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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 162, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In June 2019, Nipah virus (NiV) infection was detected in a 21-year-old male (index case) of Ernakulum, Kerala, India. This study was undertaken to determine if NiV was in circulation in Pteropus species (spp) in those areas where the index case had visit history in 1 month. METHODS: Specialized techniques were used to trap the Pteropus medius bats (random sampling) in the vicinity of the index case area. Throat and rectal swabs samples of 141 bats along with visceral organs of 92 bats were collected to detect the presence of NiV by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRTPCR). Serum samples of 52 bats were tested for anti-NiV Immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The complete genome of NiV was sequenced by next-generation sequencing (NGS) from the tissues and swab samples of bats. RESULTS: One rectal swab sample and three bats visceral organs were found positive for the NiV. Interestingly, 20.68% (12/58) of Pteropus were positive for anti-NiV IgG antibodies. NiV sequences of 18,172; 17,200 and 15,100 nucleotide bps could be retrieved from three Pteropus bats. CONCLUSION: A distinct cluster of NiV sequences, with significant net-evolutionary nucleotide divergence, was obtained, suggesting the circulation of new genotype (I-India) in South India. NiV Positivity in Pteropus spp. of bats revealed that NiV is circulating in many districts of Kerala state, and active surveillance of NiV should be immediately set up to know the hotspot area for NiV infection.

2.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(12): 1920-1926, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: First Zika virus (ZIKV) positive case from North India was detected on routine surveillance of Dengue-Like Illness in an 85-year old female. Objective of the study was to conduct an investigation for epidemiological, clinical and genomic analysis of first ZIKV outbreak in Rajasthan, North India and enhance routine ZIKV surveillance. METHOD: Outbreak investigation was performed in 3 Km radius of the index case among patient contacts, febrile cases, and pregnant women. Routine surveillance was enhanced to include samples from various districts of Rajasthan. Presence of ZIKV in serum and urine samples was detected by real time PCR test and CDC trioplex kit. Few ZIKV positive samples were sequenced using the next-generation sequencing method for genomic analysis. RESULT: On outbreak investigation 153/2043 (7.48%) cases were found positive: 1/153 (0.65%) among contacts, 90/153 (58.8%) in fever cases, 62/153(40.5%) in pregnant females. In routine surveillance, 6/4722 (0.12%) serum samples were ZIKV positive.Majority of patients had mild signs and symptoms, no case of microcephaly and Guillain- Barre Syndrome was seen, 25 (40.3%) pregnant females delivered healthy babies, four (6.4%) reported abortion and three (4.8%) had intrauterine death, one (1.6%) child had colorectal malformation and died after few days of birth. ZIKV was found to belong to Asian lineage, mutation related to enhanced neuro-virulence and transmission in animal models was not found. CONCLUSION: ZIKV was endogenous to India belonging to Asian Lineage. Disease profile of the ZIKV was asymptomatic to mild. No major anomaly was observed in infants born to ZIKV positive mothers; however, long term follow up of these children is required. There is need to scale up surveillance in the virology lab network of India for early detection and control. SUMMARY LINE: Zika virus infection was endogenous due to Asian Lineage with mild disease, no case of microcephaly or Guillain- Barre Syndrome was seen but children need to be followed for anomalies and surveillance of ZIKV needs to be enhanced in the country.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12561, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724103

RESUMO

The present manuscript deals with experimental infections of bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) to study disease progression for better insights into the Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD) pathogenesis and transmission. Experimentally, 10 monkeys were inoculated with KFD virus (KFDV) (high or low dose) and were regularly monitored and sampled for various body fluids and tissues at preset time points. We found that only 2 out of the 10 animals showed marked clinical signs becoming moribund, both in the low dose group, even though viremia, virus shedding in the secretions and excretions were evident in all inoculated monkeys. Anti-KFDV immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibody response was observed around a week after inoculation and anti-KFDV IgG antibody response after two weeks. Anaemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, monocytosis, increase in average clotting time, and reduction in the serum protein levels were evident. The virus could be re-isolated from the skin during the viremic period. The persistence of viral RNA in the gastrointestinal tract and lymph nodes was seen up to 53 and 81 days respectively. Neuro-invasion was observed only in moribund macaques. Re-challenge with the virus after 21 days of initial inoculation in a monkey did not result in virus shedding or immune response boosting.

4.
Indian J Med Res ; 151(6): 571-577, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719230

RESUMO

Background & objectives: The presence of Cat Que virus (CQV) in Culex mosquitoes and pigs has been reported in China and Vietnam. Due to the spread of similar species of the Culex mosquitoes in India, there is a need to understand the replication kinetics of this virus in mosquito models. As a part of preparedness and to identify the presence of this CQV in humans and swine, this study was carried out to develop diagnostic tests. Methods: Serological and molecular diagnostic assays were developed for testing the mosquito population, human and swine serum samples. In this line, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L), glycoprotein (M) and nucleocapsid (S) genes-based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were developed for CQV. Real-time RT-PCR was used for screening of retrospectively collected human serum samples (n=1020) with acute febrile illness during 2014-2017. Simultaneously, an in-house anti-CQV swine and human IgG ELISAs were also developed to detect anti-CQV IgG antibody. Human serum samples (n=883) with post-onset of disease (POD) >4 days and swine serum samples (n=459) were tested for the presence of anti-CQV IgG antibodies. CQV NIV 612,045 isolate was used for susceptibility and replication kinetics experiment using three different species of mosquitoes to understand its behaviour in Indian mosquitoes. Results: All human serum samples (n=1020) screened for the presence of CQV using real-time RT-PCR were found to be negative. Anti-CQV IgG antibody positivity was recorded in two of 883 human serum samples tested. Virus susceptibility experiments indicated that three species of mosquito, namely Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus supported multiplication of CQV by intrathoracic as well as artificial membrane/oral feeding routes. Interpretation & conclusions: Anti-CQV IgG antibody positivity in human serum samples tested and the replication capability of CQV in mosquitoes indicated a possible disease causing potential of CQV in Indian scenario. Screening of more human and swine serum samples using these assays is required as a proactive measure for understanding the prevalence of this neglected tropical virus.

5.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e90, 2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321607

RESUMO

Nipah virus (NiV) outbreak occurred in Kozhikode district, Kerala, India in 2018 with a case fatality rate of 91% (21/23). In 2019, a single case with full recovery occurred in Ernakulam district. We described the response and control measures by the Indian Council of Medical Research and Kerala State Government for the 2019 NiV outbreak. The establishment of Point of Care assays and monoclonal antibodies administration facility for early diagnosis, response and treatment, intensified contact tracing activities, bio-risk management and hospital infection control training of healthcare workers contributed to effective control and containment of NiV outbreak in Ernakulam.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Emergências , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/prevenção & controle , Vírus Nipah , Saúde Pública , Restos Mortais , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Equipamento de Proteção Individual
6.
Indian J Med Res ; 151(2 & 3): 172-176, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242878

RESUMO

Novel coronavirus infection [coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)] has spread to more than 203 countries of various regions including Africa, America, Europe, South East Asia and Western Pacific. The WHO had declared COVID-19 as the global public health emergency and subsequently as pandemic because of its worldwide spread. It is now one of the top-priority pathogens to be dealt with, because of high transmissibility, severe illness and associated mortality, wide geographical spread, lack of control measures with knowledge gaps in veterinary and human epidemiology, immunity and pathogenesis. The quick detection of cases and isolating them has become critical to contain it. To meet the increasing demand of the diagnostic services, it is necessary to enhance and expand laboratory capabilities since existing laboratories cannot meet the emerging demand. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a BSL-2 (Biosafety Level 2) agent and needs to be handled in biosafety cabinet using standard precautions. This review highlights minimum requirements for the diagnostic laboratories opting testing of material for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and associated biorisk to the individuals and to the community.


Assuntos
Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Laboratórios/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Humanos , Pandemias , Medição de Risco
7.
Indian J Med Res ; 151(2 & 3): 226-235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317409

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Bats are considered to be the natural reservoir for many viruses, of which some are potential human pathogens. In India, an association of Pteropus medius bats with the Nipah virus was reported in the past. It is suspected that the recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) also has its association with bats. To assess the presence of CoVs in bats, we performed identification and characterization of bat CoV (BtCoV) in P. medius and Rousettus species from representative States in India, collected during 2018 and 2019. Methods: Representative rectal swab (RS) and throat swab specimens of Pteropus and Rousettus spp. bats were screened for CoVs using a pan-CoV reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene. A single-step RT-PCR was performed on the RNA extracted from the bat specimens. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on a few representative bat specimens that were tested positive. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out on the partial sequences of RdRp gene sequences retrieved from both the bat species and complete viral genomes recovered from Rousettus spp. Results: Bat samples from the seven States were screened, and the RS specimens of eight Rousettus spp. and 21 Pteropus spp. were found positive for CoV RdRp gene. Among these, by Sanger sequencing, partial RdRp sequences could be retrieved from three Rousettus and eight Pteropus bat specimens. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial RdRp region demonstrated distinct subclustering of the BtCoV sequences retrieved from these Rousettus and Pteropus spp. bats. NGS led to the recovery of four sequences covering approximately 94.3 per cent of the whole genome of the BtCoVs from Rousettus bats. Three BtCoV sequences had 93.69 per cent identity to CoV BtRt-BetaCoV/GX2018. The fourth BtCoV sequence was 96.8 per cent identical to BtCoV HKU9-1. Interpretation & conclusions: This study was a step towards understanding the CoV circulation in Indian bats. Detection of potentially pathogenic CoVs in Indian bats stresses the need for enhanced screening for novel viruses in them. One Health approach with collaborative activities by the animal health and human health sectors in these surveillance activities shall be of use to public health. This would help in the development of diagnostic assays for novel viruses with outbreak potential and be useful in disease interventions. Proactive surveillance remains crucial for identifying the emerging novel viruses with epidemic potential and measures for risk mitigation.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Viral , Animais , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Índia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1966, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029759

RESUMO

The Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD) has become a major public health problem in the State of Karnataka, India where the disease was first identified and in Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, and Goa covering the Western Ghats region of India. The incidence of positive cases and distribution of the Kyasanur Forest Disease virus (KFDV) in different geographical regions raises the need to understand the evolution and spatiotemporal transmission dynamics. Phylogeography analysis based on 48 whole genomes (46 from this study) and additionally 28 E-gene sequences of KFDV isolated from different regions spanning the period 1957-2017 was thus undertaken. The mean evolutionary rates based the E-gene was marginally higher than that based on the whole genomes. A subgroup of KFDV strains (2006-2017) differing from the early Karnataka strains (1957-1972) by ~2.76% in their whole genomes and representing spread to different geographical areas diverged around 1980. Dispersal from Karnataka to Goa and Maharashtra was indicated. Maharashtra represented a new source for transmission of KFDV since ~2013. Significant evidence of adaptive evolution at site 123 A/T located in the vicinity of the envelope protein dimer interface may have functional implications. The findings indicate the need to curtail the spread of KFDV by surveillance measures and improved vaccination strategies.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Haplorrinos/virologia , Doença da Floresta de Kyasanur/epidemiologia , Taxa de Mutação , Carrapatos/virologia , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/isolamento & purificação , Variação Genética , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Doença da Floresta de Kyasanur/transmissão , Doença da Floresta de Kyasanur/veterinária , Doença da Floresta de Kyasanur/virologia , Filogenia , Filogeografia , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Virus Res ; 277: 197836, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821842

RESUMO

Three genome sequences of Buffalopox virus (BPVX) were retrieved from a human and two buffaloes scab samples. Phylogenomic analysis of the BPXV indicates that it shares a most recent common ancestor with Lister and closely related vaccine strains when compared to potential wild-type VACV strains (like Horsepox virus).

10.
Indian J Med Res ; 150(2): 186-193, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670274

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is an infectious disease discovered in Karnataka State of India in 1957; since then, the State has been known to be enzootic for KFD. In the last few years, its presence was observed in the adjoining five States of the Western Ghats of India. The present study was conducted to understand the kinetics of viral RNA, immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibody in KFD-infected humans for developing a diagnostic algorithm for KFD. Methods: A prospective follow up study was performed among KFD patients in Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra State, India. A total of 1046 suspected patients were tested, and 72 KFD patients were enrolled and followed for 17 months (January 2016 to May 2017). Serum samples of KFD patients were screened for viral RNA, and IgM and IgG antibodies. Results: KFD viral positivity was observed from 1st to 18th post-onset day (POD). Positivity of anti-KFD virus (KFDV) IgM antibodies was detected from 4th till 122nd POD and anti-KFDV IgG antibodies detected from 5th till 474th POD. A prediction probability was determined from statistical analysis using the generalized additive model in R-software to support the laboratory findings regarding viral kinetics. Interpretation & conclusions: This study demonstrated the presence of KFD viral RNA till 18th POD, IgM antibodies till 122nd POD and IgG till the last sample collected. Based on our study an algorithm was recommended for accurate laboratory diagnosis of KFDV infection. A sample collected between 1 and 3 POD can be tested using KFDV real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); between 4 and 24 POD, the combination of real-time RT-PCR and anti-KFDV IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests can be used; between POD 25 and 132, anti-KFDV IgM and IgG ELISA are recommended.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Doença da Floresta de Kyasanur/sangue , RNA Viral/química , Anticorpos/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/patogenicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/química , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Imunoglobulina M/química , Imunoglobulina M/genética , Cinética , Doença da Floresta de Kyasanur/genética , Doença da Floresta de Kyasanur/virologia , Masculino , RNA Viral/genética
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(11): 2128-2130, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625861

RESUMO

In September 2018, an epizootic infection caused by canine distemper virus emerged in an Asiatic lion population in India. We detected the virus in samples from 68 lions and 6 leopards by reverse transcription PCR. Whole-genome sequencing analysis demonstrated the virus strain is similar to the proposed India-1/Asia-5 strain.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Leões/virologia , Animais , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Genes Virais , Genoma Viral , Índia/epidemiologia
13.
Indian J Med Res ; 149(4): 447-467, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411169

RESUMO

Infectious diseases remain as the major causes of human and animal morbidity and mortality leading to significant healthcare expenditure in India. The country has experienced the outbreaks and epidemics of many infectious diseases. However, enormous successes have been obtained against the control of major epidemic diseases, such as malaria, plague, leprosy and cholera, in the past. The country's vast terrains of extreme geo-climatic differences and uneven population distribution present unique patterns of distribution of viral diseases. Dynamic interplays of biological, socio-cultural and ecological factors, together with novel aspects of human-animal interphase, pose additional challenges with respect to the emergence of infectious diseases. The important challenges faced in the control and prevention of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases range from understanding the impact of factors that are necessary for the emergence, to development of strengthened surveillance systems that can mitigate human suffering and death. In this article, the major emerging and re-emerging viral infections of public health importance have been reviewed that have already been included in the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/patogenicidade , Mudança Climática , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Viroses/virologia
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(5): 1003-1006, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002049

RESUMO

We retrieved Nipah virus (NiV) sequences from 4 human and 3 fruit bat (Pteropus medius) samples from a 2018 outbreak in Kerala, India. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that NiV from humans was 96.15% similar to a Bangladesh strain but 99.7%-100% similar to virus from Pteropus spp. bats, indicating bats were the source of the outbreak.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Vírus Nipah/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Infecções por Henipavirus/história , Infecções por Henipavirus/transmissão , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Mutação , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
17.
Vet Q ; 39(1): 26-55, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006350

RESUMO

Nipah (Nee-pa) viral disease is a zoonotic infection caused by Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus belonging to the genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is a biosafety level-4 pathogen, which is transmitted by specific types of fruit bats, mainly Pteropus spp. which are natural reservoir host. The disease was reported for the first time from the Kampung Sungai Nipah village of Malaysia in 1998. Human-to-human transmission also occurs. Outbreaks have been reported also from other countries in South and Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analysis affirmed the circulation of two major clades of NiV as based on currently available complete N and G gene sequences. NiV isolates from Malaysia and Cambodia clustered together in NiV-MY clade, whereas isolates from Bangladesh and India clusterered within NiV-BD clade. NiV isolates from Thailand harboured mixed population of sequences. In humans, the virus is responsible for causing rapidly progressing severe illness which might be characterized by severe respiratory illness and/or deadly encephalitis. In pigs below six months of age, respiratory illness along with nervous symptoms may develop. Different types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays along with molecular methods based on polymerase chain reaction have been developed for diagnostic purposes. Due to the expensive nature of the antibody drugs, identification of broad-spectrum antivirals is essential along with focusing on small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). High pathogenicity of NiV in humans, and lack of vaccines or therapeutics to counter this disease have attracted attention of researchers worldwide for developing effective NiV vaccine and treatment regimens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Henipavirus/veterinária , Vírus Nipah/imunologia , Vacinas Virais , Zoonoses , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Humanos , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/análise , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
18.
Heliyon ; 5(3): e01368, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957047

RESUMO

The soft ticks collected during a field survey in Karnataka state, India, in 1983, yielded a novel virus isolate, which caused mortality in an infant mouse upon inoculation. Attempts at characterizing the virus using the conventional methods were unsuccessful, which prompted us to study it by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). This virus isolate was obtained from the viral repository of National Institute of Virology, and an initial virus stock was prepared as a mouse brain homogenate. The virus stock showed cytopathic effects in different cell-lines and was used in NGS. Based on the complete genome sequence, obtained using de novo and reference mapping approach, the virus isolate was identified as a Quaranfil virus (QRFV) belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae, genus Quaranjavirus. The genome size of the virus is 11,427 nucleotides which consist of 6 segments encoding six proteins. Homology analysis suggested this isolate as similar to QRFV of Afghanistan. In silico analysis showed the HA protein secondary structure to be a class III penetrance similar to Thogotovirus. QRFV was first isolated in 1953 from ticks [Cairo, Egypt] and subsequently reported from other geographical areas. This is the first report describing the presence of QRFV from India. This discovery emphasizes the need for investigating mild febrile illness cases with influenza-like symptoms, particularly in the area of high risk for tick bites.

19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 104, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a highly infectious zoonotic disease of humans transmitted by Hyalomma ticks. Earlier studies have shown CCHF seroprevalence in livestock throughout India, yet sporadic outbreaks have been recorded mostly from the Gujarat state of India since 2011. Occupational vulnerability to CCHF for animal handlers, veterinarians, abattoir workers, and healthcare workers has been documented. The current study was planned to determine the seroprevalence of CCHF with an intention to identify the high -risk population and high -risk areas from Gujarat state, India. METHODS: Based on the socio-clinical data, the human population of Gujarat was divided into eight categories viz. A: CCHF affected person/house/close contact, B: Neighborhood contacts, C: Animal handlers, D: General population, E: Farmers, F: Abattoir workers, G: Veterinarian, H: Healthcare workers. A total of 4978 human serum samples were collected from 33 districts of Gujarat during year 2015, 2016 and 2017. All the samples were screened for the presence of anti-CCHFV IgG using indigenously developed anti-CCHFV IgG ELISA. Univariate regression analysis was performed to recognize significant risk factors for CCHF seropositivity. RESULTS: Twenty-five serum samples were found to be positive with an overall CCHF human seropositivity of 0.5% (95% CI 0.30-0.74%). Gender predisposition to CCHF prevalence was observed in males (OR: 2.80; p-value: 0.020). The risk for seropositivity increased sevenfold when a person was in contact or neighbor with a CCHF case (OR 7.02; p-value: < 0.0001). No significant difference in seropositivity was observed within different age groups. Veterinarians, healthcare workers, and control group were found to be seronegative for CCHF. CONCLUSIONS: In-spite of CCHF sporadic outbreaks reported in Gujarat, the seropositivity for CCHF in the state was low as compared to other endemic countries. Males, close contacts and neighbors were identified as a high-risk population for CCHF infection. To recognize the high-risk area, tick screening and animal serosurvey would be a wiser choice. The study also suggests circulation and under diagnoses of CCHFV in the naïve regions of Gujarat.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/isolamento & purificação , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/epidemiologia , Carrapatos/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/etiologia , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/virologia , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/imunologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/etiologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/prevenção & controle , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/virologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/sangue , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/etiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
20.
Infect Genet Evol ; 69: 199-202, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703541

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in human has been reported from Gujarat and Tamil Nadu states during the year 2016 and 2017 respectively. In paucity of complete genome data of ZIKV, the analysis and prediction were not possible. Zika cases were reported in Jaipur city, Rajasthan, India during the period of 21st September 2018 to 29th October 2018. In order to understand the circulating ZIKV strain in Rajasthan state about ten human serum samples from the positive cases of Jaipur city, Rajasthan state considering the locality and clustering variations were sequenced using next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform. Complete genome phylogenetic analysis of Jaipur city sequences with known GenBank ZIKV sequences revealed that the outbreak in Jaipur city was being caused by ZIKV belonging to Asian lineage. Partial genome sequencing revealed the presence of a pre-outbreak strain of ZIKV in Gujarat and current outbreak strain of Asian lineage in Tamil Nadu. Further sequence analysis of the five ZIKV positive samples of Jaipur revealed that the S139N and A188V mutations, linked to enhanced neurovirulence and transmission in animal models, were not found in the current outbreak strain. Whether this strain can cause birth defects and cause large outbreaks is not currently known, but they should be treated as such until more is known. With the identification of ZIKV in Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, and recent outbreaks of ZIKV in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states alarm for India to enhance surveillance in other states and monitor the mutation and evolutionary changes in circulating Zika strains.


Assuntos
Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/fisiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Endêmicas , Genoma Viral , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Zika virus/classificação , Infecção por Zika virus/história
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