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BMJ Open ; 10(1): e029642, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919123


INTRODUCTION: Acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) constitutes the second most common haematological malignancy in the paediatric population. Current treatment regimens are based on the administration of polychemotherapy, combining high doses of cytarabine with anthracyclines and topoisomerase inhibitors. Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an option for high-risk patients with AML (and for intermediate-risk patients if a sibling donor is available). With this strategy, AML survival has increased substantially; however, it has remained stagnant at approximately 60%, with relapse being the principal culprit. The predominant role of the immune system and natural killer (NK) cells in controlling paediatric AML has gained importance within the context of HSCT. In this protocol, we propose incorporating this cell therapy as an adjuvant treatment through the infusion of activated and expanded haploidentical NK (NKAE) cells in paediatric patients with AML who are in cytological remission after completing consolidation therapy, and with no indication for HSCT. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Patients up to 30 years of age, diagnosed with AML, in their first cytological remission, who have completed both the induction and the consolidation phases of chemotherapy and do not meet the criteria for allogeneic HSCT are eligible. The patients will receive two doses of NKAE cells once a week, using a GMP K562-mbIL15-41BBL stimulus from a haploidentical donor and interleukin 2 subcutaneously. The patients will then be followed up for 36 months to assess the primary endpoint, which is the probability of relapse after NK cell infusion. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This clinical trial was approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of La Paz University Hospital and The Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and community reporting. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: EudraCT code: 2015-001901-15, Identifier: NCT02763475.