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1.
J Phycol ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578712

RESUMO

The Trebouxiophyceae is the class of Chlorophyta algae from which the highest number of chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequences has been obtained. Several species in this class participate in symbioses with fungi to form lichens. However, no cpDNA has been obtained from any Trebouxia lichen-symbiont microalgae, which are present in approximately half of all lichens. Here, we report the sequence of the completely assembled cpDNA from Trebouxia sp. TR9 and a comparative study with other Trebouxio-phyceae. The organization of the chloroplast genome of Trebouxia sp. TR9 has certain features that are unusual in the Trebouxiophyceae and other green algae. The most remarkable characteristics are the presence of long intergenic spacers, a quadripartite structure with short inverted repeated sequences (IRs), and the loss of the rps4 gene. The presence of long intergenic spacers accounts for a larger cpDNA size in comparison to other closely related Trebouxiophyceae. The IRs, which were thought to be lost in the Trebouxiales, are distinct from most of cpDNAs since they lack the rRNA operon and uniquely includes the rbcL gene. The functional transfer of the rps4 gene to the nuclear genome has been confirmed by sequencing and examination of the gene architecture, which includes three spliceosomal introns as well as the verification of the presence of the corresponding transcript. This is the first documented transfer of the rps4 gene from the chloroplast to the nucleus among Viridiplantae. Additionally, a fairly well-resolved phylogenetic reconstruction, including Trebouxia sp. TR9 along with other Trebouxiophyceae, was obtained based on a set of conserved chloroplast genes.

2.
Rheumatol Int ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396686

RESUMO

With the aim to develop and validate a clinical + ultrasound (US) inflammation score in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for use in clinical practice, a mixed-method study was conducted. The theoretical development of the index was achieved with qualitative methodology (discussion group and Delphi survey). Subsequently, a cross-sectional study was carried out to analyse issues related to scoring and validation of the new index. RA patients underwent clinical [28 swollen and tender joints count, patient and physician global assessment (PhGA), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP)], and US assessments [synovitis or tenosynovitis by grey-scale (GS) and power Doppler (PD) of 42 structures]. An index was created based on statistical models and expert interaction. Construct validity was tested by correlation with DAS28, SDAI, CDAI, and PhGA. Reliability was evaluated in a subgroup of patients with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). US assessment, CRP, and swollen joints were the items that passed the prioritization phase (Delphi study). For the cross-sectional study, 281 patients were randomly divided into design (n = 141) and validation samples (n = 140). The combination of US sites chosen (7 bilaterally) detected the maximum proportion of synovitis and PD present. Three scoring methods were tested: semiquantitative (0-3 GS + 0-3 PD), dichotomous (0/1 GS + 0/1 PD), and qualitative (0/1 based on algorithm). All showed strong correlation with activity measures (ρ ≥ 0.60), and reliability (ICC 0.89-0.93). The index with best parameters of validity, feasibility, and reliability was the qualitative. The final index chosen was the sum of swollen joint count, US qualitative score, and CRP. The UltraSound Activity score is a valid and reliable measure of inflammation in RA equal to the sum of 28 SJC, a simplified (0/1) US assessment of 11 structures and CRP. It is necessary further investigation to demonstrate additional value over existing indices.

5.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 35(4): 358-362, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases are important causes of burden of illness and mortality. AIM: To describe the temporal trends of hospital discharges due to infectious in Chile from 2004 to 2014. METHODS: Descriptive study. National Hospital Discharge Registry were used. We included all hospital discharges with main diagnosis of infectious diseases including parasitic diseases. Rates were calculated and standardized. The anual percentage change (APC) was estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: During a stated period of time in hospitalization of infectious diseases decreased (APC -4%). Women had fewer hospital discharged compared to men. Patients aged between 0 and 9 years and those who aged 80 years and older showed greater rates than other age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Chile has experimented a reduction in hospital discharges due to infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chile/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição de Poisson , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17350, 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478292

RESUMO

Regulation of miR-146a abundance and its role in intestinal inflammation and particularly in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) has been poorly studied. Here we study the relationship between bacterial antigens and inflammatory stimuli, and miR-146a expression using IEC lines and models of colitis (trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS), dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and the CD4 + CD62L + T cell transfer model). Specific bacterial antigens and cytokines (LPS, flagelin and IL-1ß/TNF) stimulate miR-146a expression, while peptidoglycan, muramyldipeptide and CpG DNA have no effect. Overexpression of miR-146a by LPS depends on the activation of the TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB and Akt pathways. Accordingly, the induction of miR-146a is lower in TLR4, but not in TLR2 knock out mice in both basal and colitic conditions. miR-146a overexpression in IECs induces immune tolerance, inhibiting cytokine production (MCP-1 and GROα/IL-8) in response to LPS (IEC18) or IL-1ß (Caco-2). Intestinal inflammation induced by chemical damage to the epithelium (DSS and TNBS models) induces miR-146a, but no effect is observed in the lymphocyte transfer model. Finally, we found that miR-146a expression is upregulated in purified IECs from villi vs. crypts. Our results indicate that miR-146a is a key molecule in the interaction among IECs, inflammatory stimuli and the microbiota.

7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 358-362, ago. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-978045

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: Las enfermedades de origen infeccioso son importantes productoras de morbilidad y mortalidad. Objetivo: Describir la tendencia temporal de las tasas de los episodios de hospitalización por enfermedades infecciosas en Chile entre los años 2004 y 2014. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo usando el Registro Nacional de Egresos hospitalarios, identificando los episodios de hospitalización por enfermedades infecciosas incluyendo parasitarias. Se calcularon las tasas de egresos hospitalarios y se estandarizaron por edad. Mediante regresión de Poisson se estimó el porcentaje de cambio anual (PCA). Resultados: Los episodios de hospitalización por enfermedades infecciosas han disminuido (PCA de −4%). Las mujeres presentan menos episodios que los hombres. La magnitud de las tasas según grupos etarios, es mayor para personas de 0-9 años, y de 80 años y más. Conclusiones: En la última década hubo una reducción de episodios de egreso hospitalario por enfermedades infecciosas.


Background: Infectious diseases are important causes of burden of illness and mortality. Aim: To describe the temporal trends of hospital discharges due to infectious in Chile from 2004 to 2014. Methods: Descriptive study. National Hospital Discharge Registry were used. We included all hospital discharges with main diagnosis of infectious diseases including parasitic diseases. Rates were calculated and standardized. The anual percentage change (APC) was estimated by Poisson regression. Results: During a stated period of time in hospitalization of infectious diseases decreased (APC −4%). Women had fewer hospital discharged compared to men. Patients aged between 0 and 9 years and those who aged 80 years and older showed greater rates than other age groups. Conclusions: Chile has experimented a reduction in hospital discharges due to infectious diseases.

8.
Reumatol Clin ; 2018 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: 1) To systematically and critically review the evidence on the characteristics, efficacy and safety of glucocorticoids (CS) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA); 2) to generate practical recommendations. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed through a sensitive bibliographic search strategy in Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. We selected randomized clinical trials that analyzed the efficacy and/or safety of CS in patients with RA. Two reviewers performed the first selection by title and abstract. Then 10 reviewers selected the studies after a detailed review of the articles and data collection. The quality of the studies was evaluated with the Jadad scale. In a nominal group meeting, based on the results of the systematic literature review, related recommendations were reached by consensus. RESULTS: A total of 47 articles were finally included. CS in combination with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs help control disease activity and inhibit radiographic progression, especially in the short-to-medium term and in early RA. CS can also improve function and relieve pain. Different types and routes of administration are effective, but there is no standardized scheme (initial dose, tapering and duration of treatment) that is superior to others. Adverse events when using CS are very frequent and are dose-dependent and variable severity, although most are mild. Seven recommendations were generated on the use and risk management of CS. CONCLUSIONS: These recommendations aim to resolve some common clinical questions and aid in decision-making for CS use in RA.

9.
J Phycol ; 54(4): 494-504, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791719

RESUMO

Three vagrant (Circinaria hispida, Circinaria gyrosa, and Circinaria sp. 'paramerae') and one crustose (semi-vagrant, Circinaria sp. 'oromediterranea') lichens growing in very continental areas in the Iberian Peninsula were selected to study the phycobiont diversity. Mycobiont identification was checked using nrITS DNA barcoding: Circinaria sp. 'oromediterranea' and Circinaria sp. 'paramerae' formed a new clade. Phycobiont diversity was analyzed in 50 thalli of Circinaria spp. using nrITS DNA and LSU rDNA, with microalgae coexistence being found in all the species analyzed by Sanger sequencing. The survey of phycobiont diversity showed up to four different Trebouxia spp. as the primary phycobiont in 20 thalli of C. hispida, in comparison with the remaining Circinaria spp., where only one Trebouxia was the primary microalga. In lichen species showing coexistence, some complementary approaches are needed (454 pyrosequencing and/or ultrastructural analyses). Five specimens were selected for high-throughput screening (HTS) analyses: 22 Trebouxia OTUs were detected, 10 of them not previously known. TEM analyses showed three different cell morphotypes (Trebouxia sp. OTU A12, OTU S51, and T. cretacea) whose ultrastructure is described here in detail for the first time. HTS revealed a different microalgae pool in each species studied, and we cannot assume a specific pattern between these pools and the ecological and/or morphological characteristics. The mechanisms involved in the selection of the primary phycobiont and the other microalgae by the mycobiont are unknown, and require complex experimental designs. The systematics of the genus Circinaria is not yet well resolved, and more analyses are needed to establish a precise delimitation of the species.

10.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 47(6): 757-764, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IL-6 contributes significantly to the chronic inflammatory process of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tocilizumab, a humanized anti-human IL-6 receptor antibody that blocks the signaling originated by the IL-6/IL-6R complex, is an effective treatment. However, predictors of the response to tocilizumab are still required. We aimed to combine IL-6 and soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) levels to identify groups of responses. METHODS: Heparinized blood and clinical data from 63 RA patients were collected before treatment and after 3 and 6 months. Two-step clustering (SPSS v.18) was used to establish the relationship between IL-6 and sIL-6R. Then, we compared European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria with remission achievement in the groups of patients. RESULTS: Three statistical significant clusters of RA patients (i.e., g1, g2, and g3) were defined by serum concentrations of IL-6 and sIL-6R at baseline. All groups of RA patients had higher IL-6 and sIL-6R levels than healthy donors. The levels of IL-6 expressed as median (IQR) in g1 patients were 124(90-183)pg/ml, in g2 12.3(4.4-24)pg/ml, and in g3 60.1(30-146)pg/ml (p < 0.001). The levels of sIL-6R expressed as mean ± sd in g1 patients were 250.5 ± 72ng/ml, in g2 269.1 ± 125ng/ml, and in g3 732.7 ± 243ng/ml (p < 0.001). Disease activity score (DAS)28, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were comparable in the three groups at baseline. Disease duration in g3 was the longest (median(IQR) years: g1 = 11(5-15), g2 = 12(8-20), and g3 23(16-26); p = 0.006), with years of disease evolution being correlated with sIL-6R levels (R = 0.417, p < 0.001). Simple and Clinical Disease Activity Index (SDAI and CDAI) decreased significantly in the three groups. However, EULAR response criteria and remission achievement at 6m was different in the three groups (p = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). In all. 17 out of the 18 patients in g1 had a good or moderate response to tocilizumab. Conversely, the percentage of patients with no response to tocilizumab was higher in g3 than in g1 and g2. We also observed different changing patterns of IL-6 and sIL-6R levels among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: RA patients could be easily stratified prior to therapeutic intervention with two molecules related to the pathway blocked by tocilizumab. G1 patients, who had the best response to tocilizumab, had the highest level of IL-6 and the lowest level of sIL-6R.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Receptores de Interleucina-6/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Medwave ; 17(7): e7035, 2017 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28885998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chile has the highest mortality rate for gallbladder cancer in the Andean region. The areas most affected by this cancer are found in southern Chile. OBJECTIVE: To describe the mortality rate trends for gallbladder cancer in the Araucanía region between 2004 and 2014. METHODS: Ecological observational descriptive study. The cases were identified by the codes ICD-10: C-23. The population at risk was obtained from the projections of the National Institute of Statistics of Chile. The mortality rate was modeled using the Poisson regression method, including age, time, and interaction between the two variables. The annual percentage change (APC) was used as a summary measure. RESULTS: In 2014, the Araucanía region had a standardized mortality rate of 10.36 per 100,000 inhabitants, while in the country it was 6.13 per 100,000. At the country level, the temporal evolution of mortality due to gallbladder cancer presented an annual percentage change of 9.1% (incidence rate ratio = 0.91 p-value <0.05), while in Araucanía the decrease was 7 % (incidence rate ratio = 0.93 p-value= 0.16), which is not statistically significant. The mortality rate was 2.68 times higher in women than in Araucanía men (p-value <0.05), a result similar to that of the country. At the national level, the trend according to age group shows a decrease for all groups, being the one of greater magnitude in those people from 45 to 54 years with an annual percent change of -5.36%, these results are not observed in the Araucanía. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality from gallbladder cancer shows a decreasing trend in the period studied for the whole country; however, this is not so for the Araucanía region, which maintains a higher mortality rate than that of the country.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Chile/epidemiologia , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição de Poisson , Distribuição por Sexo
13.
Anal Chem ; 89(20): 10726-10733, 2017 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28853561

RESUMO

The simultaneous electrochemical quantification of oxidized (GSSG) and reduced glutathione (GSH), biomarkers of oxidative stress, is demonstrated in biological fluids. The detection was accomplished by the development of a modified carbon electrode and was applied to the analysis of biological fluids of model organisms under oxidative stress caused by lead intoxication. Nanocomposite molecular material based on cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with carboxyl groups (MWCNTf) was developed to modify glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) for the detection of reduced and oxidized glutathione. The morphology of the nanocomposite film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry. The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode was assessed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) to determine the surface coverage (Γ) by CoPc. The electrocatalytic behavior of the modified electrode toward reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) forms of glutathione was assessed by CV studies at physiological pH. The obtained results show that the combined use of CoPc and MWCNTf results in an electrocatalytic activity for GSH oxidation and GSSG reduction, enabling the simultaneous detection of both species. Differential pulse voltammetry reveals detection limits of 100 µM for GSH and 8.3 µM for GSSG, respectively. The potential interference from ascorbic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, and glucose was also studied, and the obtained results show limited effects from these species. Finally, the hybrid electrode was used for the determination of GSH and GSSG in rat urine and plasma samples, intoxicated or not by lead. Both glutathione forms were detected in these complex biological matrixes without any pretreatment. Our results portray the role of GSH and GSSG as markers of oxidative stress in live organisms under lead intoxication.

14.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0175091, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28410402

RESUMO

The current literature reveals that the intrathalline coexistence of multiple microalgal taxa in lichens is more common than previously thought, and additional complexity is supported by the coexistence of bacteria and basidiomycete yeasts in lichen thalli. This replaces the old paradigm that lichen symbiosis occurs between a fungus and a single photobiont. The lichen Ramalina farinacea has proven to be a suitable model to study the multiplicity of microalgae in lichen thalli due to the constant coexistence of Trebouxia sp. TR9 and T. jamesii in long-distance populations. To date, studies involving phycobiont diversity within entire thalli are based on Sanger sequencing, but this method seems to underestimate the diversity. Here, we aim to analyze both the microalgal diversity and its community structure in a single thallus of the lichen R. farinacea by applying a 454 pyrosequencing approach coupled with a careful ad hoc-performed protocol for lichen sample processing prior to DNA extraction. To ascertain the reliability of the pyrosequencing results and the applied bioinformatics pipeline results, the thalli were divided into three sections (apical, middle and basal zones), and a mock community sample was used. The developed methodology allowed 40448 filtered algal reads to be obtained from a single lichen thallus, which encompassed 31 OTUs representative of different microalgae genera. In addition to corroborating the coexistence of the two Trebouxia sp. TR9 and T. jamesii taxa in the same thallus, this study showed a much higher microalgal diversity associated with the lichen. Along the thallus ramifications, we also detected variations in phycobiont distribution that might correlate with different microenvironmental conditions. These results highlight R. farinacea as a suitable material for studying microalgal diversity and further strengthen the concept of lichens as multispecies microecosystems. Future analyses will be relevant to ecophysiological and evolutionary studies to understand the roles of the multiple photobionts in lichen symbioses.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/genética , Biodiversidade , DNA Fúngico/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Fúngico/química , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Variação Genética , Microalgas/microbiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Simbiose
15.
Rheumatol Int ; 37(6): 891-896, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28258474

RESUMO

Ultrasonography (US) has shown to be more sensitive than physical examination for diagnosis and assessment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is also a useful approach for accurate monitoring and intensive treatment adjustment. However, there is limited information concerning the impact of US on therapeutic decision-making in routine daily practice. A single-center cross-sectional study in routine daily practice was conducted to determine the percentage of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in which treatment decision was modified on the basis of results of musculoskeletal ultrasonography. All consecutive patients with RA visited for the control of their disease between September and November 2014 were included. Patients were visited by their attending rheumatologist, who made a therapeutic decision according to the results of physical examination and laboratory tests. Thereafter, a musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) was performed by an independent expert sonographer. According to US findings, a change in therapeutic decision was considered, and categorized as 'negative' (maintenance of the therapeutic attitude) or 'positive' (intensification or reduction of treatment). A total of 78 patients (83% women, mean age 63.3 years) were included. In 29 patients [32%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 26.5-48.9], a change in the therapeutic decision was made, which included intensification of treatment in 18 (62.1%) and reduction of treatment in 11 (37.9%). Change of treatment was more frequent in patients with intermediate disease activity (low and moderate) than in those in clinical remission or with high activity (41.4 vs. 25%), in men than in women (53.8 vs. 33.8%), and in the presence than in the absence of bone erosions (43.6 vs. 21.7%), although differences were not statistically significant. We conclude that in patients with RA, joint US is a relevant complementary tool for treatment decisions in daily practice, particularly in patients with intermediate disease activity.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Articulações/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Articulações/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Indução de Remissão , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Immunol ; 198(8): 3099-3108, 2017 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28250158

RESUMO

Soluble factors released from platelets can modulate the immune response of leukocytes. We and others have recently found that T lymphocytes with bound platelets have reduced proliferation and IFN-γ and IL-17 production. Thus, we speculate that if we induce the binding of platelets to lymphocytes, we will be able to regulate the inflammatory response. When we cocultured platelets with lymphocytes at different ratios, we were able to increase the percentage of lymphocytes with bound platelets. The coculture of platelets with lymphocytes in the presence of stimulation decreased the production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, T cell proliferation, and the expression of CD25, PD-L1, and SLAM. However, this coculture increased CD39 expression. All of these effects were dependent on the dose of platelets and operated indistinctly with platelets from different healthy donors. When platelets were cocultured in the same compartment with lymphocytes, we observed less IFN-γ and TNF-α production and T lymphocyte proliferation than in cultures with platelets separated from lymphocytes by a 0.4-µm pore size filter. The binding of platelets to lymphocytes was blocked with anti-P-selectin Abs, and when this occurred we observed higher IFN-γ and TNF-α production than in nonblocked conditions. The cocultures of platelets with synovial fluid cells from rheumatoid arthritis patients reduced inflammatory cytokine production and increased IL-10 production. These results suggest that platelet binding to lymphocytes effectively regulates T lymphocyte function. This mechanism could be easily applied to reduce inflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Plaquetas/imunologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
J Crohns Colitis ; 11(7): 857-870, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28039309

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Two alkaline phosphatase isoforms, intestinal [IAP] and tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase [TNAP], are coexpressed in mouse colon, with the latter predominating in colitis. We aimed to examine the role of TNAP in T lymphocytes, using heterozygous TNAP+/- mice [as TNAP-/- mice are non-viable]. Methods: In vitro primary cultures and in vivo T cell models using TNAP+/- mice were used. Results: Stimulated splenocytes [lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin A] and T lymphocytes [concanavalin A and a-CD3/a-CD28] showed a decreased cytokine production and expression when compared with wild-type [WT] cells. Decreased T cell activation was reproduced by the TNAP inhibitors levamisole, theophylline, and phenylalanine in WT cells. Intraperitoneal administration of anti-CD3 in vivo resulted in reduced plasma cytokine levels, and decreased activation of splenocytes and T cells ex vivo in TNAP+/- mice. We further tested the hypothesis that TNAP expressed in T lymphocytes is involved in T cell activation and inflammation, using the lymphocyte transfer model of colitis. Rag1-/- mice were transferred with T naïve cells [CD4+ CD62L+] from TNAP+/- or WT mice and developed colitis, which was attenuated in the group receiving TNAP+/- cells. Compared with WT, T cells from TNAP+/- mice showed a decreased capacity for proliferation, with no change in differentiation. Conclusions: Our results offer clear evidence that TNAP modulates T lymphocyte function and specifically T cell-dependent colitis. This was associated with distinct changes in the type of TNAP expressed, probably because of changes in glycosylation.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Colite/imunologia , Colite/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Proliferação de Células/genética , Colite/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Heterozigoto , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Levamisol/farmacologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fenilalanina/farmacologia , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Baço/citologia , Teofilina/farmacologia
19.
Rev. bras. queimaduras ; 15(2): 87-91, abr-jun.2016. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-915037

RESUMO

Objetivo: Descrever as características clínicas e epidemiológicas de pacientes vítimas de queimaduras infligidas intencionalmente internados em uma unidade de terapia intensiva de um centro de tratamento especializado em queimaduras de um hospital universitário. Método: Foi realizado um estudo longitudinal retrospectivo na unidade de Terapia Intensiva de um Centro de Tratamento de Queimados. A amostragem foi de conveniência de todos os pacientes adultos queimados internados consecutivamente no período de maio de 2011 a novembro de 2013. Foram coletados dados clínicos e do diagnóstico da queimadura, além de escores prognósticos. Resultados: Dos 178 pacientes incluídos no estudo, 19,7% tiveram lesões intencionais, sendo 10,7% ocasionadas por tentativa de suicídio e 9,0% por tentativa de homicídio. As lesões autoinfligidas e por agressão foram mais graves quando comparadas a lesões acidentais. A média da superfície corpórea queimada total foi maior nas lesões intencionais (39,2%; DP=21,6%) comparada às acidentais (25,3%, DP=15,6%; p<0,001) e a lesão inalatória foi mais frequente nas intencionais (71,43%) do que nas acidentais (38,4%; p<0,001). A taxa de mortalidade foi maior nas queimaduras intencionais (65,7%) comparada aos acidentes (30,7%; p<0,001). As mulheres foram o principal grupo de risco associado às queimaduras intencionais (p<0,001). As variáveis clínicas e prognósticos apresentaram resultados semelhantes entre os pacientes com queimaduras por tentativa de suicídio e homicídio. Conclusões: Identificou-se que as lesões intencionais são um fator de risco para o pior prognóstico e mortalidade de pacientes queimados.


Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological features of burn victims inflicted intentionally admitted to an intensive care unit of a specialized burn center at a university hospital. Method: Retrospective longitudinal study conducted in the intensive care unit of a Burn Treatment Center. Convenience sampling of all burned adult patients consecutively admitted from May 2011 to November 2013. Clinical data and burn diagnosis as well as prognostic scores were collected. Results: Of the 178 patients included in the study 19.7% had intentional injuries, 10.7% caused by attempted suicide and 9.0% attempted homicide. Self-inflicted injury and assault resulted in more serious injury compared to accidental injuries. The average of the total burned body area was higher in intentional injuries (39.2% and standard deviation ­ SD=21.6%) compared with accidental (25.3%, SD=15.6%, p<0.001) and inhalation injury was more frequent in intentional (71.43%) than in accidental (38.4%; p<0.001). The mortality rate was higher in intentional burns (65.7%) compared to accidents (30.7%; p<0.001). Women had higher risk associated intentional burns (p<0.001). Clinical and prognostic variables showed similar results among patients with burns of attempted suicide and homicide. Conclusions: It was found that intentional injuries are a risk factor for poor prognosis and mortality in burned patients.


Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de pacientes víctimas de quemaduras infligidas intencionalmente internados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos de un centro de tratamiento especializado para quemaduras de un hospital universitario. Método: Estudio retrospectivo longitudinal en la unidad de cuidados intensivos de un centro de tratamiento especializado para quemaduras. El muestreo fue de conveniencia, de todos los pacientes adultos quemados internados consecutivamente a partir de mayo de 2011 hasta noviembre de 2013. Se recogieron datos clínicos y del diagnóstico de quemaduras, así como las puntuaciones de pronóstico. Resultados: De los 178 pacientes incluidos en el estudio, 19,7% tenían lesiones intencionales, siendo 10,7% por tentativa de suicidio y 9,0% por tentativa de homicidio. Las lesiones autoinfligidas y por agresión resultaron en lesiones más graves cuando comparadas a lesiones accidentales. El promedio de la superficie total del cuerpo quemado fue mayor en las lesiones intencionales (39,2%; DE=21,6%) en comparación a las accidentales (25,3%; DE=15,6%, p<0,001) y la lesión por inhalación fue más frecuente en las intencionales (71,43%) que en las accidentales (38,4%; p<0,001). La tasa de mortalidad fue mayor en las quemaduras intencionales (65,7%) en comparación a los accidentes (30,7%; p<0,001). Las mujeres fueron el principal grupo de riesgo asociado a quemaduras intencionales (p<0,001). Las variables clínicas y pronóstico presentaron resultados similares entre los pacientes con quemaduras de intento de suicidio y homicidio. Conclusiones: Se identificó que las lesiones intencionales son un factor de riesgo para peor pronóstico y mortalidad en pacientes quemados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tentativa de Suicídio , Perfil de Saúde , Queimaduras/mortalidade , Agressão , Homicídio , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Longitudinais
20.
Int J Psychoanal ; 97(3): 737-57, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27115129

RESUMO

This article analyzes the links between the conception of the body and of sexuality found in Freud and Merleau-Ponty. The French philosopher refers to Freud in various of his works, and performs a reading of Freud through which he rescues the meaning that the latter gives to sexuality as he integrates it into the totality of the person, without making it into a blind or merely instinctive force. As a consequence of this integration, the notions of the unconscious and of instinct or drive are interpreted in the light of the meaning or signification that they have in the person's behavior. Merleau-Ponty's notion of pre-reflective knowledge plays a decisive role in this understanding of meaning. In the same way, it allows important contemporary analysts to use these studies in their therapeutic work and also in psychological studies.


Assuntos
Teoria Freudiana , Corpo Humano , Instinto , Teoria Psicanalítica , Sexualidade/psicologia , Inconsciente (Psicologia) , Humanos
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