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1.
Surgery ; 168(3): 518-526, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether all thick melanomas share the same prognostic features. We present a large, multi-institutional study on thick melanoma, evaluating for factors prognostic of survival. METHODS: We queried the database of the Sentinel Lymph Node Working Group for patients with thick melanoma (>4 mm) who had a sentinel lymph node biopsy from 1993 to 2018. Clinicopathologic characteristics were correlated with overall survival. RESULTS: There were 1,235 patients with a median follow-up of 28 months. Median thickness was 5.9 mm, with 713, 356, and 166 cases having a thickness of >4 to 6, >6 to 10, and >10 mm, respectively. Ulceration was seen in 51.2% of cases, while sentinel lymph node metastases were seen in 439 of 1,235 (35.5%) cases. For melanomas >4 to 6 mm, age, thickness, ulceration, lymphovascular invasion, and sentinel lymph node metastasis were correlated with overall survival (all P < .05), but for melanomas >6 to 10 mm, only sex and sentinel lymph node metastasis were prognostic of overall survival (both P < .05). For melanomas >10 mm, only sentinel lymph node metastasis predicted overall survival on multivariable analyses (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Prognostic markers of overall survival for thick melanoma include thickness, ulceration, and sentinel lymph node metastasis, but also include other unique factors such as lymphovascular invasion. Moreover, certain prognostic markers for survival are associated with different subgroups of thick melanoma, which vary based on thickness group.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos , Melanoma/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Pele/patologia , Idoso , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Vasos Linfáticos/patologia , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfonodo Sentinela/patologia , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Carga Tumoral
2.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is recommended for intermediate thickness melanoma, but for thick melanoma, guidelines are less definitive about the use of SLNB in this population. We present a study on thick melanoma evaluating for prognostic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Sentinel Lymph Node Working Group database was queried for thick (> 4 mm) melanoma cases that had a SLNB from 1993 to 2018. Clinicopathologic characteristics were correlated with SLN status and melanoma-specific survival (MSS). RESULTS: There were 1235 patients. Median follow-up was 28 months. Median thickness was 5.9 mm, with 956, 175, and 104 cases presenting thickness > 4-8, > 8-12, and > 12 mm, respectively. SLN metastases were seen in 439 of 1235 (35.5%) cases and in 33.9%, 40.6%, and 42.3% of melanomas > 4-8, > 8-12, and > 12 mm, respectively. In each thickness group, MSS was significantly worse for SLN-positive compared with SLN-negative cases (all P < 0.005). Multivariable analysis showed that SLN metastasis, male gender, increasing thickness, lymphovascular invasion, and microsatellitosis significantly predicted worse MSS for melanomas > 4-8 mm, with SLN metastasis showing the greatest risk (HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.64-2.87, P < 0.0001). For melanomas > 8 mm, only SLN metastasis significantly predicted MSS (> 8-12 mm: HR 3.93, 95% CI 2.00-7.73, P < 0.0001; > 12 mm: HR 3.58, 95% CI 1.56-8.22, p < 0.0027). CONCLUSIONS: Thick melanoma patients with SLN metastasis have significantly worse MSS compared with SLN-negative patients, even in the thickest cases, and SLN status is the most powerful and/or only predictor of MSS. Given these results, SLNB shows important prognostic value in this population and is indicated for clinically localized thick melanoma.

3.
Ann Surg ; 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether preoperative ultrasound (US) assessment of regional lymph nodes in patients who present with primary cutaneous melanoma provides accurate staging. BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that preoperative US could avoid the need for sentinel node (SN) biopsy, but in most single-institution reports, the sensitivity of preoperative US has been low. METHODS: Preoperative US data and SNB results were analyzed for patients enrolled at 20 centers participating in the screening phase of the second Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial. Excised SNs were histopathologically assessed and considered positive if any melanoma was seen. RESULTS: SNs were identified and removed from 2859 patients who had preoperative US evaluation. Among those patients, 548 had SN metastases. US was positive (abnormal) in 87 patients (3.0%). Among SN-positive patients, 39 (7.1%) had an abnormal US. When analyzed by lymph node basin, 3302 basins were evaluated, and 38 were true positive (1.2%). By basin, the sensitivity of US was 6.6% (95% confidence interval: 4.6-8.7) and the specificity 98.0% (95% CI: 97.5-98.5). Median cross-sectional area of all SN metastases was 0.13 mm; in US true-positive nodes, it was 6.8 mm. US sensitivity increased with increasing Breslow thickness of the primary melanoma (0% for ≤1 mm thickness, 11.9% for >4 mm thickness). US sensitivity was not significantly greater with higher trial center volume or with pre-US lymphoscintigraphy. CONCLUSION: In the MSLT-II screening phase population, SN tumor volume was usually too small to be reliably detected by US. For accurate nodal staging to guide the management of melanoma patients, US is not an effective substitute for SN biopsy.

4.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(7): 2254-2262, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Factors that predict melanoma recurrence after a negative sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) are not well-defined. We evaluated melanoma recurrence patterns, factors prognostic for recurrence, and the impact of recurrence on outcomes after a negative SLNB. METHODS: The Sentinel Lymph Node Working Group database was evaluated from 1996 to 2016 for negative SLNB melanoma patients. Clinicopathologic characteristics were correlated with recurrence, overall survival (OS), and melanoma-specific survival (MSS). RESULTS: Median follow-up was 32.1 months. Recurrences developed in 558 of 5351 negative SLN patients (10.4%). First-site of recurrence included a local or in-transit recurrence (LITR) in 221 cases (4.1%), nodal recurrence (NR) in 109 cases (2%), and distant recurrence (DR) in 220 cases (4.1%). On multivariable analysis, age, thickness, head/neck or lower extremity primary, and microsatellitosis significantly predicted for an LITR as first-site. Having an LITR as first-site significantly predicted for a subsequent NR and DR, and significantly predicted for worse OS and MSS. Furthermore, thickness and head/neck or lower extremity primary significantly predicted for an NR as first-site, while a prior LITR significantly predicted for a subsequent NR. Factors significantly predictive for a DR included thickness, head/neck or trunk primary, ulceration, and lymphovascular invasion. Patients with any type of locoregional recurrence were at higher risk for a DR. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrences occur in 10.4% of negative SLN patients, with LITR and DR being the most common types. Importantly, having an LITR significantly predicts for a subsequent NR and DR, and is prognostic for worse survival after a negative SLNB.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Excisão de Linfonodo/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/mortalidade , Linfonodo Sentinela/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfonodo Sentinela/cirurgia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Surg Oncol ; 119(8): 1053-1059, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Completion lymph node dissection (CLND) for sentinel lymph node (SLN) disease in melanoma patients is debated. We evaluated the impact of CLND on survival and assessed for predictors of nonsentinel node metastasis (positive CLND). METHODS: Positive SLN melanoma patients were retrospectively identified in the Sentinel Lymph Node Working Group database. Clinicopathological factors were correlated with CLND status, overall survival (OS), and melanoma-specific survival (MSS). RESULTS: There were 953 positive SLN patients of whom 831 (87%) had CLND. Positive CLND was seen in 141 (17%) cases and was associated with worse OS and MSS (both P < 0.001). CLND was not performed (No-CLND) in 122 of 953 positive SLN cases (13%), of whom 100 had follow-up and 18 (18%) developed a nodal recurrence (NR). No significant differences in OS and MSS were seen comparing CLND with No-CLND (P = 0.084, P = 0.161, respectively) and comparing positive CLND with No-CLND NR patients (P = 0.565, P = 0.998, respectively). Gender, primary site, ulceration, and number of positive SLNs were correlated with nonsentinel node metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: Performance of CLND provides prognostic information but is not associated with a survival benefit. Clinical variables can predict a positive CLND in patients who may be at high risk of recurrence.


Assuntos
Excisão de Linfonodo/estatística & dados numéricos , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
J Transl Med ; 16(1): 207, 2018 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031393

RESUMO

Metastatic melanoma represents a challenging clinical situation and, until relatively recently, there was an absence of effective treatment options. However, in 2011, the advanced melanoma treatment landscape was revolutionised with the approval of the anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab and the selective BRAF kinase inhibitor vemurafenib, both of which significantly improved overall survival. Since then, availability of new immunotherapies, especially the anti-programmed death-1 checkpoint inhibitors, as well as other targeted therapies, have further improved outcomes for patients with advanced melanoma. Seven years on from the first approval of these novel therapies, evidence for the use of various immune-based and targeted approaches is continuing to increase at a rapid rate. Improved understanding of the tumour microenvironment and tumour immuno-evasion strategies has resulted in different approaches to target and harness the immune response. These new immune-based approaches offer the opportunity for various approaches with distinct modes of action being used in combination with one another, as well as combined with other treatment modalities such as targeted therapy, electrochemotherapy and surgery. The increasing number of treatment options that are now available has resulted in a growing need to identify which patients will derive most benefit from which treatments. Much research is now focused on the identification of biomarkers that can be utilised to help select patients for treatment. These and other recent advances in the management of melanoma were the focus of discussions at the third Melanoma Bridge meeting (30 November-2 December, 2017, Naples, Italy), which is summarised in this report.


Assuntos
Melanoma/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Melanoma/imunologia , Modelos Biológicos , Biologia de Sistemas
7.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 24(13): 3991-4000, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This phase III study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an allogeneic whole-cell vaccine (Canvaxin™) plus bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) after complete resection of stage IV melanoma. METHODS: After complete resection of ≤5 distant metastases, patients were randomly assigned to BCG+Canvaxin (BCG/Cv) or BCG+placebo (BCG/Pl). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS); secondary endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS), and immune response measured by skin test (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00052156). RESULTS: Beginning in May 1998, 496 patients were randomized. In April 2005, the Data Safety Monitoring Board recommended stopping enrollment due to a low probability of efficacy. At that time, median OS and 5-year OS rate were 38.6 months and 44.9%, respectively, for BCG/Pl versus 31.4 months and 39.6% in the BCG/Cv group (hazard ratio (HR), 1.18; p = 0.250). Follow-up was extended at several trial sites through March 2010. Median OS and 5-year and 10-year survival was 39.1 months, 43.3 and 33.3%, respectively, for BCG/Pl versus 34.9 months, 42.5 and 36.4%, in the BCG/Cv group (HR 1.053; p = 0.696). Median DFS, 5- and 10-year DFS were 7.6 months, 23.8 and 21.7%, respectively, for BCG/Pl versus 8.5 months, 30.0%, and 30.0%, respectively, for the BCG/Cv group (HR 0.882; p = 0.260). Positive DTH skin testing correlated with increased survival. DISCUSSION: In this, the largest study of postsurgical adjuvant therapy for stage IV melanoma reported to date, BCG/Cv did not improve outcomes over BCG/placebo. Favorable long-term survival among study patients suggests that metastasectomy should be considered for selected patients with stage IV melanoma.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/mortalidade , Melanoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/cirurgia , Melanoma/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/secundário , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Oncol Rep ; 38(5): 2741-2751, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29048639

RESUMO

In the present study, the phenotype of melanoma cells resistant to dabrafenib (a B-RAF inhibitor) was investigated, to shed more light on melanoma resistance to B-RAF inhibition. Melanoma cells resistant to dabrafenib were generated using 3 different cell lines, A375, 397 and 624.38, all carrying B-RAFV600E, and they were characterized by cytofluorometric analysis, Ion Torrent technology, immunofluorescence and biochemistry. All dabrafenib-resistant cells showed, in addition to a re-activation of MAPK signaling, morphological changes compared to their sensitive counterparts, accompanied by an increase in CD90 (mesenchymal marker) expression and a decrease in E-cadherin (epithelial marker) expression, suggesting an epithelial-to-mesenchymal-like phenotypic transition. However, melanoma cells with TGF-ß1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were more sensitive to dabrafenib treatment compared to the sensitivity noted in the non-TGF­ß1­induced EMT melanoma cells, suggesting that TGF-ß1-induced EMT was not associated with dabrafenib resistance. Although dabrafenib-resistant cells exhibited increased cell motility and E-cadherin/vimentin reorganization, as expected in EMT, all of them showed unvaried E-cadherin mRNA and unchanged Snail protein levels, while Twist1 protein expression was decreased with the exception of A375 dabrafenib-resistant melanoma cells, where it was unaffected. These findings suggest a distinct active EMT-like process adopted by melanoma cells under drug exposure. Furthermore, dabrafenib-resistant cells exhibited stem cell-like features, with Oct4 translocation from the cytoplasm to peri-nuclear sites and nuclei, and increased CD20 expression. In conclusion, our data, in addition to confirming that resistance to dabrafenib is dependent on re-activation of MAPK signaling, suggest that this resistance is linked to a distinct active EMT-like process as well as stem-cell features adopted by melanoma cells.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Melanoma/metabolismo , Antígenos CD , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Imidazóis , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Melanoma/genética , Mutação , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/metabolismo , Oximas , Fenótipo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Antígenos Thy-1/genética , Antígenos Thy-1/metabolismo , Vimentina/genética , Vimentina/metabolismo
9.
J Am Coll Surg ; 225(2): 302-311, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28668274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypothetically, delay between melanoma diagnosis and SLNB could affect outcomes, either adversely by allowing growth and dissemination of metastases, or beneficially by allowing development of an anti-melanoma immune response. Available data are conflicting about the effect of SLNB delay on patient survival. Our objective was to determine whether delay between initial diagnosis and SLNB affects outcomes in patients with cutaneous melanoma. STUDY DESIGN: We performed query and analysis of a large prospectively maintained database of patients with primary cutaneous melanomas undergoing SLNB. An independent dataset from MSLT-1 (Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial-1) was used for validation. Primary outcomes included disease-free survival and melanoma-specific survival. RESULTS: Early and delayed SLNB were defined as less than 30 and 30 or more days from initial diagnosis, respectively. There were 2,483 patients that met inclusion criteria. Positive sentinel lymph nodes were identified in 17.4% (n = 432). Among all patients, 42% had SLNB 30 or more days after diagnosis and 37% of positive sentinel lymph nodes were at 30 or more days. No differences in sex, anatomic site, or histopathologic features were identified between the 2 groups. There was no difference in melanoma-specific survival or disease-free survival between those undergoing early or delayed SLNB. Examination of MSLT-1 trial data similarly demonstrated no difference in survival outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This, the largest study on this subject to date, found no adverse impact on long-term clinical outcomes of patients due to delay of SLNB beyond 30 days. The MSLT-1 data confirm this result. Patients can be reassured that if the operation is performed 30 or more days after diagnosis, it will not cause harm.


Assuntos
Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Tardio , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
N Engl J Med ; 376(23): 2211-2222, 2017 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28591523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy is associated with increased melanoma-specific survival (i.e., survival until death from melanoma) among patients with node-positive intermediate-thickness melanomas (1.2 to 3.5 mm). The value of completion lymph-node dissection for patients with sentinel-node metastases is not clear. METHODS: In an international trial, we randomly assigned patients with sentinel-node metastases detected by means of standard pathological assessment or a multimarker molecular assay to immediate completion lymph-node dissection (dissection group) or nodal observation with ultrasonography (observation group). The primary end point was melanoma-specific survival. Secondary end points included disease-free survival and the cumulative rate of nonsentinel-node metastasis. RESULTS: Immediate completion lymph-node dissection was not associated with increased melanoma-specific survival among 1934 patients with data that could be evaluated in an intention-to-treat analysis or among 1755 patients in the per-protocol analysis. In the per-protocol analysis, the mean (±SE) 3-year rate of melanoma-specific survival was similar in the dissection group and the observation group (86±1.3% and 86±1.2%, respectively; P=0.42 by the log-rank test) at a median follow-up of 43 months. The rate of disease-free survival was slightly higher in the dissection group than in the observation group (68±1.7% and 63±1.7%, respectively; P=0.05 by the log-rank test) at 3 years, based on an increased rate of disease control in the regional nodes at 3 years (92±1.0% vs. 77±1.5%; P<0.001 by the log-rank test); these results must be interpreted with caution. Nonsentinel-node metastases, identified in 11.5% of the patients in the dissection group, were a strong, independent prognostic factor for recurrence (hazard ratio, 1.78; P=0.005). Lymphedema was observed in 24.1% of the patients in the dissection group and in 6.3% of those in the observation group. CONCLUSIONS: Immediate completion lymph-node dissection increased the rate of regional disease control and provided prognostic information but did not increase melanoma-specific survival among patients with melanoma and sentinel-node metastases. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others; MSLT-II ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00297895 .).


Assuntos
Excisão de Linfonodo , Melanoma/secundário , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Linfonodo Sentinela/cirurgia , Conduta Expectante , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Excisão de Linfonodo/efeitos adversos , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico , Linfedema/etiologia , Masculino , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Linfonodo Sentinela/patologia , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/efeitos adversos , Análise de Sobrevida , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Oncoimmunology ; 6(3): e1283462, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28405510

RESUMO

The optimal sequencing of targeted treatment and immunotherapy in the treatment of advanced melanoma is a key question and prospective studies to address this are ongoing. Previous observations suggest that treating first with targeted therapy may select for more aggressive disease, meaning that patients may not gain full benefit from subsequent immunotherapy. In a single-center retrospective analysis, we investigated whether response to pembrolizumab was affected by previous BRAF inhibitor therapy. A total of 42 patients with metastatic cutaneous or mucosal melanoma who had received previous treatment with ipilimumab were treated with pembrolizumab as part of the Italian expanded access program. Sixteen of these patients had BRAF-mutated melanoma and had also been previously treated with a BRAF inhibitor (vemurafenib or dabrafenib), while 26 had BRAF wild-type melanoma (no previous BRAF inhibitor). Patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma who were previously treated with BRAF inhibitors had a significantly lower median progression-free survival (3 [2.3-3.7] versus not reached [2-8+] mo; p = 0.001) and disease control rate (18.6% versus 65.4%; p = 0.005) than patients with BRAF wild-type, while there was also a trend toward a lower response rate (assessed using immune-related response criteria) although this was not significantly different between groups (12.5% versus 36.4%; p = 0.16). These data are consistent with previous reports that BRAF inhibitor therapy may affect subsequent response to immunotherapy.

12.
J Transl Med ; 15(1): 82, 2017 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28441954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extensive squamous cell carcinoma has few therapeutic options. In such cases, electrochemotherapy involving electroporation combined with antineoplastic drug appears to be a new potential option and may be considered as an alternative treatment. The aim of this retrospective single-center study was to evaluate electrochemotherapy efficacy in treatment of locally advanced stage III squamous cell carcinoma, in which surgical procedures would have entailed wide tissue sacrifice. METHODS: Clinical features, treatment response, and adverse effects were evaluated in 22 patients treated with electrochemotherapy with intravenous injection of bleomycin for extensive stage III cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Treatment of cutaneous lesions were performed according to the European Standard Operating Procedures of Electrochemotherapy. RESULTS: Overall response to electrochemotherapy treatment was observed in 18 (81.8%) patients. Clinical response with necrosis of tumor mass was observed from the first session and lasted for all follow up period that ranged between 5 and 48 months with a median of 34 months. Overall the treatment was well tolerated with a very low complication rate. CONCLUSIONS: Electrochemotherapy represents a safe and effective therapeutic approach, associated with a good tolerability.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Eletroquimioterapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eletroquimioterapia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 24(8): 2089-2094, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28224364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a well-established causative relationship exists between smoking and several epithelial cancers, the association of smoking with metastatic progression in melanoma is not well studied. We hypothesized that smokers would be at increased risk for melanoma metastasis as assessed by sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy. METHODS: Data from the first international Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial (MSLT-I) and the screening-phase of the second trial (MSLT-II) were analyzed to determine the association of smoking with clinicopathologic variables and SLN metastasis. RESULTS: Current smoking was strongly associated with SLN metastasis (p = 0.004), even after adjusting for other predictors of metastasis. Among 4231 patients (1025 in MSLT-I and 3206 in MSLT-II), current or former smoking was also independently associated with ulceration (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Compared with current smoking, never smoking was independently associated with decreased Breslow thickness in multivariate analysis (p = 0.002) and with a 0.25 mm predicted decrease in thickness. CONCLUSION: The direct correlation between current smoking and SLN metastasis of primary cutaneous melanoma was independent of its correlation with tumor thickness and ulceration. Smoking cessation should be strongly encouraged among patients with or at risk for melanoma.


Assuntos
Melanoma/patologia , Linfonodo Sentinela/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/secundário , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Excisão de Linfonodo , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Melanoma/etiologia , Melanoma/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Linfonodo Sentinela/cirurgia , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia
14.
J Transl Med ; 14(1): 313, 2016 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846884

RESUMO

The sixth "Melanoma Bridge Meeting" took place in Naples, Italy, December 1st-4th, 2015. The four sessions at this meeting were focused on: (1) molecular and immune advances; (2) combination therapies; (3) news in immunotherapy; and 4) tumor microenvironment and biomarkers. Recent advances in tumor biology and immunology has led to the development of new targeted and immunotherapeutic agents that prolong progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of cancer patients. Immunotherapies in particular have emerged as highly successful approaches to treat patients with cancer including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer, and Hodgkin's disease. Specifically, many clinical successes have been using checkpoint receptor blockade, including T cell inhibitory receptors such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1. Despite demonstrated successes, responses to immunotherapy interventions occur only in a minority of patients. Attempts are being made to improve responses to immunotherapy by developing biomarkers. Optimizing biomarkers for immunotherapy could help properly select patients for treatment and help to monitor response, progression and resistance that are critical challenges for the immuno-oncology (IO) field. Importantly, biomarkers could help to design rational combination therapies. In addition, biomarkers may help to define mechanism of action of different agents, dose selection and to sequence drug combinations. However, biomarkers and assays development to guide cancer immunotherapy is highly challenging for several reasons: (i) multiplicity of immunotherapy agents with different mechanisms of action including immunotherapies that target activating and inhibitory T cell receptors (e.g., CTLA-4, PD-1, etc.); adoptive T cell therapies that include tissue infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), and T cell receptor (TCR) modified T cells; (ii) tumor heterogeneity including changes in antigenic profiles over time and location in individual patient; and (iii) a variety of immune-suppressive mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment (TME) including T regulatory cells (Treg), myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and immunosuppressive cytokines. In addition, complex interaction of tumor-immune system further increases the level of difficulties in the process of biomarkers development and their validation for clinical use. Recent clinical trial results have highlighted the potential for combination therapies that include immunomodulating agents such as anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4. Agents targeting other immune inhibitory (e.g., Tim-3) or immune stimulating (e.g., CD137) receptors on T cells and other approaches such as adoptive cell transfer are tested for clinical efficacy in melanoma as well. These agents are also being tested in combination with targeted therapies to improve upon shorter-term responses thus far seen with targeted therapy. Various locoregional interventions that demonstrate promising results in treatment of advanced melanoma are also integrated with immunotherapy agents and the combinations with cytotoxic chemotherapy and inhibitors of angiogenesis are changing the evolving landscape of therapeutic options and are being evaluated to prevent or delay resistance and to further improve survival rates for melanoma patients' population. This meeting's specific focus was on advances in immunotherapy and combination therapy for melanoma. The importance of understanding of melanoma genomic background for development of novel therapies and biomarkers for clinical application to predict the treatment response was an integral part of the meeting. The overall emphasis on biomarkers supports novel concepts toward integrating biomarkers into personalized-medicine approach for treatment of patients with melanoma across the entire spectrum of disease stage. Translation of the knowledge gained from the biology of tumor microenvironment across different tumors represents a bridge to impact on prognosis and response to therapy in melanoma. We also discussed the requirements for pre-analytical and analytical as well as clinical validation process as applied to biomarkers for cancer immunotherapy. The concept of the fit-for-purpose marker validation has been introduced to address the challenges and strategies for analytical and clinical validation design for specific assays.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Melanoma/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Itália , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral
15.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 65(11): 1395-1400, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27604993

RESUMO

The anti-PD-1 agent, nivolumab, has been approved both as monotherapy and in combination with ipilimumab for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma in the USA and European Union. Here we present the case of a patient with treatment-naive, metastatic mucosal melanoma and baseline LDH approximately seven times the upper limit of normal. The patient was enrolled in a clinical trial (CheckMate 066) and achieved a partial response, followed by a durable complete response with nivolumab treatment. The patient's LDH levels were documented in each cycle and dropped markedly within 2 months, when partial response to treatment was already evident. LDH levels remained low for the rest of follow-up, consistent with the ongoing complete response to treatment. The patient experienced only mild immune-related adverse events (grade 1-2), which included vitiligo and rash. This exceptional response suggests that patients with high LDH levels at baseline should be considered for nivolumab treatment. LDH levels, however, should not serve as a predictive marker of response to nivolumab. Moreover, this case suggests the need to identify patients who will achieve the greatest benefit from nivolumab monotherapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Mucosa Nasal/patologia , Neoplasias Nasais/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos , Epistaxe/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nivolumabe , Neoplasias Nasais/genética , Neoplasias Nasais/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitiligo/etiologia
16.
Sarcoma ; 2016: 6862090, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27019606

RESUMO

Background. In several prospective and retrospective studies, weekly paclitaxel showed promising activity in patients with angiosarcoma. Patients and Methods. Our study was originally designed as a prospective, phase II multicenter trial for patients younger than 75, with ECOG performance status 0-2, affected by locally advanced or metastatic angiosarcoma. Patients received paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) intravenously, at days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks, until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Primary endpoint was objective response. Results. Eight patients were enrolled but, due to very slow accrual, the trial was prematurely stopped and further 10 patients were retrospectively included in the analysis. Out of 17 evaluable patients, 6 patients obtained an objective response (5 partial, 1 complete), with an objective response rate of 35% (95% confidence interval 17%-59%). Of note, five responses were obtained in pretreated patients. In the paper, details of overall survival, progression-free survival, and tolerability are reported. Conclusions. In this small series of patients with locally advanced or metastatic angiosarcoma, weekly paclitaxel was confirmed to be well tolerated and active even in pretreated patients.

17.
J Transl Med ; 13: 374, 2015 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26619946

RESUMO

The fourth "Melanoma Bridge Meeting" took place in Naples, December 3-6th, 2014. The four topics discussed at this meeting were: Molecular and Immunological Advances, Combination Therapies, News in Immunotherapy, and Tumor Microenvironment and Biomarkers. Until recently systemic therapy for metastatic melanoma patients was ineffective, but recent advances in tumor biology and immunology have led to the development of new targeted and immunotherapeutic agents that prolong progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). New therapies, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway inhibitors as well as other signaling pathway inhibitors, are being tested in patients with metastatic melanoma either as monotherapy or in combination, and all have yielded promising results. These include inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinases (BRAF, MEK, and VEGFR), the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) pathway [PI3K, AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)], activators of apoptotic pathway, and the cell cycle inhibitors (CDK4/6). Various locoregional interventions including radiotherapy and surgery are still valid approaches in treatment of advanced melanoma that can be integrated with novel therapies. Intrinsic, adaptive and acquired resistance occur with targeted therapy such as BRAF inhibitors, where most responses are short-lived. Given that the reactivation of the MAPK pathway through several distinct mechanisms is responsible for the majority of acquired resistance, it is logical to combine BRAF inhibitors with inhibitors of targets downstream in the MAPK pathway. For example, combination of BRAF/MEK inhibitors (e.g., dabrafenib/trametinib) have been demonstrated to improve survival compared to monotherapy. Application of novel technologies such sequencing have proven useful as a tool for identification of MAPK pathway-alternative resistance mechanism and designing other combinatorial therapies such as those between BRAF and AKT inhibitors. Improved survival rates have also been observed with immune-targeted therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma. Immune-modulating antibodies came to the forefront with anti-CTLA-4, programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway blocking antibodies that result in durable responses in a subset of melanoma patients. Agents targeting other immune inhibitory (e.g., Tim-3) or immune stimulating (e.g., CD137) receptors and other approaches such as adoptive cell transfer demonstrate clinical benefit in patients with melanoma as well. These agents are being studied in combination with targeted therapies in attempt to produce longer-term responses than those more typically seen with targeted therapy. Other combinations with cytotoxic chemotherapy and inhibitors of angiogenesis are changing the evolving landscape of therapeutic options and are being evaluated to prevent or delay resistance and to further improve survival rates for this patient population. This meeting's specific focus was on advances in combination of targeted therapy and immunotherapy. Both combination targeted therapy approaches and different immunotherapies were discussed. Similarly to the previous meetings, the importance of biomarkers for clinical application as markers for diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of treatment response was an integral part of the meeting. The overall emphasis on biomarkers supports novel concepts toward integrating biomarkers into contemporary clinical management of patients with melanoma across the entire spectrum of disease stage. Translation of the knowledge gained from the biology of tumor microenvironment across different tumors represents a bridge to impact on prognosis and response to therapy in melanoma.


Assuntos
Melanoma/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Itália , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral
18.
Oncoimmunology ; 4(6): e1008842, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26155423

RESUMO

Melanoma is responsible for most skin cancer-related deaths and is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in young adults. In melanoma, tumors can become established by activation of the negative regulator of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), CTL antigen-4 (CTLA-4). Ipilimumab blocks the interaction of CTLA-4 with CD80/CD86 and augments T-cell activation and proliferation. In electrochemotherapy (ECT), local application of short high-voltage pulses renders cell membranes transiently permeable to chemotherapeutic drugs. The combination of ipilimumab and ECT may be beneficial for the treatment of metastatic melanoma; however, no prospective data are available to date. Here, we report the retrospective analysis of patients treated with ipilimumab in an expanded access program (EAP) who also received ECT. Fifteen patients with previously treated metastatic melanoma who received ipilimumab 3 mg/kg every three weeks for four cycles and underwent ECT for local disease control and/or palliation of cutaneous lesions with bleomycin 15 mg/m2 after the first ipilimumab infusion were included in the analysis. Over the study period, a local objective response was observed in 67% of patients (27% complete response [CR] and 40% partial response [PR]). According to immune-related response criteria, a systemic response was observed in nine patients (five PR and four stable disease [SD]), resulting in a disease control rate of 60%. Evaluation of circulating T-regulatory (T-reg) cells demonstrated significant differences between responders and non-responders. Overall, treatment was well-tolerated and without notable toxicity. In conclusion, the combination of ipilimumab and ECT appears to be beneficial to patients with advanced melanoma, warranting further investigation in prospective trials.

19.
Ecancermedicalscience ; 9: 511, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25729424

RESUMO

The second Melanoma Independent Board (MIB) meeting was held in Rome, Italy from 27-28 October 2014. The themes of this meeting were once again innovation and sustainability and it brought together health providers, researchers, government representatives, journalists, patients, and pharmaceutical representatives.

20.
Anticancer Drugs ; 26(4): 464-8, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25622086

RESUMO

The prognosis of metastatic melanoma has changed markedly in recent years because of the advent of newer targeted therapies such as BRAF inhibitors. However, the response to BRAF inhibitor therapy is frequently nondurable in patients with advanced melanoma. Novel approaches are thus needed to overcome resistance to these agents and to improve the management of advanced melanoma patients after disease progression. Here, we present the case of a 44-year-old man diagnosed with advanced melanoma in July 2010, harboring a BRAF mutation. Melanoma progressed during first-line chemotherapy with dacarbazine, but showed significant benefit after the initiation of vemurafenib on August 2011. Six months later, the patient experienced disease progression in left-obturator lymphadenopathy; still, anti-BRAF treatment was continued together with stereotactic radiotherapy, and was interrupted only shortly for intestinal occlusion secondary to melanoma metastasis of the bowel. When his conditions were stable, after 1 month of vemurafenib treatment discontinuation, anti-BRAF therapy was reinitiated, with a positive outcome. Vemurafenib treatment was definitively discontinued for disease progression in the brain, peritoneum, lymph node, intestine, and skin in March 2013, after about 20 months from initiation, and the patient died a few weeks later. The clinical case presented here shows that treatment beyond progression with vemurafenib can yield a survival benefit in melanoma patients whose disease progresses in a few sites, which can be treated with locoregional therapies. This clinical strategy needs further validation in prospective clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/secundário , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Vemurafenib
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