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1.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 72: 101924, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is a deadly malignancy with limited screening and few modifiable risk factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between a modifiable lifestyle behavior, cruciferous vegetable consumption, and pancreatic cancer, both overall and by subgroups based on non-modifiable, established risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a hospital-based, case-control study utilizing data from the Patient Epidemiology Data System (1982-1998) at Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center (Buffalo, NY) which included 183 pancreatic cancer patients and 732 cancer-free controls. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire including a 52-item food frequency questionnaire and other epidemiologic data. Multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), sex, smoking status, total meat, and family history of pancreatic cancer, was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between cruciferous vegetable consumption and pancreatic cancer. Subgroup analyses were conducted by sex, smoking status, and BMI. RESULTS: We observed inverse associations between cruciferous vegetable intake and pancreatic cancer, with a significant 40% lower odds of pancreatic cancer among subjects consuming >1.5 servings per week (SPW) of raw cruciferous vegetables compared to those consuming less than 0.5 SPW (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39-0.93). Each additional SPW of total, raw, and cooked cruciferous vegetables was associated with a significant 7-15% lower odds of pancreatic cancer, with the strongest association seen in raw cruciferous vegetables (OR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.75-0.95). We observed inverse associations between raw cruciferous vegetable intake and pancreatic cancer among people who were overweight, former smokers, and males, ranging from 50% to 59% lower odds. CONCLUSION: Consuming cruciferous vegetables, especially raw cruciferous vegetables, is a modifiable lifestyle behavior which may be inversely associated with pancreatic cancer, including among subgroups with other non- or not easily modifiable risk factors for this deadly malignancy.

2.
J Nutr ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death among women in the US, yet few modifiable risk factors have been established. Diets high in glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) have been linked to several cancers, but epidemiologic studies of ovarian cancer have yielded inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to examine associations between GI or GL and ovarian cancer. METHODS: We used prospective data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian cohort. GI and GL were calculated from validated FFQs. Participants were women who were aged 60 to 74 y, did not have a history of cancer, and had both ovaries. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs for risk of ovarian cancer associated with quartiles of GI and GL. Analyses were performed separately for those who completed the dietary questionnaire at baseline (DQX) or later in the study (DHQ). RESULTS: From the DQX sample set, 181 cases were identified among 24,633 women with median follow-up of 12.1 y; there were 211 cases among 42,410 women in the DHQ set, with median follow-up of 8.9 y. After adjusting for age at dietary questionnaire completion, year of randomization, year of questionnaire, study center, and oral contraceptive use, the risk of ovarian cancer decreased by 43% (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.88) among those in the highest compared with those in the lowest quartile of GL (DQX). Those in the highest compared with those in the lowest quartile of GI (DHQ), had a 38% lower risk (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.42, 1.00). CONCLUSIONS: We observed lower risk of ovarian cancer associated with higher GI and GL. Results should be interpreted with caution as they may have been influenced by limitations including lack of variability in dietary intake. Additional studies are needed to better understand what is driving these associations.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619020

RESUMO

Background Combined oral contraceptive use is associated with a decreased risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (ovarian cancer). There is suggestive evidence of an inverse association between progestin-only contraceptive use and ovarian cancer risk, but studies have been underpowered. Methods The current study used primary data from 7,977 women with ovarian cancer and 11,820 control women in seven case-control studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to evaluate the association between use of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), an injectable progestin-only contraceptive, and ovarian cancer risk. Logistic models were fit to determine the association between ever use of DMPA and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. A systematic review of the association between DMPA use and ovarian cancer risk was conducted. Results Ever use of DMPA was associated with a 35% decreased risk overall (OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.50-0.85). There was a statistically significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing duration of use (p-trend<0.001). The systematic review yielded six studies, four of which showed an inverse association and two showed increased risk. Conclusions DMPA use appears to be associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer in a duration-dependent manner based on the preponderance of evidence. Further study of the mechanism through which DMPA use is associated with ovarian cancer is warranted. Impact The results of this study are of particular interest given the rise in popularity of progestin-releasing intrauterine devices which have a substantially lower progestin dose than that in DMPA, but may have a stronger local effect.

4.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 102, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483601

RESUMO

Pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage polarization is associated with microbicidal and antitumor responses. We recently described APOBEC3A-mediated cytosine-to-uracil (C > U) RNA editing during M1 polarization. However, the functional significance of this editing is unknown. Here we find that APOBEC3A-mediated cellular RNA editing can also be induced by influenza or Maraba virus infections in normal human macrophages, and by interferons in tumor-associated macrophages. Gene knockdown and RNA_Seq analyses show that APOBEC3A mediates C>U RNA editing of 209 exonic/UTR sites in 203 genes during M1 polarization. The highest level of nonsynonymous RNA editing alters a highly-conserved amino acid in THOC5, which encodes a nuclear mRNA export protein implicated in M-CSF-driven macrophage differentiation. Knockdown of APOBEC3A reduces IL6, IL23A and IL12B gene expression, CD86 surface protein expression, and TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6 cytokine secretion, and increases glycolysis. These results show a key role of APOBEC3A cytidine deaminase in transcriptomic and functional polarization of M1 macrophages.

5.
Gynecol Oncol ; 159(3): 899-905, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004214

RESUMO

Transgender men remain at risk for gynecologic malignancies, but are an underserved population. Members of the transgender community experience discrimination and have experiences that contribute to health disparities, including in gynecology and oncology. While efforts have been made within the United States to reduce inequalities experienced by members of this community, many needs in the clinical setting remain. Increased education and training among providers and healthcare professionals, and general improvements towards understanding barriers to health screening and health resource uptake may reduce some disparities. Additional research towards screening and cancer surveillance among this community will be necessary to understand any potential additional risks and survival disparities experienced by transgender men. This review focuses on barriers and clinical needs for transgender men in the gynecologic oncology setting, and suggestions for moving forward to improve care for this patient population.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

7.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; : e13343, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905653

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Previous studies identified circulating CD14+ HLA-DRlo/- monocytic cells as an immune suppressive subset in solid malignancies, such as prostate, renal cell carcinoma, and pancreatic cancer. Such monocytic cells have been implicated not only in tumour progression but also as a potential barrier for immunotherapy. This study examined the relationship between the frequency of circulating monocytic cells and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression pre- and post-frontline chemotherapy, defined by disease stage, which is a leading prognostic factor for this malignancy. METHOD OF STUDY: Incident cases of 236 women with EOC were recruited and comprehensive flow cytometry was utilized to assess the frequency of peripheral blood CD33+ CD11b+ HLA-DR-/low CD14+ CD15- monocytic cells, henceforth termed CD14+ HLA-DRlo/- monocytic cells, prior to and after completion of frontline chemotherapy. Multivariable odds ratios (OR) were used to estimate the association between CD14+ HLA-DRlo/- monocytic cell percentages and disease stage. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests evaluated changes in these monocytic cell levels pre- and post-chemotherapy in a patient subset (n = 70). RESULTS: Patients with elevated frequencies of circulating CD14+ HLA-DRlo/- monocytic cells at diagnosis were at 3.33-fold greater odds of having advanced stage (III/IV) EOC (CI: 1.04-10.64), with a significant trend in increasing CD14+ HLA-DRlo/- monocytic cell levels (P = .04). There was a 2.02% median decrease of these monocytic cells post-chemotherapy among a subset of patients with advanced stage disease (P < .0001). CONCLUSION: These findings support the potential clinical relevance of CD14+ HLA-DRlo/- monocytic cells in EOC for prognosis and may indicate a non-invasive biomarker to measure disease progression.

8.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(11): 1025-1042, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959149

RESUMO

While childbearing protects against risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), few studies have explored the impact on maternal EOC risk of sex of offspring, which may affect the maternal environment during pregnancy. We performed a pooled analysis among parous participants from 12 case-controls studies comprising 6872 EOC patients and 9101 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression for case-control associations and polytomous logistic regression for histotype-specific associations, all adjusted for potential confounders. In general, no associations were found between offspring sex and EOC risk. However, compared to bearing only female offspring, bearing one or more male offspring was associated with increased risk of mucinous EOC (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.01-2.07), which appeared to be limited to women reporting menarche before age 13 compared to later menarche (OR = 1.71 vs 0.99; P-interaction = 0.02). Bearing increasing numbers of male offspring was associated with greater risks of mucinous tumors (OR = 1.31, 1.84, 2.31, for 1, 2 and 3 or more male offspring, respectively; trend-p = 0.005). Stratifying by hormonally-associated conditions suggested that compared to bearing all female offspring, bearing a male offspring was associated with lower risk of endometrioid cancer among women with a history of adult acne, hirsutism, or polycystic ovary syndrome (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.28-0.83) but with higher risk among women without any of those conditions (OR = 1.64 95% CI = 1.14-2.34; P-interaction = 0.003). Offspring sex influences the childbearing-EOC risk relationship for specific histotypes and conditions. These findings support the differing etiologic origins of EOC histotypes and highlight the importance of EOC histotype-specific epidemiologic studies. These findings also suggest the need to better understand how pregnancy affects EOC risk.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify differences in survival among women diagnosed with cancer of the anal canal from varying racial and ethnic backgrounds. METHODS: Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry between the years of 1975 and 2016 were analyzed, which included 19,048 women with cancer of the anal canal. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression (HRs) was performed to examine the relative risk of dying among women with anal cancer. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to examine odds of highly fatal disease (death within 12 months from diagnosis). RESULTS: Non-Hispanic Black women (n = 1694) had greater risk of dying when compared with non-Hispanic White women (n = 15,821) with anal cancer (HR = 1.26, CI: 1.17-1.35), independent of other prognostic indicators. Stratifying by age at diagnosis, risk of death was highest for non-Hispanic Black women diagnosed younger than age 50 years compared with non-Hispanic White women of similar age (HR = 1.60, CI: 1.34-1.89), and lowest for Hispanic women (n = 1533) older than 74 years at diagnosis (HR = 0.80, CI: 0.69-0.92). Stratifying by stage at diagnosis, disparities were not observed. When comparing across years of diagnoses, non-Hispanic Black women consistently had poorer survival compared with non-Hispanic White women diagnosed in the same year intervals. Finally, non-Hispanic Black women had greater odds of highly fatal disease (OR = 1.23, CI: 1.08-1.40) compared with non-Hispanic White women. CONCLUSION: Non-Hispanic Black women with anal cancer continue to experience poorer survival compared with non-Hispanic White women, whereas disparities were not identified for Hispanic women.

10.
J Gastrointest Cancer ; 51(3): 1088-1093, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524304

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between pre-diagnostic recreational physical inactivity (RPI) and pancreatic cancer (PC) mortality. METHODS: This analysis included 107 patients seen at Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center diagnosed with PC between 1989 and 1998. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for PC mortality associated with self-reported pre-diagnostic RPI. Models were adjusted for known prognostic factors, including age, sex, stage at diagnosis, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI). Results were also stratified by sex, BMI, smoking status, histology, and treatment status. RESULTS: We observed a significant association between RPI and PC mortality in all patients (HR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.06-2.79), as well as among overweight or obese patients (HR = 2.74, 95% 95% CI = 1.42-5.29), females (HR = 2.63; 95% CI, 1.08-6.39), and non-smokers (HR = 1.72; 95% CI, 1.02-2.89). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that RPI prior to PC diagnosis is associated with a higher risk of death. Future studies with larger sample sizes are needed to explore whether this association varies across tumor histology.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 147(11): 3130-3138, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506420

RESUMO

In the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, risk of lung cancer has been shown to increase with greater acute exposure to ionizing radiation. Although similar findings have been observed in populations exposed to low-dose, protracted radiation, such studies lack information on cigarette smoking history, a potential confounder. In a cohort of 106 068 U.S. radiologic technologists, we examined the association between estimated cumulative lung absorbed dose from occupational radiation exposure and lung cancer mortality. Poisson regression models, adjusted for attained age, sex, birth cohort, pack-years smoked and years since quitting smoking, were used to calculate linear excess relative risks (ERR) per 100 mGy, using time-dependent cumulative lung absorbed dose, lagged 10 years. Mean cumulative absorbed dose to the lung was 25 mGy (range: 0-810 mGy). During the 1983 to 2012 follow-up, 1090 participants died from lung cancer. Greater occupational radiation lung dose was not associated with lung cancer mortality overall (ERR per 100 mGy: -0.02, 95% CI: <0-0.13). However, significant dose-response relationships were observed for some subgroups, which might be false-positive results given the number of statistical tests performed. As observed in other studies of radiation and smoking, the interaction between radiation and smoking appeared to be sub-multiplicative with an ERR per 100 mGy of 0.41 (95% CI: 0.01-1.15) for those who smoked <20 pack-years and -0.03 (95% CI: <0-0.15) for those who smoked ≥20 pack-years. Our study provides some evidence that greater protracted radiation exposure in the low-dose range is positively associated with lung cancer mortality.

12.
Head Neck ; 42(9): 2516-2523, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was performed to examine the association between adulthood recreational physical inactivity (PIA) and mortality among patients with cancers of the head and neck. METHODS: Patients with head and neck cancer at Roswell Park between years 1990 to 1998 were included (N = 305). Multivariable Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to analyze the association between PIA and risk of dying. RESULTS: There was a 1.40-fold increase in risk of dying among PIA patients, when compared to active patients with head and neck cancers (HR = 1.40, CI: 1.03-1.91). This was observed greater in PIA women (HR = 2.40, CI: 1.28-4.52), patients who were overweight/obese (HR = 1.76, CI: 1.09-2.85), patients with pharynx as the primary site (HR = 1.85, CI: 1.01-3.38), and patients with distant metastasis (HR = 5.19, CI: 1.37-19.65). CONCLUSION: Physically inactive patients with head and neck cancers are at significantly greater risk of dying when compared to patients who are active.

13.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(6): e200421, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239218

RESUMO

Importance: Breastfeeding has been associated with a reduced risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in multiple studies, but others showed no association. Whether risk reduction extends beyond that provided by pregnancy alone or differs by histotype is unclear. Furthermore, the observed associations between duration and timing of breastfeeding with ovarian cancer risk have been inconsistent. Objective: To determine the association between breastfeeding (ie, ever/never, duration, timing) and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Design, Setting, and Participants: A pooled analysis of parous women with ovarian cancer and controls from 13 case-control studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium was performed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of the overall association were calculated using multivariable logistic regression and polytomous logistic regression for histotype-specific associations. All data were collected from individual sites from November 1989 to December 2009, and analysis took place from September 2017 to July 2019. Exposures: Data on breastfeeding history, including duration per child breastfed, age at first and last breastfeeding, and years since last breastfeeding were collected by questionnaire or interview and was harmonized across studies. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer. Results: A total of 9973 women with ovarian cancer (mean [SD] age, 57.4 [11.1] years) and 13 843 controls (mean [SD] age, 56.4 [11.7] years) were included. Breastfeeding was associated with a 24% lower risk of invasive ovarian cancer (odds ratio [OR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.71-0.80). Independent of parity, ever having breastfed was associated with reduction in risk of all invasive ovarian cancers, particularly high-grade serous and endometrioid cancers. For a single breastfeeding episode, mean breastfeeding duration of 1 to 3 months was associated with 18% lower risk (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.76-0.88), and breastfeeding for 12 or more months was associated with a 34% lower risk (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.58-0.75). More recent breastfeeding was associated with a reduction in risk (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.47-0.66 for <10 years) that persisted for decades (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77-0.90 for ≥30 years; P for trend = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: Breastfeeding is associated with a significant decrease in risk of ovarian cancer overall and for the high-grade serous subtype, the most lethal type of ovarian cancer. The findings suggest that breastfeeding is a potentially modifiable factor that may lower risk of ovarian cancer independent of pregnancy alone.

14.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 8(6): 819-828, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238380

RESUMO

Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous group of immature cells that accumulate in the peripheral blood and tumor microenvironment and are barriers to cancer therapy. MDSCs serve as prognostic biomarkers and are targets for therapy. On the basis of surface markers, three subsets of MDSCs have been defined in humans: granulocytic, monocytic, and early stage (e-MDSC). The markers attributed to e-MDSCs overlap with those of basophils, which are rare circulating myeloid cells with unrecognized roles in cancer. Thus, we asked whether e-MDSCs in circulation and the tumor microenvironment include basophils. On average, 58% of cells with e-MDSC surface markers in blood and 36% in ascites from patients with ovarian cancer were basophils based on CD123high expression and cytology, whereas cells with immature features were rare. Circulating and ascites basophils did not suppress proliferation of stimulated T cells, a key feature of MDSCs. Increased accumulation of basophils and basogranulin, a marker of basophil degranulation, were observed in ascites compared to serum in patients with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer. Basophils recruited to the tumor microenvironment may exacerbate fluid accumulation by their release of proinflammatory granular constituents that promote vascular leakage. No significant correlation was observed between peripheral basophil counts and survival in patients with ovarian cancer. Our results suggest that studies in which e-MDSCs were defined solely by surface markers should be reevaluated to exclude basophils. Both immaturity and suppression are criteria to define e-MDSCs in future studies.

16.
Nutr Cancer ; 72(1): 52-61, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094219

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the association between regular cruciferous vegetable intake and stomach cancer.Methods: A hospital-based, case-control study was conducted at Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center in Buffalo, NY, which included 292 stomach cancer patients and 1168 cancer-free controls recruited between 1992 and 1998 as part of the Patient Epidemiology Data System (PEDS). Dietary and other epidemiologic and confounding variables were collected by questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were utilized to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between usual pre-diagnostic cruciferous vegetable intake and stomach cancer, with adjustment for other stomach cancer risk factors and dietary characteristics.Results: We observed strong inverse associations between stomach cancer and highest versus lowest intakes of total cruciferous vegetables (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.42-0.83), raw cruciferous vegetables (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.38-0.73), raw broccoli (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.43-0.86), raw cauliflower (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.35-0.73), and Brussels sprouts (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.48-0.91).Conclusions: These data suggest that consuming raw cruciferous vegetables may be associated with a lower odds of stomach cancer, even after considering other dietary characteristics.


Assuntos
Dieta , Alimentos Crus/normas , Neoplasias Gástricas/dietoterapia , Neoplasias Gástricas/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Verduras , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia
17.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 62: 101580, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Update information on racial disparities in ovarian cancer survival from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. METHODS: Data on women with epithelial ovarian cancer from the SEER Program between 1995-2015 were collected including; patient ID, age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, insurance status, region of registry, tumor grade, tumor histology, tumor summary stage, survival months, race/ethnicity, and vital status. Multivariable analyses were performed to examine overall survival, differences in survival by age at diagnosis, by year of diagnosis, risk of not receiving surgery, and risk of 12-month death across racial/ethnic groups. RESULTS: Non-Hispanic black women (n = 4261) had an increased risk of overall mortality (HR = 1.28, CI: 1.23-1.33) when compared to non-Hispanic white women (n = 47,475), which appears more pronounced among women diagnosed under age 50. Hispanic women (n = 7052) had no difference in survival when compared to non-Hispanic white women (HR = 1.03, CI: 0.99-1.07). Non-Hispanic Asian/PI women (n = 5008) exhibited slightly reduced risk (HR = 0.95, CI: 0.91-0.99) when compared to non-Hispanic white women. Risk of not receiving surgical intervention remains high among non-Hispanic black women and Hispanic women, when compared to non-Hispanic white women. Non-Hispanic black women, non-Hispanic Asian/PI women, and Hispanic women were all at significantly greater risk of dying within the first 12 months of cancer diagnosis when compared to non-Hispanic white women. CONCLUSION: Disparities in survival remain across various racial/ethnic groups, when compared to non-Hispanic white women with ovarian cancer. These disparities should continue to be examined in an effort to decrease such gaps.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/etnologia , Programa de SEER/normas , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1608, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354741

RESUMO

Recently, there have been encouraging findings suggesting that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) may be a good target for studying immune suppression in ovarian cancer. MDSCs are an abundance of immature myeloid cells that have demonstrated the ability to decrease tumor-infiltrating immune cells, increase the accrual of tumor-associated macrophages and regulatory T cells, as well as secrete various pro-inflammatory mediators and growth stimulating cytokines. Most studies on this topic utilized murine models, but there are limited reports in human subjects which have important limitations. With the majority of ovarian cancer patients presenting with distant metastases and a corresponding 5-year relative survival rate of < 30%, continued efforts are obligatory toward identifying potential prognostic factors. Given the difficulty of studying exposures in this patient population, as well as the existing immunologic characteristics of this cancer, there is growing interest in further identifying genetic and immunologic associations with patient survival. Furthermore, prognostic factors that may necessitate therapeutic intervention may significantly alter disease outlook. In this review paper, we address the current literature on MDSCs and their immunosuppressive behavior in ovarian cancer patients. While the previous studies on these cells in ovarian cancer have demonstrated some potential prognostic significance, there are many limitations to such studies including small sample sizes, inconsistent staging and histology, as well as inconsistent surface markers for the identification of MDSCs. Additionally, such studies include minimal patient characteristics involved with the clinical course of ovarian cancer. Here, we have proposed improving on studies analyzing MDSCs as a potential prognostic factor in ovarian cancer patients, as well as further identifying the potential of this novel prognostic factor in future care, through the use of a comprehensive epidemiologic model.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral
19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 822-830, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder with an estimated prevalence of 4-21% in reproductive aged women. Recently, the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) reported a decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer among women with self-reported PCOS. However, given the limitations of self-reported PCOS, the validity of these observed associations remains uncertain. Therefore, we sought to use Mendelian randomization with genetic markers as a proxy for PCOS, to examine the association between PCOS and ovarian cancer. METHODS: Utilizing 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with PCOS we assessed the association between genetically predicted PCOS and ovarian cancer risk, overall and by histotype, using summary statistics from a previously conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ovarian cancer among European ancestry women within the OCAC (22 406 with invasive disease, 3103 with borderline disease and 40 941 controls). RESULTS: An inverse association was observed between genetically predicted PCOS and invasive ovarian cancer risk: odds ratio (OR)=0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.85-0.99; P = 0.03]. When results were examined by histotype, the strongest inverse association was observed between genetically predicted PCOS and endometrioid tumors (OR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.65-0.92; P = 0.003). Adjustment for individual-level body mass index, oral contraceptive use and parity did not materially change the associations. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence for a relationship between PCOS and reduced ovarian cancer risk, overall and among specific histotypes of invasive ovarian cancer. These results lend support to our previous observational study results. Future studies are needed to understand mechanisms underlying this association.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Endometrioide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Neoplasias Císticas, Mucinosas e Serosas/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética
20.
J Neurooncol ; 144(1): 43-51, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209774

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify racial/ethnic disparities with regard to survival among patients with ependymoma. METHODS: Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry between the years of 1973-2015 which included 4821 patients diagnosed with ependymoma were analyzed. Multivariable cox proportional hazard ratios were performed to examine overall survival across racial/ethnic groups of patients with ependymoma, mortality risks across specified age groups, and mortality during specified time intervals, all with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Non-Hispanic black patients (n = 421) have higher risk of overall mortality when compared to non-Hispanic white patients (n = 3255) with ependymoma (HR 1.48, CI 1.17-1.87). Risk of mortality was highest when comparing non-Hispanic black children under the age of 3 to non-Hispanic white children of the same age group (HR 3.05, CI 1.55-5.99). Mortality risk has increased among pediatric non-Hispanic black patients compared to pediatric non-Hispanic white patients between the years of 2006-2015, from previous rates between the years 1973-2005 (HR 1.95, CI 1.15-3.33 and HR 2.35, CI 1.24-4.44). Hispanic patients under 3 years had an increased risk of mortality compared to non-Hispanic white patients of this age group (HR 2.49, CI 1.37-4.53). Asian/Pacific Islander patients (n = 282) had no significant difference in outcomes when compared to non-Hispanic white patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed higher risk of mortality among non-Hispanic black patients compared to non-Hispanic white patients with ependymoma, with highest risk among pediatric patients. These results demonstrate significant need for research in survival outcomes for this disease.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ependimoma/mortalidade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ependimoma/diagnóstico , Ependimoma/epidemiologia , Ependimoma/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Programa de SEER , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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