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1.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408338

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the need to provide high-level care for a large number of patients with COVID-19 has affected resourcing for, and limited the routine care of, all other conditions. The impact of this health emergency is particularly relevant in the rare connective tissue diseases (rCTDs) communities, as discussed in this Perspective article by the multi-stakeholder European Reference Network on Rare and Complex Connective Tissue and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ERN ReCONNET). The clinical, organizational and health economic challenges faced by health-care providers, institutions, patients and their families during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak have demonstrated the importance of ensuring continuity of care in the management of rCTDs, including adequate diagnostics and monitoring protocols, and highlighted the need for a structured emergency strategy. The vulnerability of patients with rCTDs needs to be taken into account when planning future health policies, in preparation for not only the post-COVID era, but also any possible new health emergencies.

2.
J Psychosom Res ; 140: 110314, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271402

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: No studies have examined factors associated with fear in any group of people vulnerable during COVID-19 due to pre-existing medical conditions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with fear of consequences of COVID-19 among people living with a pre-existing medical condition, the autoimmune disease systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma), including country. METHODS: Pre-COVID-19 data from the Scleroderma Patient-centered Intervention Network (SPIN) Cohort were linked to COVID-19 data collected in April 2020. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess factors associated with continuous scores of the 10-item COVID-19 Fears Questionnaire for Chronic Medical Conditions, controlling for pre-COVID-19 anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: Compared to France (N = 156), COVID-19 Fear scores among participants from the United Kingdom (N = 50) were 0.12 SD (95% CI 0.03 to 0.21) higher; scores for Canada (N = 97) and the United States (N = 128) were higher, but not statistically significant. Greater interference of breathing problems was associated with higher fears due to COVID-19 (Standardized regression coefficient = 0.12, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.23). Participants with higher financial resources adequacy scores had lower COVID-19 Fear scores (Standardized coefficient = -0.18, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Fears due to COVID-19 were associated with clinical and functional vulnerabilities in this chronically ill population. This suggests that interventions may benefit from addressing specific clinical issues that apply to specific populations. Financial resources, health policies and political influences may also be important. The needs of people living with chronic illness during a pandemic may differ depending on the social and political context in which they live.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Medo , Escleroderma Sistêmico/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Surv Ophthalmol ; 66(1): 124-131, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407752

RESUMO

To identify clinical presentations, main causes, and prognosis of ophthalmic involvement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we performed a systematic review of articles describing CLL ophthalmic involvement in January 2019, using the PubMed database. We found 86 articles describing 123 cases of patients with ophthalmic involvement associated with CLL. Ophthalmic symptoms were CLL's first manifestation in 25.6% of patients and revealed Richter transformation in 11.0%. There were three main causes of ophthalmic features: CLL-infiltration (52.0%), lymphoma (26.0%), and infection (15.4%), with specific clinical and radiological characteristics. CLL-infiltration was mostly bilateral, whereas lymphoma was usually unilateral (P = 0.02). Optic neuropathy was always secondary to CLL-infiltration, and in those cases, cerebrospinal fluid immunophenotyping was a potential alternative to invasive biopsy as it confirmed the diagnosis in 4 patients (36.4%). On the contrary, lymphoma usually presented as adnexal involvement (P = 0.04), particularly as an orbital mass (P = 0.004). Infections concerned mostly patients previously treated for CLL (P < 0.0001), and main presentations included posterior uveitis (P = 0.0002) and retinal infiltrates (P < 0.0001). Overall, the prognosis was poor, as 29.3% of the patients died within 36 months of follow-up, and 26.1% had a partial or total visual loss. Eye infections were associated with the poorest prognosis as 47% of patients died, with a 6-month-median survival.

4.
Radiology ; 298(1): 189-198, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078999

RESUMO

Background Longitudinal follow-up of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) at CT mainly relies on the evaluation of the extent of ILD, without accounting for lung shrinkage. Purpose To develop a deep learning-based method to depict worsening of ILD based on lung shrinkage detection from elastic registration of chest CT scans in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Materials and Methods Patients with SSc evaluated between January 2009 and October 2017 who had undergone at least two unenhanced supine CT scans of the chest and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) performed within 3 months were retrospectively included. Morphologic changes on CT scans were visually assessed by two observers and categorized as showing improvement, stability, or worsening of ILD. Elastic registration between baseline and follow-up CT images was performed to obtain deformation maps of the whole lung. Jacobian determinants calculated from the deformation maps were given as input to a deep learning-based classifier to depict morphologic and functional worsening. For this purpose, the set was randomly split into training, validation, and test sets. Correlations between mean Jacobian values and changes in PFT measurements were evaluated with the Spearman correlation. Results A total of 212 patients (median age, 53 years; interquartile range, 45-62 years; 177 women) were included as follows: 138 for the training set (65%), 34 for the validation set (16%), and 40 for the test set (21%). Jacobian maps demonstrated lung parenchyma shrinkage of the posterior lung bases in patients found to have worsened ILD at visual assessment. The classifier detected morphologic and functional worsening with an accuracy of 80% (32 of 40 patients; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 64%, 91%) and 83% (33 of 40 patients; 95% CI: 67%, 93%), respectively. Jacobian values correlated with changes in forced vital capacity (R = -0.38; 95% CI: -0.25, -0.49; P < .001) and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (R = -0.42; 95% CI: -0.27, -0.54; P < .001). Conclusion Elastic registration of CT scans combined with a deep learning classifier aided in the diagnosis of morphologic and functional worsening of interstitial lung disease in patients with systemic sclerosis. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Verschakelen in this issue.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347592

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Only a third of patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) are ANCA-positive, mainly directed against MPO. ANCA directed against PR3 are rarely found in EGPA. We aimed to examine the significance of PR3-ANCA in EGPA. METHODS: We set up a retrospective European multicentre cohort including 845 patients. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were analysed and compared according to ANCA status. RESULTS: ANCA status was available for 734 patients: 508 (69.2%) ANCA-negative, 210 (28.6%) MPO-ANCA and 16 (2.2%) PR3-ANCA. At baseline, PR3-ANCA patients, compared with those with MPO-ANCA and ANCA-negative, less frequently had active asthma (69% vs 91% and 93%, P = 0.003, respectively) and peripheral neuropathy (31% vs 71% and 47%, P < 0.0001), more frequently had cutaneous manifestations (63% vs 38% and 34%, P = 0.03) and pulmonary nodules (25% vs 10% and 8%, P = 0.046), and lower median eosinophil count (1450 vs 5400 and 3224/mm3, P < 0.0001). Vasculitis relapse-free survival was shorter for PR3-ANCA (hazard ratio 6.05, P = 0.005) and MPO-ANCA patients (hazard ratio 1.88, P = 0.0002) compared with ANCA-negative patients. CONCLUSION: PR3-ANCA EGPA patients differ from those with MPO-ANCA and negative ANCA, and share clinical features with granulomatosis with polyangiitis. This suggests that PR3-ANCA EGPA could be a particular form of PR3-ANCA-associated vasculitis.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332360

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In numerous countries, large population testing is impossible due to the limited availability of RT-PCR kits and CT-scans. This study aimed to determine a pre-test probability score for SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study (4 University Hospitals) included patients with clinical suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, and results of blood tests (complete white blood cell count, serum electrolytes and CRP) were collected. A pre-test probability score was derived from univariate analyses of clinical and biological variables between patients and controls, followed by multivariate binary logistic analysis to determine the independent variables associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: 605 patients were included between March 10th and April 30th, 2020 (200 patients for the training cohort, 405 consecutive patients for the validation cohort). In the multivariate analysis, lymphocyte (<1.3 G/L), eosinophil (<0.06 G/L), basophil (<0.04 G/L) and neutrophil counts (<5 G/L) were associated with high probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection but no clinical variable was statistically significant. The score had a good performance in the validation cohort (AUC = 0.918 (CI: [0.891-0.946]; STD = 0.014) with a Positive Predictive Value of high-probability score of 93% (95%CI: [0.89-0.96]). Furthermore, a low-probability score excluded SARS-CoV-2 infection with a Negative Predictive Value of 98% (95%CI: [0.93-0.99]). The performance of the score was stable even during the last period of the study (15-30th April) with more controls than infected patients. CONCLUSIONS: The PARIS score has a good performance to categorize the pre-test probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on complete white blood cell count. It could help clinicians adapt testing and for rapid triage of patients before test results.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , /genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune (AI) connective tissue disorder characterized by skin fibrosis, vasculopathy and dysimmunity. Data regarding osteitis in SSc are scarce. METHOD: We performed a nationwide multicentre retrospective case-control study including patients with SSc according to the 2013 ACR/EULAR classification, with a diagnosis of osteitis. The objectives of the study were to describe, to characterize, and to identify associated factors for osteitis in patients with SSc. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were included. Twenty-six patients (54.1%) had osteitis beneath digital tip ulcers. Physical symptoms included: pain (36/48, 75%), erythema (35/48, 73%), and local warmth (35/48, 73%). Thirty-one (65%) patients had C-reactive protein levels >2 mg/L (8 [2.7 - 44.3] mg/L). On X-ray, CT-scans or MRI, osteitis was characterized by swelling or abscess of soft tissues with acro-osteolysis or lysis in 28 patients (58%). Microbiological sampling was performed in 45 (94%) patients. Most pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus (43.8%); anaerobes and Enterobacteriaceae (29.1%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.4%). Management comprised antibiotics in 37 (77.1%) patients and/or surgery in 26 (54.2%). Fluoroquinolones were used in 22 (45.8%) patients and amoxicillin + beta-lactamase inhibitor in 7 (14.6%). Six (12.6%) patients relapsed, 6 (12.6%) patients had osteitis recurrence, 15 (32%) sequelae, and 2 patients had septic shock and died. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed digital tip ulcers as an associated factor for osteitis, and revealed a high rate of functional sequelae. Antimicrobial therapy with oral fluoroquinolone or intravenous amoxicillin and beta-lactamase inhibitor are used as first-line antibiotherapy in SSc patients with osteitis.

9.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 59(6): 102992, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172734

RESUMO

Therapeutic management of systemic vasculitides is based on glucocorticoids (GCs), in combination or not with immunosuppressive and/or immunomodulatory agents. Plasma exchange (PLEX) has been used in some vasculitides, with various levels of evidence. Indeed, it is part of the first-line therapy in patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies and in patients with severe hepatitis B related polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). PLEX might also be considered in some selected patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis and cryoglobulinemia vasculitis. Studies support the use of PLEX as second line therapy in refractory Kawasaki disease. Finally, there is not robust data to support the use of PLEX in unselected patients with non-HBV-related PAN or IgA vasculitis. Additional studies are required to address its role in these settings.

10.
J Psychosom Res ; 139: 110262, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070043

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: No studies have reported mental health symptom comparisons prior to and during COVID-19 in vulnerable medical populations. OBJECTIVE: To compare anxiety and depression symptoms among people with a pre-existing medical condition and factors associated with changes. METHODS: Pre-COVID-19 Scleroderma Patient-centered Intervention Network Cohort data were linked to COVID-19 data from April 2020. Multiple linear and logistic regression were used to assess factors associated with continuous change and ≥ 1 minimal clinically important difference (MCID) change for anxiety (PROMIS Anxiety 4a v1.0; MCID = 4.0) and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-8; MCID = 3.0) symptoms, controlling for pre-COVID-19 levels. RESULTS: Mean anxiety symptoms increased 4.9 points (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.0 to 5.7). Depression symptom change was negligible (0.3 points; 95% CI -0.7 to 0.2). Compared to France (N = 159), adjusted anxiety symptom change scores were significantly higher in the United Kingdom (N = 50; 3.3 points, 95% CI 0.9 to 5.6), United States (N = 128; 2.5 points, 95% CI 0.7 to 4.2), and Canada (N = 98; 1.9 points, 95% CI 0.1 to 3.8). Odds of ≥1 MCID increase were 2.6 for the United Kingdom (95% CI 1.2 to 5.7) but not significant for the United States (1.6, 95% CI 0.9 to 2.9) or Canada (1.4, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.5). Older age and adequate financial resources were associated with less continuous anxiety increase. Employment and shorter time since diagnosis were associated with lower odds of a ≥ 1 MCID increase. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety symptoms, but not depression symptoms, increased dramatically during COVID-19 among people with a pre-existing medical condition.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/tendências , Escleroderma Sistêmico/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , /terapia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Escleroderma Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/terapia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
J Psychosom Res ; 139: 110271, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fear associated with medical vulnerability should be considered when assessing mental health among individuals with chronic medical conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective was to develop and validate the COVID-19 Fears Questionnaire for Chronic Medical Conditions. METHODS: Fifteen initial items were generated based on suggestions from 121 people with the chronic autoimmune disease systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). Patients in a COVID-19 SSc cohort completed items between April 9 and 27, 2020. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and item analysis were used to select items for inclusion. Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlations were used to evaluate internal consistency reliability and convergent validity. Factor structure was confirmed with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in follow-up data collection two weeks later. RESULTS: 787 participants completed baseline measures; 563 of them completed the follow-up assessment. Ten of 15 initial items were included in the final questionnaire. EFA suggested that a single dimension explained the data reasonably well. There were no indications of floor or ceiling effects. Cronbach's alpha was 0.91. Correlations between the COVID-19 Fears Questionnaire and measures of anxiety (r = 0.53), depressive symptoms (r = 0.44), and perceived stress (r = 0.50) supported construct validity. CFA supported the single-factor structure (χ2(35) = 311.2, p < 0.001, Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.97, Comparative Fit Index = 0.96, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.12). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 Fears Questionnaire for Chronic Medical Conditions can be used to assess fear among people at risk due to pre-existing medical conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Escleroderma Sistêmico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Escleroderma Sistêmico/epidemiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026090

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize lymphocytes dysregulation in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). METHODS: Using flow cytometry, we analysed B- and T-cell subsets in peripheral blood from 37 untreated patients with active disease (29 GPA and 8 MPA) and 22 healthy controls (HCs). RESULTS: GPA patients had increased Th2 (1.8 vs 1.0%, P = 0.02), Th9 (1.1 vs 0.2%, P = 0.0007) and Th17 (1.4 vs 0.9%, P = 0.03) cells compared with HC. Patients with MPO-ANCAs had significantly more CD21- B cells than HC or PR3-ANCA patients (6.9 vs 3.3% and 4.4%, P = 0.01). CD69 expressing B cells were significantly higher in GPA and MPA (3.0 and 5.9 vs 1.4%, P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively) compared with HC, whereas B-cell activating factor-receptor expression was decreased in GPA and MPA (median fluorescence intensity ratio 11.8 and 13.7 vs 45.1 in HC, P < 0.0001 and P = 0.003, respectively). Finally, IL-6-producing B cells were increased in GPA vs HC (25.8 vs 14.9%, P < 0.0001) and decreased in MPA vs HC (4.6 vs 14.9%, P = 0.005), whereas TNF-α-producing B cells were lower in both GPA and MPA patients compared with controls (15 and 8.4 vs 30%, P = 0.01 and P = 0.006, respectively). CONCLUSION: Skewed T-cell polarization towards Th2, Th9 and Th17 responses characterizes GPA, whereas B-cell populations are dysregulated in both GPA and MPA with an activated phenotype and a decreased B-cell activating factor-receptor expression. Finally, inflammatory B cells producing IL-6 are dramatically increased in GPA, providing an additional mechanism by which rituximab could be effective.

13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Data on granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) sustained remission off-therapy (SROT, never relapsed) are scarce. SROT in GPA patients from the French Vasculitis Study Group Registry was evaluated to identify factors associated with its occurrence and durability. METHODS: GPA had to satisfy ACR criteria and/or the Chapel Hill Nomenclature for study inclusion. SROT was defined as remission (BVAS=0) without glucocorticoids (GC) or immunosuppressants (IS) for ≥6 consecutive months. Patients' baseline characteristics and treatments at 3, 5 and 10 years were compared according to achieved/maintained SROT or not. RESULTS: Among 795 GPA patients, at 3 years postdiagnosis, 92 SROT patients were compared to 342 controls who had relapsed and/or were still taking GC or IS. No baseline differences were found but SROT patients at 3 years versus controls, respectively, had more frequently received intravenous cyclophosphamide-induction therapy (P=0.01), with a higher median number of infusions (P=0.05). At 5-year postdiagnosis, there was also no baseline difference but SROT patients at 5 years versus controls had received more cyclophosphamide infusions (P=0.03). More SROT patients received rituximab-maintenance therapy than controls (3-year, P=0.09; 5-year, P<0.001). Among 74 GPA Registry patients with 10-year follow-up data after conventional maintenance therapy, 15 had achieved SROT at 3 years and 5 (7%) maintained it at 10 years. CONCLUSION: After conventional therapies, 7% of GPA patients achieved SROT at 10 years. No baseline vasculitis characteristics distinguished patients achieving/maintaining SROT and those who relapsed and/or were maintained on GC or IS, but SROT patients had received more intensive induction and rituximab-maintenance therapy more frequently.

14.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Temporal arteritis (TA) is a typical manifestation of giant cell arteritis (GCA). Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAVs) are rarely revealed by TA manifestations, leading to a risk of misdiagnosis of GCA and inappropriate treatments. This study was undertaken to describe the clinical, biologic, and histologic presentations and outcomes in cases of TA revealing AAV (TA-AAV) compared to controls with classic GCA. METHODS: In this retrospective case-control study, the characteristics of patients with TA-AAV were compared to those of control subjects with classic GCA. Log-rank test, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), was used to assess the risk of treatment failure. RESULTS: Fifty patients with TA-AAV (median age 70 years) were included. Thirty-three patients (66%) presented with atypical symptoms of GCA (ear, nose, and throat involvement in 32% of patients, and renal, pulmonary, and neurologic involvement in 26%, 20%, and 16% of patients, respectively). Blood samples were screened for ANCAs at the time of disease onset in 33 patients, and results were positive in 88%, leading to a diagnosis of early TA-AAV in 20 patients. The diagnosis of AAV was delayed a median interval of 15 months in 30 patients. Compared to controls with GCA, patients with TA-AAV were younger (median age 70 years versus 74 years), were more frequently men (48% versus 30%), and had high frequencies of atypical manifestations and higher C-reactive protein levels (median 10.8 mg/dl versus 7.0 mg/dl). In patients with TA-AAV, temporal artery biopsy (TAB) showed fibrinoid necrosis and small branch vasculitis in 23% of patients each, whereas neither of these characteristics was evident in controls with GCA. Treatment failure-free survival was comparable between early TA-AAV cases and GCA controls, whereas those with delayed TA-AAV had a significantly higher risk of treatment failure compared to controls (HR 3.85, 95% CI 1.97-7.51; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: TA-AAV should be considered diagnostically in cases of atypical manifestations of GCA, refractoriness to glucocorticoid treatment, or early relapse. Analysis of TAB specimens for the detection of small branch vasculitis and/or fibrinoid necrosis could be useful. Detection of ANCAs should be performed in cases of suspected GCA with atypical clinical features and/or evidence of temporal artery abnormalities on TAB.

15.
Joint Bone Spine ; 88(2): 105081, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare multisystem autoimmune disorder. It has a worldwide distribution but geographical and ethnic influences are poorly known. METHODS: The aim of the study was to compare demographic characteristics and frequency of internal organ system involvement of Black SSc patients to those of White SSc patients in France. Patient population included 425 SSc patients recruited at Cochin Hospital in Internal medicine and Rheumatology departments. Data were collected at the baseline visit, each Black patient was matched with 2 to 3 White controls from the same department. RESULTS: One hundred and five Black patients and 320 White were included. Demographic comparison highlighted an older age for the White patients (48.66±14.87 vs 39.56±10.79, P<0.0001). Phenotypic comparison showed more severe skin involvement for Black patients: they had more often diffuse skin involvement than White patients (69.2% vs. 44.7%, P<0.0001) with a higher baseline modified Rodnan skin score (15.8 vs. 11.3, P<0.001). Comparisons also showed more active ulcers (46.5% vs. 21.6%, P<0.001) and more common interstitial lung disease (73.7% vs. 43%, P<0.0001) for Black patients. Auto-antibody testing showed that White patients were more likely to harbor anti-centromere antibodies (ACA) (26.6% vs. 9%, P<0.001) whereas Black patients were more likely to have anti-U1RNP antibody (24.6% vs. 6.2%, P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: In this population recruited in a disease referral center, Black patients had more severe skin and lung involvements with lower prevalence of ACA as compared to White patients, supporting a more severe phenotype.

16.
Cell ; 182(6): 1401-1418.e18, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810439

RESUMO

Blood myeloid cells are known to be dysregulated in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2. It is unknown whether the innate myeloid response differs with disease severity and whether markers of innate immunity discriminate high-risk patients. Thus, we performed high-dimensional flow cytometry and single-cell RNA sequencing of COVID-19 patient peripheral blood cells and detected disappearance of non-classical CD14LowCD16High monocytes, accumulation of HLA-DRLow classical monocytes (Human Leukocyte Antigen - DR isotype), and release of massive amounts of calprotectin (S100A8/S100A9) in severe cases. Immature CD10LowCD101-CXCR4+/- neutrophils with an immunosuppressive profile accumulated in the blood and lungs, suggesting emergency myelopoiesis. Finally, we show that calprotectin plasma level and a routine flow cytometry assay detecting decreased frequencies of non-classical monocytes could discriminate patients who develop a severe form of COVID-19, suggesting a predictive value that deserves prospective evaluation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário , Monócitos , Células Mieloides , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Science ; 369(6504): 718-724, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661059

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by distinct patterns of disease progression that suggest diverse host immune responses. We performed an integrated immune analysis on a cohort of 50 COVID-19 patients with various disease severity. A distinct phenotype was observed in severe and critical patients, consisting of a highly impaired interferon (IFN) type I response (characterized by no IFN-ß and low IFN-α production and activity), which was associated with a persistent blood viral load and an exacerbated inflammatory response. Inflammation was partially driven by the transcriptional factor nuclear factor-κB and characterized by increased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 production and signaling. These data suggest that type I IFN deficiency in the blood could be a hallmark of severe COVID-19 and provide a rationale for combined therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon alfa-2/metabolismo , Interferon-alfa/metabolismo , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estado Terminal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transdução de Sinais , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Carga Viral
19.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(3): 179-187, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biannual rituximab infusions over 18 months effectively maintain remission after a "standard" remission induction regimen for patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of prolonged rituximab therapy in preventing AAV relapses in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) or microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) who have achieved complete remission after completing an 18-month maintenance regimen. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02433522). SETTING: 39 clinical centers in France. PATIENTS: 68 patients with GPA and 29 with MPA who achieved complete remission after the first phase of maintenance therapy. INTERVENTION: Rituximab or placebo infusion every 6 months for 18 months (4 infusions). MEASUREMENTS: The primary end point was relapse-free survival at month 28. Relapse was defined as new or reappearing symptoms or worsening disease, with a Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score greater than 0. RESULTS: From March 2015 to April 2016, 97 patients (mean age, 63.9 years; 35% women) were randomly assigned, 50 to the rituximab and 47 to the placebo group. Relapse-free survival estimates at month 28 were 96% (95% CI, 91% to 100%) and 74% (CI, 63% to 88%) in the rituximab and placebo groups, respectively, an absolute difference of 22% (CI, 9% to 36%) with a hazard ratio of 7.5 (CI, 1.67 to 33.7) (P = 0.008). Major relapse-free survival estimates at month 28 were 100% (CI, 93% to 100%) versus 87% (CI, 78% to 97%) (P = 0.009), respectively. At least 1 serious adverse event developed in 12 patients (24%) in the rituximab group (with 9 infectious serious adverse events occurring among 6 patients [12%]) versus 14 patients (30%) in the placebo group (with 6 infectious serious adverse events developing among 4 patients [9%]). No deaths occurred in either group. LIMITATION: Potential selection bias based on previous rituximab response and tolerance. CONCLUSION: Extended therapy with biannual rituximab infusions over 18 months was associated with a lower incidence of AAV relapse compared with standard maintenance therapy. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: French Ministry of Health and Hoffmann-La Roche.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(8): 102596, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540450

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are associated with immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Among them, ICIs-induced systemic sclerosis (SSc) is poorly known. METHODS: To better characterize this irAE, our comprehensive approach combined the description of ICIs-induced scleroderma cases, the systematic review of the literature and the analysis of VigiBase, the WHO pharmacovigilance database. RESULTS: We identified two cases with underlying limited cutaneous SSc who presented a dramatic increase in the skin thickening following pembrolizumab, associated with scleroderma renal crisis in one case. In the literature, four cases of scleroderma and four cases of morphea have been reported with pembrolizumab or nivolumab. None following ipilimumab, atezolizumab or durvalumab were retrieved. Skin changes appeared or worsened more quickly with pembrolizumab than nivolumab, and had different patterns between both drugs. Patients with generalized skin changes required high-dose prednisone to improve skin thickening. Among the 2527 scleroderma cases identified in VigiBase, 35 were associated with ICIs. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab showed a disproportionality in scleroderma reporting. No disproportionality was found for ipilimumab, atezolizumab or durvalumab. CONCLUSION: The risk of scleroderma or fibrosis extension in SSc patients should be considered when initiating anti-PD-1 agents. It suggests the role of PD-1/PD-L1 interaction in the pathophysiology of SSc.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Neoplasias , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/classificação , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Risco , Escleroderma Sistêmico/induzido quimicamente
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