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1.
Toxicol Res (Camb) ; 10(4): 911-927, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484683

RESUMO

Cholestasis is a severe clinical complication that severely damages the liver. Kidneys are also the most affected extrahepatic organs in cholestasis. The pivotal role of oxidative stress has been mentioned in the pathogenesis of cholestasis-induced organ injury. The activation of the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway is involved in response to oxidative stress. The current study was designed to evaluate the potential role of Nrf2 signaling activation in preventing bile acids-induced toxicity in the liver and kidney. Dimethyl fumarate was used as a robust activator of Nrf2 signaling. Rats underwent bile duct ligation surgery and were treated with dimethyl fumarate (10 and 40 mg/kg). Severe oxidative stress was evident in the liver and kidney of cholestatic animals (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the expression and activity of Nrf2 and downstream genes were time-dependently decreased (P < 0.05). Moreover, significant mitochondrial depolarization, decreased ATP levels, and mitochondrial permeabilization were detected in bile duct-ligated rats (P < 0.05). Histopathological alterations included liver necrosis, fibrosis, inflammation and kidney interstitial inflammation, and cast formation. It was found that dimethyl fumarate significantly decreased hepatic and renal injury in cholestatic animals (P < 0.05). Based on these data, the activation of the cellular antioxidant response could serve as an efficient therapeutic option for managing cholestasis-induced organ injury.

2.
Toxicol Lett ; 349: 12-29, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089816

RESUMO

The cholestatic liver injury could occur in response to a variety of diseases or xenobiotics. Although cholestasis primarily affects liver function, it has been well-known that other organs such as the kidney could be influenced in cholestatic patients. Severe cholestasis could lead to tissue fibrosis and organ failure. Unfortunately, there is no specific therapeutic option against cholestasis-induced organ injury. Hence, finding the mechanism of organ injury during cholestasis could lead to therapeutic options against this complication. The accumulation of potentially cytotoxic compounds such as hydrophobic bile acids is the most suspected mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of cholestasis-induced organ injury. A plethora of evidence indicates a role for the inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of several human diseases. Here, the role of nuclear factor-kB (NFkB)-mediated inflammatory response is investigated in an animal model of cholestasis. Bile duct ligated (BDL) animals were treated with sulfasalazine (SSLZ, 10 and 100 mg/kg, i.p) as a potent inhibitor of NFkB signaling. The NFkB proteins family activity in the liver and kidney, serum and tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tissue biomarkers of oxidative stress, serum markers of organ injury, and the liver and kidney histopathological alterations and fibrotic changes. The oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory-related indices were monitored in the kidney and liver at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, and 14 days after BDL operation). Significant increase in serum and urine markers of organ injury, besides changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress and tissue histopathology, were evident in the liver and kidney of BDL animals. The activity of NFkB proteins (p65, p50, p52, c-Rel, and RelB) was significantly increased in the liver and kidney of cholestatic animals. Serum and tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12, IL-17, IL-18, IL-23, TNF-α, and INF-γ) were also higher than sham-operated animals. Moreover, TGF- ß, α-SMA, and tissue fibrosis (Trichrome stain) were evident in cholestatic animals' liver and kidneys. It was found that SSLZ (10 and 100 mg/kg/day, i.p) alleviated cholestasis-induced hepatic and renal injury. The effect of SSLZ on NFkB signaling and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines could play a significant role in its protective role in cholestasis. Based on these data, NFkB signaling could receive special attention to develop therapeutic options to blunt cholestasis-induced organ injury.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colestase/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Sulfassalazina/farmacologia , Animais , Colestase/metabolismo , Colestase/patologia , Ducto Colédoco/cirurgia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Ligadura , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 603262, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842567

RESUMO

Lithium (Li+) is prescribed against a wide range of neurological disorders. Besides its excellent therapeutic properties, there are several adverse effects associated with Li+. The impact of Li+ on renal function and diabetes insipidus is the most common adverse effect of this drug. On the other hand, infertility and decreased libido is another complication associated with Li+. It has been found that sperm indices of functionality, as well as libido, is significantly reduced in Li+-treated men. These adverse effects might lead to drug incompliance and the cessation of drug therapy. Hence, the main aims of the current study were to illustrate the mechanisms of adverse effects of Li+ on the testis tissue, spermatogenesis process, and hormonal changes in two experimental models. In the in vitro experiments, Leydig cells (LCs) were isolated from healthy mice, cultured, and exposed to increasing concentrations of Li+ (0, 10, 50, and 100 ppm). In the in vivo section of the current study, mice were treated with Li+ (0, 10, 50, and 100 ppm, in drinking water) for five consecutive weeks. Testis and sperm samples were collected and assessed. A significant sign of cytotoxicity (LDH release and MTT assay), along with disrupted testosterone biosynthesis, impaired mitochondrial indices (ATP level and mitochondrial depolarization), and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress were detected in LCs exposed to Li+. On the other hand, a significant increase in serum and testis Li+ levels were detected in drug-treated mice. Moreover, ROS formation, LPO, protein carbonylation, and increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were detected in both testis tissue and sperm specimens of Li+-treated mice. Several sperm anomalies were also detected in Li+-treated animals. On the other hand, sperm mitochondrial indices (mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity and ATP levels) were significantly decreased in drug-treated groups where mitochondrial depolarization was increased dose-dependently. Altogether, these data mention oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment as pivotal mechanisms involved in Li+-induced reproductive toxicity. Therefore, based on our previous publications in this area, therapeutic options, including compounds with high antioxidant properties that target these points might find a clinical value in ameliorating Li+-induced adverse effects on the male reproductive system.

4.
Stress ; 24(2): 213-228, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510264

RESUMO

Cholestasis is a multifaceted clinical complication. Obstructive jaundice induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) is known as an animal model to investigate cholestasis and its associated complications. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant, radical scavenger, and thiol reductant widely investigated for its cytoprotective properties. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the role of NAC treatment on biomarkers of oxidative stress and organ histopathological alterations in a rat model of cholestasis/cirrhosis. BDL animals were supplemented with NAC (100 and 300 mg/kg, i.p, 42 consecutive days). Biomarkers of oxidative stress in the liver, brain, heart, skeletal muscle, lung, serum, and kidney tissue, as well as organ histopathological changes, were monitored. A significant increase in reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation were detected in different tissues of BDL rats. Moreover, tissue antioxidant capacity was hampered, glutathione (GSH) reservoirs were depleted, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were significantly increased in the BDL group. Significant tissue histopathological alterations were evident in cirrhotic animals. It was found that NAC treatment (100 and 300 mg/kg, i.p) significantly mitigated biomarkers of oxidative stress and alleviated tissue histopathological changes in cirrhotic rats. These data represent NAC as a potential protective agent with therapeutic capability in cirrhosis and its associated complications.HIGHLIGHTSCholestasis is a multifaceted clinical complication that affects different organsOxidative stress plays a pivotal role in cholestasis-associated complicationsTissue antioxidant capacity is hampered in different tissues of cholestatic animalsAntioxidant therapy might play a role in the management of cholestasis-induced organ injuryNAC alleviated biomarkers of oxidative stress in cholestatic animalsNAC significantly improved tissues histopathological alterations in cholestatic rats.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína , Estresse Psicológico , Acetilcisteína/metabolismo , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos
5.
Clin Exp Hepatol ; 6(3): 207-219, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145427

RESUMO

Cirrhosis-induced heart injury and cardiomyopathy is a serious consequence of this disease. It has been shown that bile duct ligated (BDL) animals could serve as an appropriate experimental model to investigate heart tissue injury in cirrhosis. The accumulation of cytotoxic chemicals (e.g., bile acids) could also adversely affect the heart tissue. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment are the most prominent mechanisms of bile acid cytotoxicity. Taurine (Tau) is the most abundant non-protein amino acid in the human body. The cardioprotective effects of this amino acid have repeatedly been investigated. In the current study, it was examined whether mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis-induced heart injury. Rats underwent BDL surgery. BDL animals received Tau (50, 100, and 500 mg/kg, i.p.) for 42 consecutive days. A significant increase in oxidative stress biomarkers was detected in the heart tissue of BDL animals. Moreover, it was found that heart tissue mitochondrial indices of functionality were deteriorated in the BDL group. Tau treatment significantly decreased oxidative stress and improved mitochondrial function in the heart tissue of cirrhotic animals. These data provide clues for the involvement of mitochondrial impairment and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of heart injury in BDL rats. On the other hand, Tau supplementation could serve as an effective ancillary treatment against BDL-associated heart injury. Mitochondrial regulating and antioxidative properties of Tau might play a fundamental role in its mechanism of protective effects in the heart tissue of BDL animals.

6.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 60-72, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520699

RESUMO

Cholestasis is a significant decrease in bile flow. The liver is the primary organ affected by cholestasis. Chronic cholestasis could entail to tissue fibrotic changes and liver cirrhosis. Other organs, including heart, kidneys, nervous system, skeletal muscles, as well as the reproductive system, might also be affected during cholestasis. Although the cholestasis-associated pathological and biochemical alterations in organs such as liver have been widely investigated, there is little information about complications such as cholestasis-induced reproductive toxicity. The current study aimed to evaluate the pathologic effects of cholestasis on reproductive organs in both male and female animals. Rats underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery. Markers of reproductive toxicity, including serum hormonal changes, tissue histopathological alterations, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and markers of mitochondrial impairment, were evaluated. Increased serum markers of liver injury and elevated level of cytotoxic molecules such as bile acids and bilirubin were evident in BDL animals. On the other hand, the serum level of hormones such as testosterone was suppressed in BDL rats. Significant histopathological alterations were also evident in the testis and ovary of BDL animals. A significant increase in oxidative stress markers, including ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and depleted glutathione and antioxidant reservoirs were also detected in BDL rats. Moreover, mitochondrial depolarization decreased dehydrogenases activity, and depleted ATP content was detected in sperm isolated from the BDL group. These data indicate that cholestasis-associated reproductive toxicity in male and female rats is restrictedly coupled with severe oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment.


Assuntos
Colestase/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Reprodução , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Colestase/etiologia , Colestase/fisiopatologia , Ducto Colédoco/cirurgia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Ligadura , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Ovário/patologia , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Carbonilação Proteica , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medição de Risco , Testículo/patologia , Testículo/fisiopatologia
7.
Data Brief ; 20: 903-908, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225300

RESUMO

Three types of adsorbents of powdered activated carbon (PAC), treated PAC, and PAC/γ ≈ Fe2O3 nanocomposite were used. The adsorption experiments were performed in batch conditions. pHZPC of PAC/γ ≈ Fe2O3 was 6.7. As a result, at lower than pHZPC, acidic pH, the adsorption of alizarin red S on PAC/γ ≈ Fe2O3 was favourable. The maximum of alizarin red S adsorption of PAC, treated PAC, and PAC/γ ≈ Fe2O3 was 24.5 mg/g, 57.8 mg/g, and 112.56 mg/g, respectively. The models of Langmuir and pseudo-first-order were a fit model to describe the adsorption isotherm and the Kinetic, respectively. The PAC/γ ≈ Fe2O3 is a promising class of the adsorbents in the adsorption of various dyes from textile effluents.

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