Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 12 de 12
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 21, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35415077

RESUMO

Background: In 2017 around 14-19 million miners were exposed to multiple hazards in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM). ASGM is characterized by basic and compromised mining methods with either very limited control of hazards or none at all. There is little knowledge about health and safety among artisanal and small-scale gold miners in Zimbabwe. Objective: This study explores the interaction between hazards, control measures, and health and safety in Zimbabwe's ASGM. Methods: Triangulation and mixed methods were applied using standardized questionnaires, Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (HIRA), focus group discussions (FGDs), and summary notes from in-depth interviews (IDIs). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, regression analysis, and thematic analysis. Findings: Quantitative data were collected through HIRA, which was conducted on 34 mining sites. 401 participants, selected through multi-stage sampling, were assessed through standardized questionnaires. Qualitative data was collected through six FGDs, and existing summary notes from 84 IDIs. The most prioritized hazards from the questionnaires were silica dust, noise, and workplace violence as indicated by 238 (62.0%), 107 (26.8%), and 104 (26.7%) respondents (respectively). HIRA identified noise, dust, unsafe shafts, violence, poor sanitation, and poor hygiene as key hazards requiring urgent attention. A key finding of this study was the poor application of the hierarchy of controls in managing workplace hazards. After adjusting for confounders, association with experiencing health and safety challenges was working underground (AOR = 2.0, p = 0.03), workplace violence (AOR = 3.3, p = 0.002), and long working hours (AOR = 2.8, p = 0.019). Injuries and fatalities were common without mitigation strategies. Conclusions: ASGM in Zimbabwe is characterized by underground mining, long working hours, and workplace violence. The poor application of the hierarchy of controls is characterized by increased workplace injuries and fatalities. We recommend following the hierarchy of control measures in ASGM: elimination, substitution, engineering, administrative, and personal protective equipment.


Assuntos
Ouro , Mineradores , Poeira , Humanos , Mineração , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35270373

RESUMO

Occupational chrysotile asbestos exposure data in Zimbabwe is limited. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a job exposure matrix (JEM) specific to the chrysotile asbestos cement manufacturing industry using the available personal exposure concentration data. Quantitative personal exposure chrysotile fibre concentration data collected by the two factories from 1996 to 2020 were used to construct the JEM. Exposure groups from which data was extracted were classified based on the Zimbabwe Standard Classification of Occupations (ZSCO), 2009-2019. Analysis of amphiboles in raw chrysotile was done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Descriptive statistics, namely mean, standard deviation and range were computed for the main variable, job/occupation. All jobs/occupations in both factories had annual mean personal exposure concentrations exceeding the OEL of 0.1 f/mL, except for the period from 2009 to 2016 in the Harare factory and the period from 2009 to 2020 in the Bulawayo factory. Despite the Harare factory having no AC manufacturing activity since 2017, personal exposure concentrations showed elevated levels for the period 2018-2020. Amphiboles were detected in almost all bulk samples of chrysotile asbestos analysed. The established JEM, which has been generated from actual local quantitative exposure measurements, can be used in evaluating historical exposure to chrysotile asbestos fibre, to better understand and predict occurrence of ARDs in future.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Exposição Ocupacional , Asbestos/análise , Amiantos Anfibólicos , Asbestos Serpentinas , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Zimbábue
4.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(3): 961-968, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893622

RESUMO

People in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) areas are frequently exposed to high levels of mercury (Hg). Hg analyses in urine and whole blood are the gold standard of biomonitoring, although this may not provide sufficient information about the source of exposure, e.g., due to the use of Hg for gold extraction or due to nutrition. To evaluate, whether the pharmacokinetic properties of individual Hg species may be useful for exposure assessment, we determined the Hg levels in different blood components from 199 participants. Therefore, whole blood was centrifuged on-site to yield erythrocytes and plasma. Globin was isolated from the erythrocytes by precipitation with ethyl acetate. Albumin was isolated from plasma by gradual precipitation with saturated ammonium sulfate solution. Hg levels in all samples were determined by using a direct Hg analyzer. Median Hg levels for whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma were 2.7, 3.7, and 1.3 µg/l, respectively. In globin and albumin, median Hg levels were 10.3 and 7.9 µg/kg, respectively. The distribution of Hg was strongly correlated with whole blood Hg levels (p < 0.01) and the time between the last use of Hg and the date of the participation (p < 0.01). The results suggest that the distribution of Hg in blood is substantially affected by the extent and the frequency of the exposure to elemental Hg. Therefore, the analysis of Hg in erythrocytes and plasma may be a valuable tool for Hg exposure assessment in ASGM areas.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Monitoramento Biológico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Mineração , Zimbábue
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(3): 4762-4768, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409536

RESUMO

People living and working in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) areas are frequently exposed to elemental mercury (Hg), which is used for gold extraction. However, additional exposure to other toxic metals such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) may result from mining-related activities and could be ingested via dust, water or food. In these areas, only limited biomonitoring data is available for toxic metals other than Hg. In particular, data about the exposure to As, Cd and Pb is unavailable for the Zimbabwean population. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study in two ASGM areas in Zimbabwe to evaluate the internal exposure to these metals. In total, urine and blood samples from 207 people that identified themselves as miners were collected and analysed for As and Cd in urine as well as Pb in blood by GF-AAS. Median levels (interquartile ranges in µg/l) of As and Pb were 9.7 µg/l (4.0, 18.5) and 19.7 µg/l (12.5, 34.5), respectively. The 25th percentile and the median for Cd were below the limit of detection (0.5 µg/l); the 75th percentile was at 0.9 µg/l. The results were compared to reference values found for the general population in the USA and Germany, and a significant number of participants exceeded these values (As, 33 %; Cd, 27 %; Pb, 32 %), indicating a relevant exposure to toxic metals. Although not representative for the Zimbabwean population, our results demonstrate that the exposure to toxic metals is relevant for the public health in Zimbabwe and requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Mercúrio , Arsênio/análise , Monitoramento Biológico , Cádmio , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ouro , Humanos , Chumbo , Mercúrio/análise , Mineração , Zimbábue
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769551

RESUMO

Artisanal and small-scale miners (ASMs) labour under archaic working conditions and are exposed to high levels of silica dust. Exposure to silica dust has been associated with an increased risk of tuberculosis and silicosis. ASMs are highly mobile and operate in remote areas with near absent access to health services. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of tuberculosis, silicosis and silico-tuberculosis among ASMs in Zimbabwe. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 October to 31 January 2021 on a convenient sample of 514 self-selected ASMs. We report the results from among those ASMs who attended an outreach medical facility and an occupational health clinic. Data were collected from clinical records using a precoded data proforma. Data variables included demographic (age, sex), clinical details (HIV status, GeneXpert results, outcomes of chest radiographs, history of tuberculosis) and perceived exposure to mine dust. Of the 464 miners screened for silicosis, 52 (11.2%) were diagnosed with silicosis, while 17 (4.0%) of 422 ASMs were diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB). Of the 373 ASMs tested for HIV, 90 (23.5%) were sero-positive. An HIV infection was associated with a diagnosis of silicosis. There is need for a comprehensive occupational health service package, including TB and silicosis surveillance, for ASMs in Zimbabwe. These are preliminary and limited findings, needing confirmation by more comprehensive studies.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Saúde do Trabalhador , Silicose , Tuberculose , Estudos Transversais , Ouro , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Silicose/epidemiologia , Silicose/etiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682496

RESUMO

Zimbabwe has two major factories that have been manufacturing chrysotile asbestos cement products since the 1940s. Exposure monitoring of airborne fibres has been ongoing since the early 1990s. This study examines trends in personal exposure chrysotile asbestos fibre concentrations for the period 1996-2016. Close to 3000 historical personal exposure measurements extracted from paper records in the two factories were analysed for trends in exposure. Exposure over time was characterised according to three time periods and calendar years. Mean personal exposure chrysotile asbestos fibre concentrations generally showed a downward trend over the years in both factories. Exposure data showed that over the observed period 57% and 50% of mean personal exposure chrysotile asbestos fibre concentrations in the Harare and Bulawayo factories, respectively, were above the OEL, with overexposure being exhibited before 2008. Overall, personal exposure asbestos fibre concentrations in the factories dropped from 0.15 f/mL in 1996 to 0.05-0.06 f/mL in 2016-a decrease of 60-67%. These results can be used in future epidemiological studies, and in predicting the occurrence of asbestos-related diseases in Zimbabwe.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Exposição Ocupacional , Asbestos Serpentinas , Materiais de Construção , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Zimbábue
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957436

RESUMO

Only 15% of the global population has access to occupational safety and health services. In Africa, only 5% of employees working from major establishments have access to occupational health services (OHS). Access to primary health care (PHC) services is addressed in many settings and inclusion of OHS in these facilities might increase efficiency in preventing occupational diseases. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries aiming at assessing the availability of OHS at PHC facilities and the organization of OHS. We conducted a literature review to assess the provision and organization of OHS services. In addition to the review, a total of 23 doctors from Zambia were interviewed using questionnaires in order to determine the availability of OHS and training. Consultations with heads of ministries were done in four SADC countries. Results showed that in the SADC region, OHS are fragmented and lack a comprehensive approach. In addition, out of 23 PHC facilities, only two (13%) provided occupational health and PHC. However, OHS provided at PHC facilities were limited to TB screening and audiometric testing. Our study showed a huge inadequacy of trained occupational health practitioners. This study supports the World Health Organization's advocacy to integrate OHS at the PHC level.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estudos Transversais , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Características de Residência , Zâmbia
9.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 284, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Zimbabwe, an estimated 500,000 people work in the sector of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM). Two million Zimbabweans are dependent on this sector. Using mercury is common to extract gold from ore. Long term exposure to mercury can cause various adverse health conditions including chronic mercury intoxication. The influence of these adverse health effects on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is still unknown. The aim of this study is to assess the HRQoL of people who identify themselves as miners, and to analyze potential influencing factors, such as age, years of working with mercury and health conditions caused by mercury exposure. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed the HRQoL using the standardized EQ-5D + C (3 L) questionnaire and collected human specimens (blood, urine) of people living and possibly working in ASGM areas in Zimbabwe. Factors such as age, years of working with mercury and adverse health conditions possibly caused by mercury exposure were analyzed with regards to their influence on the HRQoL. RESULTS: The 207 participants (82% male, mean age 38 years) reported 40 different health states. Of the study participants 42.5% reported to be in complete good health while 57.5% reported being unwell in different ways. Nine participants (4.3%) were identified with chronic mercury intoxication, whereas 92 participants (33.3%) had mercury levels above the "Alert" threshold in at least one specimen. Having chronic mercury intoxication has a significant negative influence on the HRQoL, when taking into account age, gender and years of working with mercury. Cognitive problems were the most reported in the questionnaire, however, the association between this domain separately and the HRQoL was not verified. CONCLUSION: This study shows that adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to mercury, have a negative influence on the HRQoL among people living in ASGM areas.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Ouro , Nível de Saúde , Mercúrio/efeitos adversos , Mineração , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zimbábue
10.
Environ Res ; 184: 109379, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197122

RESUMO

In artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) the toxic metal mercury is used for gold extraction. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess mercury concentrations in urine and blood and mercury-related symptoms of participants identifying themselves as miners from Kadoma and Shurugwi, Zimbabwe. Moreover, we aimed to explore possible risk factors influencing mercury body burden. In 2019, urine and blood samples of 207 participants were collected and analyzed for mercury using atomic absorption spectroscopy. All participants answered questions regarding their exposure risks. The median urine mercury value was 4.75 µg/L with a maximum of 612 µg/L. Median mercury concentration in creatinine corrected urine values was 3.98 µg/g with a maximum value of 478 µg/g. The median blood mercury value was 2.70 µg/L with a maximum of 167 µg/L. Correlations between exposure risks factors such as the lack of retort use and elevated mercury values were demonstrated. ASGM is very common in Zimbabwe. Thus, mercury exposure is a major occupational health risk for miners. Moreover, this study emphasizes the impact of exposure risk factors on the mercury body burden.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Exposição Ocupacional , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ouro , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Mineração , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Fatores de Risco , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
12.
Ann Glob Health ; 81(4): 495-502, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26709281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, access to occupational health and safety (OHS) by workers has remained at very low levels. The organization and implementation of OHS in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Botswana has remained at suboptimal levels. Inadequacy of human resource capital, training, and education in the field of OHS has had a major negative impact on the improvement of worker access to such services in expanding economies. South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Botswana have expanding economies with active mining and agricultural activities that pose health and safety risks to the working population. METHODS: A literature review and country systems inquiry on the organization of OHS services in the 4 countries was carried out. Because of the infancy and underdevelopment of OHS in southern Africa, literature on the status of this topic is limited. RESULTS: In the 4 countries under review, OHS services are a function shared either wholly or partially by 3 ministries, namely Health, Labor, and Mining. Other ministries, such as Environment and Agriculture, carry small fragments of OHS function. The 4 countries are at different stages of OHS legislative frameworks that guide the practice of health and safety in the workplace. Inadequacies in human resource capital and expertise in occupational health and safety are noted major constraints in the implementation and compliance to health and safety initiatives in the work place. South Africa has a more mature system than Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Botswana. Lack of specialized training in occupational health services, such as occupational medicine specialization for physicians, has been a major drawback in Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Botswana. DISCUSSION: The full adoption and success of OHS systems in Southern Africa remains constrained. Training and education in OHS, especially in occupational medicine, will enhance the development and maturation of occupational health in southern Africa. Capacitating primary health services with basic occupational health knowledge would be invaluable in bridging the current skills deficit. Introducing short courses and foundational tracks in occupational medicine for general medical practitioners would be invaluable.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Saúde do Trabalhador , Medicina do Trabalho , África Austral , Botsuana , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , África do Sul , Zâmbia , Zimbábue
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...