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among Lebanese people. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a convenience sample (N = 2966) and information from participants aged 18 years and above was collected about periods before and during the pandemic. Our findings showed that attitudes towards DSs changed when the pandemic emerged and people believed that DSs can improve their health and strengthen their immunity. Despite the rise in DS prescription by healthcare professionals, the prevalence of DS use decreased from 73.3% before the pandemic to 69.9% during the pandemic (p < 0.001). Study results declared that the weekly or the daily estimated intake had increased during the pandemic as compared to before the pandemic, from 14% to 15.6% for antioxidants (p = 0.014), from 35.3% to 42.1% for vitamin C (p < 0.001), from 35.5% to 41% for vitamin D (p < 0.001), from 15.2% to 17.5% for vitamin E (p = 0.002), and from 18.8% to 29.3% for zinc (p < 0.001) and other vitamins and minerals (from 9% to 10.9%, p < 0.001). Binary logistic regression indicated that the use of DSs during the pandemic was 4 times higher among those infected with COVID-19, 30 times higher among those who used to take DSs before pandemic, and 1.5 times higher among those who worked in the medical sector. To conclude, there is a crucial need to increase awareness among Lebanese people regarding the use of DSs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(6)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198622

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has seen a worldwide spread since its emergence in 2019, including to Lebanon, where 534,968 confirmed cases (8% of the population) and 7569 deaths have been reported as of 14 May 2021. With the genome sequencing of strains from various countries, several classification systems were established via genome comparison. For instance, the GISAID clades classification highlights key mutations in the encoded proteins that could potentially affect the virus' infectivity and transmission rates. In this study, 58 genomes of Lebanese SARS-CoV-2 strains were analyzed, 28 of which were sequenced for this study, and 30 retrieved from the GISAID and GenBank databases. We aimed to classify these strains, establish their phylogenetic relationships, and extract the mutations causing amino acid substitutions within, particularly, the structural proteins. The sequenced Lebanese SARS-COV-2 strains were classified into four GISAID clades and 11 Pango lineages. Moreover, 21 uncommon mutations in the structural proteins were found in the newly sequenced strains, underlining interesting combinations of mutations in the spike proteins. Hence, this study constitutes an observation and description of the current SARS-CoV-2 genetic and clade situation in Lebanon according to the available sequenced strains.

3.
Andrology ; 9(5): 1549-1559, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suboptimal human semen handling in vitro may induce sperm damage. However, the effects of semen swim-up, pellet swim-up, density gradient, and density gradient followed by SU on sperm motility, morphology, DNA fragmentation, acrosome reaction, intracellular reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial activity were not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: To study the impact of four sperm preparation techniques on sperm functional parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 60 infertile men with a minimum sperm concentration of 20 × 106 /ml and total sperm motility of ≥30%. Each raw semen sample was divided into four aliquots. Each aliquot was prepared by one of the tested techniques. Various sperm characteristics were assessed before and after sperm preparation. RESULTS: Density gradient and density gradient followed by SU resulted in significantly higher DNA fragmentation percentages compared with semen swim-up (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) and pellet swim-up (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Significantly higher percentages of spermatozoa with intact acrosome were detected in semen swim-up (p < 0.001) and pellet swim-up (p < 0.001) compared with raw semen. The percentage of reactive oxygen species-positive spermatozoa was significantly higher after pellet swim-up (p < 0.001), density gradient (p < 0.001), and density gradient followed by SU (p < 0.001) than raw semen. In addition, the percentages of 100% stained midpiece (active mitochondria) were significantly higher in semen swim-up (p < 0.001) and pellet swim-up (p < 0.001) compared with raw semen. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report comparing the impact of these techniques on various sperm functional parameters. Semen swim-up was more effective than density gradient in selecting better spermatozoa in terms of DNA integrity, reactive oxygen species levels, acrosome status, and mitochondrial activity. Randomized clinical trials comparing these four techniques are required to test their impact on embryo development and pregnancy outcomes.

4.
Psychother Psychosom ; 90(2): 119-126, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333526

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A firm consensus on the effectiveness of psychological interventions during infertility treatment has not been reached yet in terms of mental health and pregnancy rates. Moreover, the influence of these interventions on embryo cleavage kinetics has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to study whether stress management in couples undergoing an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle influences stress levels, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels in granulosa cells, and cleavage-stage embryos. METHODS: Infertile couples were randomized into a treatment as usual (TAU) group (n = 30) and stress management program (SMP) group (n = 29) at the beginning of an ICSI cycle. Couples in the SMP group attended education and relaxation sessions at each visit to the clinic for folliculometry. The perceived stress scale (PSS) was used to assess stress levels at the beginning and end of the cycle. Moreover, mtDNA levels of granulosa cells and embryo morphokinetics were evaluated. RESULTS: Post-intervention, women in the SMP group had significantly lower PSS scores than their initial PSS (p < 0.001; effect size, ES = 0.5) and than the final PSS of the TAU group (p = 0.02; ES = 0.09). Additionally, mtDNA levels were significantly lower in luteal granulosa cells of the SMP group than the TAU group (p = 0.02). An earlier time of pronuclei appearance (p = 0.03) and time to 2 cells (p = 0.015) and a faster time to full compaction (p = 0.045) were detected in the embryos of the SMP group compared with the TAU group. CONCLUSION(S): The implemented program may reduce stress levels, retard first embryo cleavage, and accelerate embryo compaction. Further studies with an active control group are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Int J Fertil Steril ; 13(4): 339-345, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710196

RESUMO

Background: Aspirated ovarian follicular fluids (FF) contain luteal granulosa cells (LGCs) and other contaminating cell types. Several strategies, such as the antibody binding methods, the flask method, the cell strainer and positive selection of granulosa aggregates after density gradient (DG) centrifugation, were tested as LGC purification methods. Each of these strategies has its own advantages and disadvantages. Positive selection of granulosa aggregates after DG centrifugation is simple, rapid and efficient in terms of LGC recovery. However, it results in a low purity. Here, we aimed to test whether modifying the traditional protocol by collecting the aggregates from the FF, before the DG centrifugation could decrease the percentage of contaminating cells. Materials and Methods: In the present prospective study, 32 FF, from 32 women,were randomly assigned into one of the two purification techniques: positive selection of granulosa aggregates from the FF, after DG centrifugation (DG/ Agg, n=16) or positive selection of granulosa aggregates from the FF, before DG centrifugation (Agg/DG, n=16). At the end of each procedure cell count, vitality, morphology and purity of the cell suspension were evaluated. Results: No significant difference was detected in the total number of GCs between DG/Agg and Agg/DG (P>0.05). However, higher percentage of GCs with normal morphology was detected in Agg/DG compared to DG/Agg (P<0.001). Moreover, lower percentages of white blood cells (P<0.01), red blood cells (P<0.001) and epithelial cells (P<0.01) were identified in Agg/DG compared to DG/Agg. Conclusion: Here we showed that positive selection of granulosa aggregates from the FF prior to DG technique had a higher purity compared to the traditional protocol. Thus, it could be a method of choice to prepare GCs for research purposes in clinical in vitro fertilization settings.

6.
Zygote ; 27(2): 69-77, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834849

RESUMO

SummaryDirect swim-up procedure is widely used to separate the motile competent spermatozoa from the antioxidant-rich semen. Subsequently, spermatozoa become more vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to their cytological characteristics. The effect of vitamin C, a highly concentrated antioxidant in the semen, on direct swim-up-enriched sperm population is not fully investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of vitamin C on sperm functional properties during direct swim-up procedure. Semen samples were collected from 22 participants. Each semen sample was divided into several aliquots. The first portion was overlaid with sperm medium without ascorbic acid (0 µM AA). The second and third fractions were overlaid with sperm medium supplemented with 300 µM and 600 µM AA; respectively. After 1 h of incubation, basic sperm parameters, intracellular ROS levels, acrosome reaction, chromatin integrity, and glucose uptake were assessed. Swim-up without AA significantly increased the percentage of ROS(+) spermatozoa compared with the raw semen (P<0.01). Interestingly, swim-up with 300 µM AA did not increase the percentage of ROS(+) sperm compared with the raw semen. In parallel, the percentage of sperm with altered chromatin integrity was significantly lower in the 300 µM AA group compared with that in the raw semen (P<0.05). These findings suggest that supplementation of vitamin C to sperm medium could be beneficial for direct swim-up-derived spermatozoa.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Separação Celular/métodos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Reação Acrossômica , Adulto , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Cromatina/patologia , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glucose/farmacocinética , Humanos , Masculino , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sêmen/fisiologia , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Children (Basel) ; 4(11)2017 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29099741

RESUMO

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare hematologic entity in children. Etiologies are mainly viruses or bacteria. We describe here a case of severe warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (IgG- and C3d-positive direct antiglobulin test) in an immunocompetent 6-month-old infant with acute Cytomegalovirus infection that responded well to corticotherapy and intraveneous immunoglobulins without using blood component transfusion. This case demonstrates the importance of recognizing CMV in infantile Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia, especially because hemolysis can be severe and lethal.

8.
J Med Liban ; 62(4): 217-26, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25807720

RESUMO

Hydatid disease (HD) or cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been an important zoonotic disease causing medical, economic and public health problems in many parts of the world, including South America, North Africa, Turkey, and Middle Eastern countries. Humans as well as animals, primarily sheep and cattle, are infected by the ingestion of food, usually leafy vegetables, contaminated with the eggs (oncospheres) of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatid cysts, which are the larval stage of the parasite, are located mostly in the liver and lungs of the infected host. Because of its chronic endemicity in Lebanon and neighboring countries, this disease has constituted an integral part of research studies conducted by medical doctors and researchers in Lebanon, mostly spearheaded by those at the American University of Beirut (AUB) and its medical center (AUBMC) since the early turn of the last century (1920s). Over 130 wide ranging studies were published; some were innovative e.g. the introduction of the once famous Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) test for serodiagnosis, and the use of dilute cetrimide as a protoscolicidal agent during surgery. Although the incidence of HD is decreasing in our country, it has acquired increasing public health concern and is considered as an emerging or re-emerging disease in many parts of the world. In this review, we shed light on the numerous studies/publications done in Lebanon as a tribute to those researchers who have impacted the literature of HD in many aspects. The latter include epidemiology and ways of transmission, clinical features and radiological tools for diagnosis, serodiagnosis and immunology, and investigation of different therapeutic modalities for different aspects of the disease. Moreover, consolidating these studies in this review would hopefully represent the historic foundation for interested researchers and investigators, especially in this country, to pursue and build on such studies. The advances in technology, and the availability and utilization of new methodologies will hopefully help find more reliable and efficient ways for the diagnosis, and management of this disease.


Assuntos
Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/terapia , Animais , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/transmissão , Humanos , Líbano
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