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1.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803077

RESUMO

Tanzania launched its first National Action Plan (NAP) on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in 2017 to reduce the burden of AMR in the country and contribute to the global response. We aimed to analyze the implementation of the NAP on AMR in Tanzania using the governance framework. In-depth interviews were conducted with human and animal health practitioners and national-level policy actors. We adapted Chua's AMR governance framework to analyze the development and implementation of the NAP in Tanzania. Implementation of the NAP has realized several achievements, including: (i) the establishment of a functioning Multi-Sectoral Coordinating Committee for coordinating the implementation of AMR activities; (ii) existence of governance structure; (iii) establishment of human and animal surveillance sites; (iv) creation of AMR awareness in the community and (v) availability of guidelines at the health facility level to ensure AMR stewardship. However, some dimensions of the governance areas, including reporting and feedback mechanisms, accountability, transparency and sustainability of AMR plans, are not effectively implemented. Addressing these challenges should involve strengthening the collaboration of the different sectors involved at different NAP implementation levels by careful planning and coordination, and provision of adequate resources to ensure sustainability.

2.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 25: 40-47, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662643

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore and describe the perceptions of policy actors and practitioners on antimicrobial use and resistance in human and animal health in Tanzania. METHODS: This was an exploratory qualitative study, which involved semi-structured interviews with nine policy makers and 102 practitioners. RESULTS: Improved multisectoral collaboration and coordination among experts from the animal and human sectors, government will, improved infrastructures, existence of public awareness campaigns on appropriate use of antimicrobials and existence of antimicrobial stewardship were identified as strengths for the implementation of National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance (NAP-AMR) in Tanzania. Despite these strengths, insufficient public awareness of AMR, limited community engagement and inadequate human resources were among the reported weaknesses. A number of opportunities for the implementation of NAP-AMR were also reported including the presence of integrated disease surveillance and response strategy in health sector and development of a coordinated surveillance system. Furthermore, the inadequate laboratory capacity and poor resource mobilization were identified as challenges facing the implementation of NAP-AMR. CONCLUSION: The future policies of AMR need to capitalize on the identified strengths and opportunities as well as design interventions to improve public awareness of AMR and community engagement, deployment of adequate human resources and ensure adequate resource mobilization to meet AMR needs.

3.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 166, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sustainability of research culture in Sub-Saharan Africa is threatened in part by the lack of a critical mass of young researchers with the requisite skills and interest to undertake research careers. This paper describes an intensive mentorship programme combining hierarchical (vertical) and peer-to-peer (horizontal) mentoring strategies among young researchers in a resource limited setting in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A consortium of three partnering large Tanzanian health training institutions (MUHAS, CUHAS and KCMUCo) and two collaborating US institutions (UCSF and Duke University) was formed as part of the five-year Transforming Health Professions Education in Tanzania (THET) project, funded by the NIH through Health Professional Education Partnership Initiative (HEPI). Within THET, the Community of Young Research Peers (CYRP) was formed, comprising of inter-professional and cross-institutional team of 12 Master-level Young Research Peers and 10 co-opted fellows from the former MEPI-Junior Faculty (MEPI-JF) project. The Young Peers received mentorship from senior researchers from the consortium through mentored research awards and research training, and in turn provided reciprocal peer-to-peer mentorship as well as mentorship to undergraduate students. RESULTS: At the end of the first 2 years of the project, all 12 Young Peers were proceeding well with mentored research awards, and some were at more advanced stages. For example, three articles were already published in peer reviewed journals and two other manuscripts were in final stages of preparation. All 12 Young Peers participated in CYRP-wide thematic training workshops on mentoring and secondary data analysis; 11 had undertaken at least three research training short courses in identified areas of need; 9 joined at least one other ongoing research project; 5 made at least one scientific presentation, and 5 participated in at least one submitted grant application. Half of the Young Peers have enrolled in PhD programmes. A collective total of 41 undergraduate students were actively mentored by the Young Peers in research. CONCLUSION: The CYRP has demonstrated to be an effective model for dual vertical and horizontal mentorship in research to young investigators in resource-limited settings. This model is recommended to educators working on developing research competence of early career researchers, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa.

4.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 77, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of extended spectrum ß-lactamase producing gram-negative bacteria (ESBL-GNB) colonizing patients admitted at Mazimbu hospital and Morogoro Regional hospital, in Morogoro, Tanzania. Rectal colonization with ESBL-GNB increases the risks of developing bacterial infections by extra-intestinal pathogenic ESBL-GNB. RESULTS: Of the 285 patients investigated, 123 (43.2%) carried ESBL-GNB in their intestines. Five of the 123 ESBL positive patients were colonized with two different bacteria, making a total of 128 ESBL producing isolates. Escherichia coli (n = 95, 74.2%) formed the majority of ESBL isolates. The proportion of CTX-M-1 group genes among ESBL isolates tested was 94.9% (93/98). History of antibiotic use (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.1-3.2, P = 0.03), being on antibiotic treatment (OR: 2.61, 95% CI: 1.5-4.53, P = 0.001), duration of hospital stay (OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3, P < 0.001) and history of previous admission (OR: 2.24, 95% CI: 1.2-4.1, P = 0.009) independently predicted ESBL-GNB carriage.

5.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(12)2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255152

RESUMO

Uncontrolled use of drugs both in humans and animals coupled with environmental contamination exacerbate the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. This paper assessed the drivers of antimicrobial use and resistance in poultry and domestic pig farming and the environment. Questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions (FGDs) were used to collect information regarding demographic characteristics, knowledge, practices, attitudes, and perceptions of the drivers of antimicrobial use and resistance in animal farming and the environment. We found a higher proportion of usage of veterinary antimicrobials for prophylactic purposes (87.6%) in animal farming, than for therapeutic purposes (80.5%). The degree of farming experience was significantly (p < 0.05) related to the knowledge on the source of antimicrobial use, methods used in disease diagnosis, access to veterinary services, stocking of antimicrobials at home, and presence of agriculture activities that involve the use of manure. Uncontrolled disposal of wastes from households, disposal of human and veterinary drugs, and weak implementation of the legal framework was identified as the major contributors to the environment. The high usage of veterinary antimicrobials and the environmental contamination identified requires multisectoral interventions, as well as a review of government strategies, policies, and regulations on antimicrobial use.

6.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 194, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents one of the biggest threats to health globally. This cross-sectional study determined knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding antimicrobial use (AMU) and AMR among communities of Ilala, Kilosa and Kibaha in Tanzania. METHOD: A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and KAP data through face-to-face interviews. Responses related to the triad of KAP were assigned scores that were aggregated for each participant. Linear regression analysis was conducted to determine predictors of KAP scores. RESULTS: The study enrolled 828 participants from the three districts. A total of 816 (98.6%) were aware of antimicrobials, and 808 (99%, n = 816) reported to have used them. Antimicrobials were mainly used to treat cough (68.0%), urinary tract infections (53.4%), diarrhoea (48.5%) and wounds (45.2%). The most frequent sources of antimicrobials were health facility (65.0%, n = 820) and pharmacies/basic drug shops (53.7%). The median AMU knowledge score was 5 (IQR = 4, 7) and that of AMR was 26 (IQR=23, 29). The median AMU attitudes score was 32 (IQR: 29, 35) and that of AMR was 19 (IQR=17, 22). The median AMU practice score was 3 (IQR: 3, 3). The KAP scores were significantly influenced by increased participant's age (ßadj=0.10; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.15) and level of education, being lower among those with primary education (ßadj=5.32; 95% CI: 3.27, 7.37) and highest among those with college/university education (ßadj=9.85; 95% CI: 6.04, 13.67). CONCLUSION: The study documented a moderate level of KAP regarding AMU and AMR in the study districts. The participant's age and level of education were significantly associated with participant's KAP scores. The observed inadequate knowledge, inappropriate attitude, and practices of AMU and AMR should be considered as alarming problems that require immediate actions including policy formulation and planning of community-based mitigation measures.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18490, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116166

RESUMO

Upper-respiratory tract infections (URTI) are the leading causes of childhood morbidities. This study investigated etiologies and patterns of URTI among children in Mwanza, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study involving 339 children was conducted between October-2017 and February-2018. Children with features suggestive of URTI such as nasal congestion, dry cough, painful swallowing and nasal discharge with/without fever were enrolled. Pathogens were detected from nasopharyngeal and ear-swabs by multiplex-PCR and culture respectively. Full blood count and C-reactive protein analysis were also done. The median age was 16 (IQR: 8-34) months. Majority (82.3%) had fever and nasal-congestion (65.5%). Rhinitis (55.9%) was the commonest diagnosis followed by pharyngitis (19.5%). Viruses were isolated in 46% of children, the commonest being Rhinoviruses (23.9%). Nineteen percent of children had more than 2 viruses; Rhinovirus and Enterovirus being the commonest combination. The commonest bacteria isolated from ears were Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Children with viral pathogens had significantly right shift of lymphocytes (73%-sensitivity). Majority (257/339) of children were symptoms free on eighth day. Viruses are the commonest cause of URTI with Rhinitis being the common diagnosis. Rapid diagnostic assays for URTI pathogens are urgently needed in low-income countries to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions which is associated with antibiotic resistance.

8.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 149, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most urgent global health threats with low-resource countries being disproportionately affected. Targeted interventions require insight in antibiotic prescription practices. A point prevalence survey (PPS) is a well-known tool to get insight in antibiotic dispensing practices in hospitals and identify areas for improvement. Here, we describe the results of a PPS performed in a tertiary, regional and district hospital in Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania. METHODS: A PPS was performed in the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC; tertiary hospital), Mawenzi (regional) and St. Joseph (district) hospital in November and December 2016. Antibiotic use in all patients admitted more than 24 h and those undergoing surgery was recorded. All clinical wards were included except the pediatrics. Data from a single ward were collected on the same day. RESULTS: A total of 399 patients were included in the PPS: 232 patients from KCMC, 94 from Mawenzi hospital and 73 patients from St. Joseph hospital. Overall prevalence of antibiotic use was 44.0%: 38% in KCMC, 59% in Mawenzi and 63% in St. Joseph. Ceftriaxone (n = 94, 29.8%), metronidazole (n = 79, 23.9%) and other antibiotics belonging to the penicillin class (n = 89, 28.3%) were most commonly prescribed. Antibiotics prescribed for surgical prophylaxis were continued for more than 3 days in 57% of cases. CONCLUSION: Our study shows a rate of broad-spectrum antibiotic use in Tanzanian hospitals and prolonged surgical antibiotic prophylaxis being a common practice. PPS is an important tool to improve future antibiotic use in Tanzania hospitals.

9.
Int J Pediatr ; 2020: 3264923, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908552

RESUMO

Clostridium difficile causes a million of illnesses each year worldwide and can affect people of all ages. Limited data exist on the prevalence of C. difficile infections (CDI) among children below five years of age in developing countries. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence, associated factors, and outcome of the Clostridium difficile infection among children with diarrhea attending a tertiary hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania. Stool samples were collected and cultured anaerobically to isolate Clostridium difficile, followed by C. difficile toxin A and B assay and ribotyping. A total of 301 children with diarrhea were enrolled. A total of 22 (7.31%, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95) nonrepetitive stool samples were positive for Clostridium difficile. Eighteen (81%) of C. difficile isolates were toxigenic, and 16 (72.7%) had unknown ribotypes. Independent predictors of positive C. difficile were as follows: positive HIV status, hospital stay of more than four days, high stool leukocyte count, and watery stool. Clostridium difficile-positive children had significantly higher median duration of the diarrhea than those without C. difficile. Clinicians should consider C. difficile as a possible cause of diarrhea in children living in developing countries and institute appropriate management to prevent associated morbidities and mortalities. Furthermore, there is a need of joint effort to improve C. difficile diagnosis and surveillance in developing countries to establish the unknown epidemiology of CDI in these countries.

10.
Int J Pediatr ; 2020: 8326348, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963556

RESUMO

Background: Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy is associated with serious neonatal complications, including hydrocephalus. In many high-income countries, T. gondii screening and treatment during the antenatal period are routinely carried out to prevent associated complications, whereas in most low-income countries, there is no routine screening of T. gondii during pregnancy. Despite the parasite being common in Tanzania, there is a paucity of information on the prevalence of T. gondii and cranial ultrasound patterns among children with hydrocephalus. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional hospital-based study involving 125 infants with hydrocephalus attending the Bugando Medical Centre (BMC) was conducted between May 2017 and February 2018. Sociodemographic and other relevant information was collected using a pretested data collection tool. Venous blood samples were collected, and sera were used for the detection of specific T. gondii antibodies by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as per manufacturer's instructions. Data were analysed using STATA version 13 software. Results: The mean age of enrolled children was 4.8 ± 3.5 months. Out of 125 infants with hydrocephalus, 29 (23.2%, 95% CI: 21-36) were seropositive for T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies. By multiple generalized linear model analysis, being male (aRR = 1.1, 95% CI: 0.9-1.5, p = 0.049), higher birth order (aRR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.5, p = 0.023), consumption of fish meat (aRR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3, p = 0.003), and using other methods of cooking meat than boiling (aRR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.5, p = 0.015) were independent risk factors for T. gondii IgG seropositivity. Obstructive hydrocephalus was significantly more common among T. gondii-seronegative infants compared to IgG-seropositive infants (31.3% [30/96] vs. 13.8% [4/29]; p = 0.049). Conclusions: A significant proportion of infants with nonobstructive hydrocephalus are T. gondii IgG seropositive, and this is predicted by male gender, increase of birth order, consuming fish, and using other methods of cooking meat than boiling. These facts highlight the importance of continuing health education for pregnant women regarding T. gondii transmission and the need to follow-up their infants so that appropriate counselling and management can be provided.

11.
Pneumonia (Nathan) ; 12: 7, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32775174

RESUMO

Background: Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults is still a common and serious illness in the sub-Saharan Africa. Identification of the pathogens is crucial in the management of CAP. This study was done to determine the common bacterial pathogens, treatment outcomes and associated factors for microbiological confirmed CAP among adults attending the Bugando Medical Centre and Sekou Toure hospital in the city of Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods: This was a hospital based cross sectional study involving patients with community acquired pneumonia attending Bugando Medical Centre and Sekou Toure regional Hospital. Demographic and other data were collected using standardized data collection tool. Sputum culture was done followed by identification of the isolates and antibiotics susceptibility testing. Results: A total of 353 patients were enrolled in the study. Out of 353 sputum samples, 265(75%) were of good quality. Of 353 non-repetitive sputum cultures, 72/353 (20.4, 95% CI: 16.2-24.6) were positive for the bacterial pathogens with five patients having more than one pathogen. Good quality sputa had significantly higher yield of pathogenic bacteria than poor quality sputa (26.1% vs.3.4%, P = 0.001). The majority 64 (83.1%) of the isolates were gram negative bacteria. Common bacteria isolated were Klebsiella pneumoniae 23/77(29.9%), Streptococcus pyogenes 10/77 (13.0%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 9/77 (11.7%) and Escherichia coli 7/77 (9.1%). Of 23 K. pneumoniae isolates, 20/23 (87.0%) were resistant to ceftriaxone. Resistance to ceftriaxone was found to be associated with prolongation of CAP symptoms (p = 0.009). Conclusion: Gram negative bacteria resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ceftriaxone were most frequently isolated bacteria among adults' patients with CAP attending BMC and Sekou Toure hospital. Routine sputum culture should be performed to guide appropriate treatment of CAP among adults in developing countries.

12.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 127, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) present a challenge to disease control in East Africa. Resistance to beta-lactams, which are by far the most used antibiotics worldwide and include the penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams and carbapenems, is reducing options for effective control of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The World Health Organization, Food and Agricultural Organization and the World Organization for Animal Health have all advocated surveillance of AMR using an integrated One Health approach. Regional consortia also have strengthened collaboration to address the AMR problem through surveillance, training and research in a holistic and multisectoral approach. This review paper contains collective information on risk factors for transmission, clinical relevance and diversity of resistance genes relating to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing (ESBL) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) across the human, animal and environmental compartments in East Africa. MAIN BODY: The review of the AMR literature (years 2001 to 2019) was performed using search engines such as PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Google and Web of Science. The search terms included 'antimicrobial resistance and human-animal-environment', 'antimicrobial resistance, risk factors, genetic diversity, and human-animal-environment' combined with respective countries of East Africa. In general, the risk factors identified were associated with the transmission of AMR. The marked genetic diversity due to multiple sequence types among drug-resistant bacteria and their replicon plasmid types sourced from the animal, human and environment were reported. The main ESBL, MRSA and carbapenem related genes/plasmids were the blaCTX-Ms (45.7%), SCCmec type III (27.3%) and IMP types (23.8%), respectively. CONCLUSION: The high diversity of the AMR genes suggests there may be multiple sources of resistance bacteria, or the possible exchange of strains or a flow of genes amongst different strains due to transfer by mobile genetic elements. Therefore, there should be harmonized One Health guidelines for the use of antibiotics, as well as regulations governing their importation and sale. Moreover, the trend of ESBLs, MRSA and carbapenem resistant (CAR) carriage rates is dynamic and are on rise over time period, posing a public health concern in East Africa. Collaborative surveillance of AMR in partnership with regional and external institutions using an integrated One Health approach is required for expert knowledge and technology transfer to facilitate information sharing for informed decision-making.

13.
Arch Public Health ; 78: 76, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832080

RESUMO

Background: The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends the vaccination against Hepatitis B virus in all infants and children up to the age of 18 years. In addition, adults in high-risk groups should also be vaccinated. This study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infections among health professional students in the city of Mwanza, Tanzania in order to provide data that can assist in devising prevention and control strategies in this special group. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving health professional students of the Catholic University of health and Allied Sciences was conducted between April and July 2016. Hepatitis B surface antigen was detected using rapid antigen test while the anti-hepatitis B surface antibodies(anti-HBs) were quantified using Enzygnost Anti-HBs II assay and anti-HBV core antibodies tested using enzyme immunoassay. Results: A total of 1211 health professional students with median age of 22 interquartile range (IQR):21-24 years were enrolled. The slighlty majority (57.5%) of these students were males and 475(39.2%) were in clinical practices. Out of 1211 students, 37 (3.1%) were Hepatitis B surface antigen positive. Of 1174 students tested for anti-HBs, 258 (22%) had titres > 10 IU/L indicating HBV immunity. The median anti-HBs titres was 47.7 IU/L(IQR:16-3-113). A total of 230(89.2%) students among those who were positive for anti-HBs were also positive for HBV core antibodies indicating HBV natural infections. Male sex (adjusted odd ratio(AOR):1.77, p < 0.000), being married (AOR:1.82, p = 0.002) and being in clinical practices (AOR:1.39, p = 0.028) independenlty predicted anti-HBs positivity. Conclusion: A significant proportion of health professional students was naturally immune to Hepatitis B virus. There is a need to measure anti-HBs in order to reduce the cost of unnecessary vaccination especially in the countries with high endemicity of HBV.

14.
J Cancer Epidemiol ; 2020: 4274682, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849872

RESUMO

Background: A high mortality has been reported during the first ninety days of cancer therapy and is more pronounced in patients with febrile neutropenia. The Bugando Medical Center oncology department offers cancer diagnosis and treatment services to the population of the Lake Zone of Tanzania with limited data on the outcome within 90 days of therapy. Here, we report the 90-day mortality and factors associated with it among cancer patients attending the oncology department of the tertiary hospital in Tanzania. Methodology. Enrolled participants underwent baseline physical examinations, and their functional status was assessed using Karnofsky score. On each clinic visit, full blood picture was taken and patients were investigated for infections. Data were entered in the Microsoft Excel, cleaned and coded and then transferred to STATA version 13 for analysis. Results: A total of 102 participants were included in the final analysis. Their median age was 50 years (38-60). The majority of the study participants were females 76 (75%), and 82 (80.4%) had primary school education. The majority of the patients had solid cancer 96 (94.1%). A total of 12 (11.8%) patients died within 90 days of starting therapy. Low hemoglobin level at the start of cancer therapy, Karnofsky score below 80%, and using 5-fluorouracil-containing therapy were statistically significantly found to be associated with mortality within 90 days of therapy among cancer patients. Conclusion: One tenth of cancer patients at Bugando Medical Center do not survive within 90 days of therapy; the mortality is significantly high among anemic patients, with poor performance status, on 5-fluorouracil regimen, and diagnosed with head and neck cancer, necessitating close follow-up of these patients.

15.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 58, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major clinical problem in tertiary hospitals in Tanzania and jeopardizes the life of neonates in critical care units (CCUs). To better understand methods for prevention of MDR infections, this study aimed to determine, among other factors, the role of MDR-Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) contaminating neonatal cots and hands of mothers as possible role in transmission of bacteremia at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC), Mwanza, Tanzania. METHODS: This cross-sectional, hospital-based study was conducted among neonates and their mothers in a neonatal intensive care unit and a neonatology unit at BMC from December 2018 to April 2019. Blood specimens (n = 200) were sub-cultured on 5% sheep blood agar (SBA) and MacConkey agar (MCA) plates. Other specimens (200 neonatal rectal swabs, 200 maternal hand swabs and 200 neonatal cot swabs) were directly inoculated on MCA plates supplemented with 2 µg/ml cefotaxime (MCA-C) for screening of GNB resistant to third generation cephalosporins, r-3GCs. Conventional biochemical tests, Kirby-Bauer technique and resistance to cefoxitin 30 µg were used for identification of bacteria, antibiotic susceptibility testing and detection of MDR-GNB and screening of potential Amp-C beta lactamase producing GNB, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of culture confirmed bacteremia was 34.5% of which 85.5% were GNB. Fifty-five (93.2%) of GNB isolated from neonatal blood specimens were r-3GCs. On the other hand; 43% of neonates were colonized with GNB r-3GCs, 32% of cots were contaminated with GNB r-3GCs and 18.5% of hands of neonates' mothers were contaminated with GNB r-3GCs. The prevalences of MDR-GNB isolated from blood culture and GNB r-3GCs isolated from neonatal colonization, cots and mothers' hands were 96.6, 100, 100 and 94.6%, respectively. Significantly, cyanosis (OR[95%CI]: 3.13[1.51-6.51], p = 0.002), jaundice (OR[95%CI]: 2.10[1.07-4.14], p = 0.031), number of invasive devices (OR[95%CI]: 2.52[1.08-5.85], p = 0.031) and contaminated cot (OR[95%CI]: 2.39[1.26-4.55], p = 0.008) were associated with bacteremia due to GNB. Use of tap water only (OR[95%CI]: 2.12[0.88-5.09], p = 0.040) was protective for bacteremia due to GNB. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of MDR-GNB bacteremia and intestinal colonization, and MDR-GNB contaminating cots and mothers' hands was observed. Improved cots decontamination strategies is crucial to limit the spread of MDR-GNB. Further, clinical presentations and water use should be considered in administration of empirical therapy whilst awaiting culture results.

16.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 15(1): 95, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Culture results of fluid/pus from sinuses or open wound are not reliable in establishing the causative agent of osteomyelitis due to the high chances of contamination of superficial contaminants. Bone fragments obtained during surgery have been recommended as ideal sample to establish pathogens causing osteomyelitis. This study investigated pathogens causing osteomyelitis among patients undergoing orthopedic surgical treatment at Bugando Medical Centre. METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted from December 2017 to July 2018 among 74 patients with osteomyelitis who underwent surgical treatments at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania. Bone fragments were collected using sterile 10 ml of in-house prepared brain heart infusion broth (Oxoid, UK) during surgery. Specimens were processed according to standard operating procedures within an hour of collection. Data were analyzed using STATA 13.0. RESULTS: The median age of study participants was 12 with inter quartile range of 8-20 years. The majority 45 (60.8%) of participants were male. All 74 non-repetitive bone fragment specimens had positive culture, of which 17 had dual growth of bacteria resulting to 91 bacterial isolates. Out of 91 isolates, 63 (85.1%) were Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) of which 18 (28.6%) were confirmed to be methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Fever was significantly associated with Staphylococcal osteomyelitis (100% vs. 79.6%, p = 0.029). CONCLUSION: About one third of cases of Staphylococcal osteomyelitis in the current study were caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. There is a need of tailoring antibiotic management of osteomyelitis based on culture and sensitivity results for the better treatment outcome of the patients.

17.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 37, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The overuse of antimicrobials in food animals and the subsequent contamination of the environment have been associated with development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. This review presents information on antimicrobial use, resistance and status of surveillance systems in food animals and the environment in Africa. METHODS: Information was searched through PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and African Journal Online databases. Full-length original research and review articles on antimicrobial use, prevalence of AMR from Africa covering a period from 2005 to 2018 were examined. The articles were scrutinized to extract information on the antimicrobial use, resistance and surveillance systems. RESULTS: A total of 200 articles were recovered. Of these, 176 studies were included in the review while 24 articles were excluded because they were not relevant to antimicrobial use and/or resistance in food animals and the environment. The percentage of farms using antimicrobials in animal production ranged from 77.6% in Nigeria to 100% in Tanzania, Cameroon, Zambia, Ghana and Egypt. The most antibiotics used were tetracycline, aminoglycoside and penicillin groups. The percentage of multi drug resistant isolates ranged from 20% in Nigeria to 100% in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Tunisia. In the environment, percentage of multi drug resistant isolates ranged from 33.3% in South Africa to 100% in Algeria. None of the countries documented national antimicrobial use and resistance surveillance system in animals. CONCLUSION: There is high level of antimicrobial use, especially tetracycline, aminoglycoside and penicillin in animal production systems in Africa. This is likely to escalate the already high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and multi drug resistance in the continent. This, coupled with weak antimicrobial resistance surveillance systems in the region is a great concern to the animals, environment and humans as well.

18.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 174, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB), particularly multi- and or extensive drug resistant TB, is still a global medical emergency. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is a current alternative to the WHO-approved probe-based methods for TB diagnosis and detection of drug resistance, genetic diversity and transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). This study compared WGS and clinical data in participants with TB. RESULTS: This cohort study performed WGS on 87 from MTBC DNA isolates, 57 (66%) and 30 (34%) patients with drug resistant and susceptible TB, respectively. Drug resistance was determined by Xpert® MTB/RIF assay and phenotypic culture-based drug-susceptibility-testing (DST). WGS and bioinformatics data that predict phenotypic resistance to anti-TB drugs were compared with participant's clinical outcomes. They were 47 female participants (54%) and the median age was 35 years (IQR): 29-44). Twenty (23%) and 26 (30%) of participants had TB/HIV co-infection BMI < 18 kg/m2 respectively. MDR-TB participants had MTBC with multiple mutant genes, compared to those with mono or polyresistant TB, and the majority belonged to lineage 3 Central Asian Strain (CAS). Also, MDR-TB was associated with delayed culture-conversion (median: IQR (83: 60-180 vs. 51:30-66) days). WGS had high concordance with both culture-based DST and Xpert® MTB/RIF assay in detecting drug resistance (kappa = 1.00). CONCLUSION: This study offers comparison of mutations detected by Xpert and WGS with phenotypic DST of M. tuberculosis isolates in Tanzania. The high concordance between the different methods and further insights provided by WGS such as PZA-DST, which is not routinely performed in most resource-limited-settings, provides an avenue for inclusion of WGS into diagnostic matrix of TB including drug-resistant TB.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Tanzânia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Afr Health Sci ; 20(1): 4-13, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402887

RESUMO

Background: Infections caused by Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing bacterial are global challenge. There is limited information on the magnitude of bacteriospermia, ESBL producing Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) causing bacteriospermia and factors associated with male infertility. This study determined magnitude of bacteriospermia, ESBL-GNB and other factors association with infertility among presumptive infertile men in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted between May 2017 and July 2018 among 137 presumptive infertile men. Semen specimens were self-collected by masturbation into clean, sterile and none-spermicidal containers and processed following laboratory standard operating procedures (SOPs). Data analysis was done using STATA 13.0. Results: Gram-negative bacteria were predominantly isolated (86.4%), of which 31.6% were ESBL producers. In a total 44 bacteria were isolated from semen culture. The blaCTX-M gene was detected in 75% of phenotypically confirmed ESBL producers. Infertility was independently found to be associated with abnormal spermatozoa morphology (OR (95%CI): 14.48(3.17-66.05)) and abnormal spermatozoa motility (OR (95%CI): 0.05(0.01-0.24)). However, neither bacteriospermia (OR (95%CI): 0.86(0.29-2.59)) nor ESBL bacteriospermia (OR (95%CI): 0.13(0.01-1.22)) was found to be associated with infertility. Conclusion: One third of bacteriospermia is due to ESBL-producers with history of antibiotic use being protective factor for infertility. Abnormal spermatozoa morphology and poor spermatozoa forward motility independently predicted infertility.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/microbiologia , Sêmen/microbiologia , Espermatozoides/microbiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Resistência beta-Lactâmica
20.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 775, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775911

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was done to determine the patterns of Candida spp. causing vaginitis and associated factors among pregnant women attending antennal clinic in Mwanza, Tanzania. RESULTS: A total of 197 (65.6%) out of 300 non-repetitive swabs had positive growth of Candida spp. Candida albicans 125 (63.4%) was the most predominant isolated specie followed by C. tropicalis 35 (17.8%) and C. glabrata 33 (16.8%). Laboratory confirmed candida vaginitis was independently predicted by douching practices (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3-7.5 P = 0.007), history of antibiotics use (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.02-3.0, P = 0.04) and low social economic status (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.1-3.7 P = 0.02). About two-third of pregnant women with clinical features of vaginitis attending antenatal clinic in Mwanza, Tanzania were confirmed to have Candida vaginitis mainly caused by Candida albicans.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Vulvite/microbiologia , Adulto , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida glabrata/isolamento & purificação , Candida tropicalis/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Tanzânia , Vulvite/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
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